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*$ VS$$l l l VS$?

MS {VSVSl$ $]l*$ (Laws of Plani tary Motion):


MS$r$Z {VS
^l]l$ ]l^lyMS MS ]lyl$
{VSVSl$ $]l*$ {^yl$.
1. lls $]l$: *$yl V> ^l $M {VS
*$yl ^l$r*t ]lM> ]l*Y Z (elliptical orbit) {
$$. D $]l$ ]l$_ *$yl ^l$r*t {$$l]
{VS
MSS]l$ l$$M]l^l$a. M>st D $]l* MS>
$]l$(law of orbit) As$.
2. y $]l$: *$yl ^l$r*t {$$l] {VS
]l*]l
M>Z ]l*]l O l > _]ll$. ~ $]l$
(law of areas) A As$.
3. ]ly $]l$: *$yl$, *$yl ^l$r*t {$$l]
{VS
B]l l] M> ]lY (square of the time period of the planet)
*$yl$, {VS MS l* VSMS A]l$Z]l*]l$ lZ
Er$.

*$yl$, *$yl ^l$r*t {$$l] G$ {VS]l$


MS MS$r$ As$. D {VS ^l]l$ ]l^l
yMS yl$ ]l$ {^$.
1. *MS{l l (Geo Centric Theory): D -
s$ {^yl$. {M> *$yl$, ^l{l$yl$,
$W]l {VS *$ MS{lV> ^l $M *$ ^l$r*t
{$$.
2. * MS{l l (Heleo Centic Theory) MMS D
- {^yl$. {M> {VS *$yl
^l$r*t {$$.
z {MS.. 1608Z VS* sP]l$ MS]l$V lls
VS$$ {VS
-MS E]l E{VS$ VS$_ Z^yl$. Cl
Zl ]l {M> VS$$ {VS
r$ $W]l {VS
*$yl ^l$r*t {$$. M>st * MS{l
l O l- *^yl$.
z 3 & 5 ]l$l M>Z ]l$-l] l>-M- S ^l-l] Br$t
l]l Bst $ Al {VSlZ * MS{l
{^yl$.
z Z H yl$ MS ]l$l E]l BMS
Ol
l$$M]lyMS ]l*rl VS$$MS $]l$
(universal gravitational force) E*W $.

A]l$]l$:
1. MS$r$Z *$yl ^l$r*t {$$l] {VS$
{VS ^l$r*t {$$l] E{VSMS$ M>]l
AMS{l ]l$ ]l*rl VS$$MS $
]l$MS*$al$.
2. *$yl$, ^l{l$yl VS$$MS ]l ]l
{lZ Br$r$$ Hyl$l$.

{VS$

]l*rl VS$$MS $]l$:


D $]l$ {M> Z HOl yl$ MS ]l$l E]l
BMS s {l]l>$ MS A]l$Z]l*]l$lZ,
l* ]l>YMS Z]l*]l$lZ Er$.
F

m1m2
d2

F =G

m1m2
d2

m1, m2$

MS {l]l>$$ (mass of the particles )


d = MS ]l$l l*
G = VS$$MS
>MS
(Universal Gravitational Constant)

T 2 R3

T = B]l l]

M> ]ll M> (Duration of year)


R = l*.
D ]ly $]l$ {M> MS$r$Z l$ {VS
]ll M>$ l$V> E$ l$.
E:
1. *$ylMS lVSY V> E]l $l {VS
(Mercury) ]ll
M>(*$ al) MS]l 88 k$ ]l*{ll$.
2. MS$r$Z _]l E]l NsZ ({ $l {VS
M>l$)
]ll M> *$ al 248 ]ll>$.

$]l G = 6.67 1011 Nm2 Kg2

F d2
G =

m1m2

Newton Meter 2

Kilog ram

*$ VS$$l l:
JMS ]l $l] # Ml Gl$ ]l$_ ^leV> MSMS yl$l$]lyl$
*$ VS$$MS ]l ]l l *$ VS$$l
l As$.
VSr$ $]l g = 9.8 ms2
*$ VS$$l l (g), VS$$l >MS (G) ]l$l

g=

GM
R2

*$ {l]l> (Mass)
R = *$
(Radius)
M=

*$ VS$$l l ]l*$ ^llyMS M>$:


1. *$ BM>> st VS$$l l $]lZ ]l*$
]l $. *$ l]l ^l$r*t ]l$ VSyl ]l {l $ ]ll
$V>, *]l$l Q ]ll El$V> Er$.
g=

GM
R2

Al $MS {M> *$ VS$$l l $]l


{l $ ]ll VSt V>, *]l$l Q ]ll MSt V> Er$. D
M> ]l ]l $l] # {l $ ]ll GMS$P]l, *]l$l Q ]ll
lMS$P]l Er$ (W = MG {M> ).

