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OBJECTIVE: To determine the densities of several solids and a liquid; to measure buoyant

force; to become acquainted with Archimedes' Principle.

TERMINOLOGY:

density

weight

mass

buoyant force

volume

units: g & kg, cm3 & m3, Nt

THEORY:

1. Density (d) is simply defined as the mass per unit volume. It is the mass (m) of a certain

quantity of material divided by the volume (V) it occupies:

d=m/V

(1)

2. Pressure (P) is defined to be the perpendicular force (F) on an area divided by the area (A):

P=F/A

(2)

Any gas or liquid confined to a volume is going to exert a force on the walls of its container

as it tries to spread out. This force will then cause a pressure. In the absence of gravity, the

pressure will be the same everywhere in the gas or liquid under static conditions.

3. In the presence of gravity, the material (whether liquid or gas) will push down on the material

below because of its weight causing more force and hence more pressure. It can be shown

that a simple formula describes this: the difference in pressure (P) due to a difference in

height is equal to the density of the material (d) times the acceleration due to gravity (g)

times the difference in height (h):

P = d g h

(3)

4. An object placed in a gas or liquid will then experience a buoyant force (FB) because the

pressure on its lower surface will be greater than the pressure on its upper surface. This

difference in pressure will cause a net upward force which is the buoyant force. It can be

shown that the net buoyant force on an object in a gas or liquid is equal to the weight of the

gas or liquid displaced by the object:

FB = mfluid g = dfluid Vobject g .

This is Archimedes' Principle.

(4)

PROCEDURE:

Part 1: Density

1. There are four cylinders: one of copper, one of brass, one of steel, and one of aluminum.

Use the balance to measure the mass (m) and the calipers to measure the length (L) and the

diameter (D). Now use the definition of density above (Eq. 1) and the formula for the volume

of a cylinder,

Vcyl = r L ,

(5)

where the radius (r) is D, to determine the density of each cylinder.

2. There are two liquids available: water and an unknown (alcohol). In determining the volumes

of liquids the calipers don't work well. Instead we can use the graduated cylinder. Using

this, determine the densities of these two liquids. [Caution: be sure you measure the mass

only of the fluid and not of the fluid and container.]

Part 2: "Apparent mass" and Buoyant force

1. The "apparent mass* in water" can be found by tying a thread around one of the cylinders

and attaching the other end of the thread to the hook below the top of the balance arm. The

flask of water can be placed on the platform that swings out from the base of the balance.

This in effect then determines the tension in the thread holding the cylinder in the water and

this tension can be interpreted as the "apparent mass * in water". For each of the four

cylinders, find the "apparent mass" while the cylinder is immersed in water. Be sure the

cylinder does not touch the sides or the bottom of the flask holding the water as this will

introduce a contact force on the cylinder.

2. (a) Now knowing the real mass (from Part 1) and the "apparent mass * in water", determine

the buoyant force on each of the cylinders provided by the water:

FB = mrealg - mapparentg .

(6)

(b) For each, compare the buoyant force so calculated with the theoretical buoyant force

from the theory (Eq. 4):

FB = dwater Vcylinder g .

(4)

3. Determining the density of a rock provides a challenge since we cannot use the calipers to

easily find the volume. We can, however, use the combination of real mass and "apparent

mass* in water" to determine the density. Do this for the rock on your table. [HINT: You will

have to use a combination of ideas (and formulas) to do this. This same process will work

for your "solid gold vs gold plated" ring or bracelet.]

4. Determining the density of an odd shaped piece of wood provides a further challenge since

we cannot use the calipers to determine the volume and the wood will not sink to allow a

complete determination of the buoyant force. If the piece of wood supplied is not

odd-shaped, determine the density of the wood by the scale and caliper method. Now

determine the density of the wood by the real mass and "apparent mass * in water" method.

Caution: since the wood does not sink, we must make it sink. Are you clever enough to

figure out how to do this? Consider this. To sink the wood we must weigh it down. We can

do this with one of our cylinders (note: from above we know its apparent mass * in water).

Then we can find the apparent mass* in water of the combination. This will be less than the

apparent mass* in water of the cylinder alone since the wood will tend to float. This

difference will be due to the buoyant force of the wood. In addition, the buoyant force also

neutralizes the real mass of the wood. Thus the buoyant force of the wood is:

FB(wood) = min water(cyl) g - min water(combo) g + mreal(wood) g.

(7)

Finally, the density of the wood can be found in the same way as we did for the rock above.

5. We can further use the real mass and "apparent mass * in a liquid" (Archimedes' Principle) to

determine the density of a fluid. Determine the density of the unknown fluid by this method

using one of the four cylinders and compare with the value you found in Part 1.

REPORT:

Report on your results for each of the above parts and make comparisons wherever

appropriate. Be sure to discuss the major sources of error in this experiment. In particular,

where the same quantity was determined by two different methods, comment on which method

gives the more accurate results.

For comparison purposes, the following standard densities are provided:

Aluminum:

Copper:

2.7 gm/cm3

8.9 gm/cm3

Steel:

Brass:

7.9 gm/cm3

8.7 gm/cm3

Lead:

Gold:

11.3 gm/cm3

19.3 gm/cm3

INTERESTING APPLICATIONS:

Q: When you have a drink with ice in a glass, and the glass if filled to the rim so that the ice

floats above the surface and hence above the rim, will the glass overflow when the ice melts if

you do not drink any of the liquid?

A: Since the density of ice is less than that of the water (drink), it will float. But as it melts, it

goes from the lower density of ice to the higher density of water. But since the mass of the ice

remains the same, its volume must shrink. In fact, no liquid will spill over the rim of the glass as

the ice melts!

Q: What about the fear concerning the melting of the polar ice cap? If that were to happen,

would the ocean surface rise and inundate vast areas of land?

A: If the ice is floating (as it is in the Arctic), the answer is NO. If the ice is resting on ground (as

it is in Antarctica and in Greenland), the answer would be yes. [However, the ice that is resting

on land would not melt very quickly since it is touched only by air. A good demonstration of this

is the snow on Mt. Kilimanjaro which stays all year around even though the mountain is located

near the equator!]

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