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# *\$ VS\$\$l l l VS\$?

## MS {VSVSl\$ \$]l*\$ (Laws of Plani tary Motion):

MS\$r\$Z {VS
^l]l\$ ]l^lyMS MS ]lyl\$
{VSVSl\$ \$]l*\$ {^yl\$.
1. lls \$]l\$: *\$yl V> ^l \$M {VS
*\$yl ^l\$r*t ]lM> ]l*Y Z (elliptical orbit) {
\$\$. D \$]l\$ ]l\$_ *\$yl ^l\$r*t {\$\$l]
{VS
MSS]l\$ l\$\$M]l^l\$a. M>st D \$]l* MS>
\$]l\$(law of orbit) As\$.
2. y \$]l\$: *\$yl ^l\$r*t {\$\$l] {VS
]l*]l
M>Z ]l*]l O l > _]ll\$. ~ \$]l\$
(law of areas) A As\$.
3. ]ly \$]l\$: *\$yl\$, *\$yl ^l\$r*t {\$\$l]
{VS
B]l l] M> ]lY (square of the time period of the planet)
*\$yl\$, {VS MS l* VSMS A]l\$Z]l*]l\$ lZ
Er\$.

## *\$yl\$, *\$yl ^l\$r*t {\$\$l] G\$ {VS]l\$

MS MS\$r\$ As\$. D {VS ^l]l\$ ]l^l
yMS yl\$ ]l\$ {^\$.
1. *MS{l l (Geo Centric Theory): D -
s\$ {^yl\$. {M> *\$yl\$, ^l{l\$yl\$,
\$W]l {VS *\$ MS{lV> ^l \$M *\$ ^l\$r*t
{\$\$.
2. * MS{l l (Heleo Centic Theory) MMS D
- {^yl\$. {M> {VS *\$yl
^l\$r*t {\$\$.
z {MS.. 1608Z VS* sP]l\$ MS]l\$V lls
VS\$\$ {VS
-MS E]l E{VS\$ VS\$_ Z^yl\$. Cl
Zl ]l {M> VS\$\$ {VS
r\$ \$W]l {VS
*\$yl ^l\$r*t {\$\$. M>st * MS{l
l O l- *^yl\$.
z 3 & 5 ]l\$l M>Z ]l\$-l] l>-M- S ^l-l] Br\$t
l]l Bst \$ Al {VSlZ * MS{l
{^yl\$.
z Z H yl\$ MS ]l\$l E]l BMS
Ol
l\$\$M]lyMS ]l*rl VS\$\$MS \$]l\$
(universal gravitational force) E*W \$.

A]l\$]l\$:
1. MS\$r\$Z *\$yl ^l\$r*t {\$\$l] {VS\$
{VS ^l\$r*t {\$\$l] E{VSMS\$ M>]l
AMS{l ]l\$ ]l*rl VS\$\$MS \$
]l\$MS*\$al\$.
2. *\$yl\$, ^l{l\$yl VS\$\$MS ]l ]l
{lZ Br\$r\$\$ Hyl\$l\$.

{VS\$

## ]l*rl VS\$\$MS \$]l\$:

D \$]l\$ {M> Z HOl yl\$ MS ]l\$l E]l
BMS s {l]l>\$ MS A]l\$Z]l*]l\$lZ,
l* ]l>YMS Z]l*]l\$lZ Er\$.
F

m1m2
d2

F =G

m1m2
d2

m1, m2\$

## MS {l]l>\$\$ (mass of the particles )

d = MS ]l\$l l*
G = VS\$\$MS
>MS
(Universal Gravitational Constant)

T 2 R3

T = B]l l]

## M> ]ll M> (Duration of year)

R = l*.
D ]ly \$]l\$ {M> MS\$r\$Z l\$ {VS
]ll M>\$ l\$V> E\$ l\$.
E:
1. *\$ylMS lVSY V> E]l \$l {VS
(Mercury) ]ll
M>(*\$ al) MS]l 88 k\$ ]l*{ll\$.
2. MS\$r\$Z _]l E]l NsZ ({ \$l {VS
M>l\$)
]ll M> *\$ al 248 ]ll>\$.

## \$]l G = 6.67 1011 Nm2 Kg2

F d2
G =

m1m2

Newton Meter 2

Kilog ram

*\$ VS\$\$l l:
JMS ]l \$l] # Ml Gl\$ ]l\$_ ^leV> MSMS yl\$l\$]lyl\$
*\$ VS\$\$MS ]l ]l l *\$ VS\$\$l
l As\$.
VSr\$ \$]l g = 9.8 ms2
*\$ VS\$\$l l (g), VS\$\$l >MS (G) ]l\$l

g=

GM
R2

*\$ {l]l> (Mass)
R = *\$
M=

## *\$ VS\$\$l l ]l*\$ ^llyMS M>\$:

1. *\$ BM>> st VS\$\$l l \$]lZ ]l*\$
]l \$. *\$ l]l ^l\$r*t ]l\$ VSyl ]l {l \$ ]ll
\$V>, *]l\$l Q ]ll El\$V> Er\$.
g=

GM
R2

## Al \$MS {M> *\$ VS\$\$l l \$]l

{l \$ ]ll VSt V>, *]l\$l Q ]ll MSt V> Er\$. D
M> ]l ]l \$l] # {l \$ ]ll GMS\$P]l, *]l\$l Q ]ll
lMS\$P]l Er\$ (W = MG {M> ).