5. MS l $]l$ st *$ VS$$l l $]lZ


]l*$$ ]l- . Gl$MSs *$O $, Z$$,
]l$l {l>$.. Eylr ]l {l> st VS$$l l
$]l ]l*$l$.
*$ VS$$l l VS- ^ly- -M- S ZMS
(simple pendulum) Etronos balance Al MS>
yl$.
z *$ VS$$l l $]l$
]l*]lV> E]l {l>]l$
{ ^l rZ FlMS QZ MS$. D Q]l$
Isograms/Same gravity As$. s BV> JMS
{lZ S O l $]l *VS ]l]l$]l$ MS]l$MP]l^l$a.
z ^l{l$ylO VS$$l l *$ VS$$l lZ MS]l
B ]ll$ ]l${ll$ Er$. Al$]l ^l{l$ylO {
]l $l] # B ]ll$V> Er$.

2h
g 1 = g 1
R

= * El ]l$_ ]l $l] # ]l Gl$.


r = *
.
g = * ElO VS$$ll.
g1 = *$ El ]l$_ Ml Gl$ ]ll E]l VS$$l
l.

3. Zl$ r$, *$ VS$$l l $]lZ ]l*$:


]l $l] #l] $ * El ]l$_ Ml Zl$MS$ $MS- O
^l *$ VS$$l l lVS$Yl $. MS $MS
d
g 1 = g 1
R

d=

*$ Zl$.
JMSl ]l $l] #l] $ * MS{l ]llM S $ $-MS - A ]l Zl$
*$ >MS ]l*]l]l$]l#l $. As d = R
d
g 1 = g 1
R

R
g 1 = g 1
R

g1 = g (1 1) = go = o

]l $l] # {l]l> Gl E]lsMS * MS{l ]ll


*]l A]l#l$.
w = mg = mxo = o

A>, R s Mt S *y * VS$$l lZ ]l*$


]l$.
4.

$]l lVS (Escape Velocity): (Ve):


HOl JMS ]l $l] #l] $ *$ VS$$MS ]l$_ >lV>
>l>ZMS {*W^lyMS M>]l]l MS lV>
$]l lVS]l$s$.
$]l lVS Ve = 2GM (or)

2. Gl$ r$ *$ VS$$l l $]lZ ]l*$: ]l$]l#]l$


* El ]l$_ Ml Gl$MS $ $MS O ^l
VS$$l l - l V- S $Y- l $. MS $MS

Ve = 2 gR

*$ {l]l> M = 6 1024 kg
*$ R = 6400 km
g = 9.8 ms2 G = 6.67 1011 Nm2 kg2

D $]l]l$ O
$MSZ {S $]l lVS Ve = 11.2 km sec1V>
Er$. $]llVS {S ]l $l] # (projected body >MSr$,
E{VS$) {l]l>$$, {S MO B yl Eyll$.
^l{l$ylO E]l $]l lVS (Ve) MS]l 2.42 kms1 V>
Er$. D $]l ^ lMS$P]lV> Eylr ^l{l$ylO E]l
MS$ l]l$lr ]lV> >l>ZMS l. Al$]l ^l{l$ylO ]l l$. l yll$ MS*y.MS>lVS (Orbital Velocity):
]l $l] # *$ ^l$r*t t MSSZ {$^lyMS M>]l]l
MS lV> MS>lVS As$.
MS>lVS

(Vo ) =

GM
(or ) V o = gR
R

*$ $Z MS>lVS Vo = 7.92 kms1.As $]l*$ 8


1
kms V> Er$.
MS>lVS E{VS {l]l>O B yll$.

z MS>lVS M>-l] lVS MSs GMS$POl l Al$#l
ZMS ll$.

MS>lVS lMS$P-O l - l Al$#l * ]l ZMSS


{l_ M>l$.

E{VS$
Z l ]l $l] # ^l$r*t {$$l] _]l ]l $l] #]l$
E{VS$ A As$. s yl$ M>$-V> ]lYMS
^l]l^l$a.
f E{VS$ (Natural Satellites):
{$$l]
z Z {VS r$ Hyl s ^l$r*t
_]l ]l $l] #
-f E{- VS
- - $ E: ^l{l$yl$
z Cs ]lMS$ MS]l$V]l s- Z l E{VS
& VSl$yl. C
VS$$ {VS-M- S E.

MS{]l$ E{VS$ (Artificial satellites)


- l] *]l]l#yl $ >MSs $ *$ ^l$r*t {lst l] E
{VS]l$ MS{]l$ E{VS$ As$.
e.g.: Brt , P, INSAT etc

* E{VS (Geo stationany satellites):


-z JMS E{VS *$ El ]l$_ 36 l km
Gl$ZMS {*W_]l yl$ A *$ ^l$r*t JMS W
>]lyMS sMt > 24 VSr$ JMS kV> Er$.
Gl$MSs D E{VS
*$ Bl{]l$ lV>MS ]l*
]lV> Er$. * E{VS
(or) communication E{VS
(or) parking satellite As$.
z *$ MS{l ]l$_ Gl$ = (s) =R+h (s) = 6.400 km +
3600km = 42,400km