## 5. MS l \$]l\$ st *\$ VS\$\$l l \$]lZ

]l*\$\$ ]l- . Gl\$MSs *\$O \$, Z\$\$,
]l\$l {l>\$.. Eylr ]l {l> st VS\$\$l l
\$]l ]l*\$l\$.
*\$ VS\$\$l l VS- ^ly- -M- S ZMS
(simple pendulum) Etronos balance Al MS>
yl\$.
z *\$ VS\$\$l l \$]l\$
]l*]lV> E]l {l>]l\$
{ ^l rZ FlMS QZ MS\$. D Q]l\$
Isograms/Same gravity As\$. s BV> JMS
{lZ S O l \$]l *VS ]l]l\$]l\$ MS]l\$MP]l^l\$a.
z ^l{l\$ylO VS\$\$l l *\$ VS\$\$l lZ MS]l
B ]ll\$ ]l\${ll\$ Er\$. Al\$]l ^l{l\$ylO {
]l \$l] # B ]ll\$V> Er\$.

2h
g 1 = g 1
R

## = * El ]l\$_ ]l \$l] # ]l Gl\$.

r = *
.
g = * ElO VS\$\$ll.
g1 = *\$ El ]l\$_ Ml Gl\$ ]ll E]l VS\$\$l
l.

## 3. Zl\$ r\$, *\$ VS\$\$l l \$]lZ ]l*\$:

]l \$l] #l] \$ * El ]l\$_ Ml Zl\$MS\$ \$MS- O
^l *\$ VS\$\$l l lVS\$Yl \$. MS \$MS
d
g 1 = g 1
R

d=

*\$ Zl\$.
JMSl ]l \$l] #l] \$ * MS{l ]llM S \$ \$-MS - A ]l Zl\$
*\$ >MS ]l*]l]l\$]l#l \$. As d = R
d
g 1 = g 1
R

R
g 1 = g 1
R

g1 = g (1 1) = go = o

*]l A]l#l\$.
w = mg = mxo = o

]l\$.
4.

## \$]l lVS (Escape Velocity): (Ve):

HOl JMS ]l \$l] #l] \$ *\$ VS\$\$MS ]l\$_ >lV>
>l>ZMS {*W^lyMS M>]l]l MS lV>
\$]l lVS]l\$s\$.
\$]l lVS Ve = 2GM (or)

## 2. Gl\$ r\$ *\$ VS\$\$l l \$]lZ ]l*\$: ]l\$]l#]l\$

* El ]l\$_ Ml Gl\$MS \$ \$MS O ^l
VS\$\$l l - l V- S \$Y- l \$. MS \$MS

Ve = 2 gR

*\$ {l]l> M = 6 1024 kg
*\$ R = 6400 km
g = 9.8 ms2 G = 6.67 1011 Nm2 kg2

D \$]l]l\$ O
\$MSZ {S \$]l lVS Ve = 11.2 km sec1V>
Er\$. \$]llVS {S ]l \$l] # (projected body >MSr\$,
E{VS\$) {l]l>\$\$, {S MO B yl Eyll\$.
^l{l\$ylO E]l \$]l lVS (Ve) MS]l 2.42 kms1 V>
Er\$. D \$]l ^ lMS\$P]lV> Eylr ^l{l\$ylO E]l
MS\$ l]l\$lr ]lV> >l>ZMS l. Al\$]l ^l{l\$ylO ]l l\$. l yll\$ MS*y.MS>lVS (Orbital Velocity):
]l \$l] # *\$ ^l\$r*t t MSSZ {\$^lyMS M>]l]l
MS lV> MS>lVS As\$.
MS>lVS

(Vo ) =

GM
(or ) V o = gR
R

## *\$ \$Z MS>lVS Vo = 7.92 kms1.As \$]l*\$ 8

1
kms V> Er\$.
MS>lVS E{VS {l]l>O B yll\$.

z MS>lVS M>-l] lVS MSs GMS\$POl l Al\$#l
ZMS ll\$.

## MS>lVS lMS\$P-O l - l Al\$#l * ]l ZMSS

{l_ M>l\$.

E{VS\$
Z l ]l \$l] # ^l\$r*t {\$\$l] _]l ]l \$l] #]l\$
E{VS\$ A As\$. s yl\$ M>\$-V> ]lYMS
^l]l^l\$a.
f E{VS\$ (Natural Satellites):
{\$\$l]
z Z {VS r\$ Hyl s ^l\$r*t
_]l ]l \$l] #
-f E{- VS
- - \$ E: ^l{l\$yl\$
z Cs ]lMS\$ MS]l\$V]l s- Z l E{VS
& VSl\$yl. C
VS\$\$ {VS-M- S E.

## MS{]l\$ E{VS\$ (Artificial satellites)

- l] *]l]l#yl \$ >MSs \$ *\$ ^l\$r*t {lst l] E
{VS]l\$ MS{]l\$ E{VS\$ As\$.
e.g.: Brt , P, INSAT etc

## * E{VS (Geo stationany satellites):

-z JMS E{VS *\$ El ]l\$_ 36 l km
Gl\$ZMS {*W_]l yl\$ A *\$ ^l\$r*t JMS W
>]lyMS sMt > 24 VSr\$ JMS kV> Er\$.
Gl\$MSs D E{VS
*\$ Bl{]l\$ lV>MS ]l*
]lV> Er\$. * E{VS
(or) communication E{VS
(or) parking satellite As\$.
z *\$ MS{l ]l\$_ Gl\$ = (s) =R+h (s) = 6.400 km +
3600km = 42,400km