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# PHYSICS

FORM 4

Chapter 3

Compiled by

Cikgu Desikan

Chapter 3

Dear students,

## What you do today can improve all your tomorrows.

FORM 4 PHYSICS
2016

~ Ralph Marston

Learning Objectives :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Understanding pressure
Understanding pressure in liquids
Understanding gas pressure and atmospheric pressure
Applying Pascal s principle
Applying Archimedes principle
Understanding Bernoullis principle

P1

P2

P3

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2015

Chapter 3

## Forces & Pressure

Dear students,

because you tread on my dreams.

Concept Map
Forces and Pressure
Matter
Solid

Liquids

Pressure

Pressure

Pascals
Principle

Archimedes
Principle

Gases

Gas
Pressure
Bernoullis
Principle

## Applications of forces and pressure

Atmospheric
Pressure

3.1 Pressure

Pressure = ______________

## Normal force per

unit area

SI unit :
Nm-2 = Pascal = Pa

PRESSURE

A P
A P
Amax P
Amin P

## A sharp knife has a very

small surface area on its
cutting edge so that high
pressure can be exerted
to cut the vegetables.

Applications Involving
High Pressure

## Nails, needles and pins have

very sharp ends with very small
surface areas. When a force is
applied to the head of a nail, the
pressure will drive its sharp end
into a piece of wood easily.

## The studs on a football

boot have only a small
area of contact with the
ground. The pressure
under the studs is high
enough for them to sink
into the ground, which
gives extra grip.

Application involving
Low Pressure
Reducing the pressure
by increasing the area

## Skis have a large area to

reduce the pressure on
the snow so that they do
not sink in too far.

## A wide shoulder pad of a heavy

bag will reduce the pressure
exerted on the shoulder of the
person carrying the bag.

## A tractor moving on soft

ground has wide tires to
reduce the pressure on the
ground so that they will not
sink into the ground.

Exercise 3.1
1. A block of metal of dimensions 0.5 m x 0.6 m x 1.0 m has a
mass of 300 kg. Calculate
a) the maximum pressure acting on the ground

1.0 m

0.6 m

0.5 m

## 2. A student pressing a thumbtack into a piece of wood

with a force of 20 N. The surface area of the head of
the thumbtack is 1 cm2 and the cross-sectional area
of the tip of the thumbtack is 0.01 cm2.
Calculate:
a) the pressure exerted by the students thumb on
b) the pressure of the tip of the thumbtack on the
wood
c) What conclusion can be drawn from your

thumb

thumbtack

Tip of thumbtack
wood

## 3.2 Pressure in Liquids

A liquid in a container exerts
pressure because of its weight.
For example, if you try to put your
finger over the end of a tap when it
is turned on, you can feel the
pressure of the water in the pipe.

## The pressure at any point in a liquid, at a particular

depth, acts equally in all directions.
The pressure in a liquid does not depend on the area
of its surface.
The pressure in a liquid acts equally in all directions
and does not depend on the shape of the container.

## Relate pressure in a liquid with

Water

The pressure in a
liquid is directly
proportional to the
depth.
The pressure in a
liquid increases with
depth.

## The pressure in a liquid is directly

proportional to the density of the liquid.

Holes at the
same height
Oil

Water

## The container on the left has a base area, A. It is

filled to a depth,h with a liquid of density, .
Calculate:

Volume of liquid, V = Ah
Mass of liquid, m = V = Ah

Density,
Depth,
h

## Weight of liquid, W = mg = Ahg

Force on base, F = Ahg
Pressure, P = F = Ahg = hg

A
Base Area, A

Pressure in liquid,

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Exercise 3.2
1. If the density of sea water is 1150 kgm-3, calculate the pressure below 40m of sea water due to
the water alone.

## 2. The figure shows a cylinder containing liquid mercury. What is the

pressure caused by the liquid mercury at the point P?
[ Density of liquid mercury is 1.36 x 104 kgm-3 ]
Mercury

0.8m
P

0.2m

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Dam
Reservoir

## Dam holds water

at high altitude.
The wall of the
dam has to be
thicker at the base.
Explain.

Submarine is built
with thick wall.
Explain.

Applications of
pressure in liquids

## Water is stored in water

tank at higher level. Why?

## A patient receiving intravenous drips

of a certain fluid from a bottle. In
order for the fluid to flow into the
vein, the bottle must be placed at a
height above the injection site. Why?

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## 3.3 Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure

Gas pressure
the force per unit area exerted by the gas molecules as they collide with the walls of their
container

Atmospheric pressure
1. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure caused
2. Atmospheric pressure acts equally in all directions.
3. Atmospheric pressure varies with the height of the object above sea level. It decreases with the
altitude or the height above sea level. At higher altitudes, the density and the temperature of the
air are lower. As a result, the frequency of collisions of the molecules is lower. Hence,
atmospheric pressure is lower.
Activities to show existence of atmospheric pressure
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fill the glass to the top with water and wet rim slightly.
Lie the cardboard on the top of the glass.
Hold the card firmly in place and turn the glass over.

## What will happen ?

Atmospheric pressure

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## A metal can containing water is Heated until the water in it

vaporizes. Allow the steam to exit from the mouth of the can.
The can is then capped and cooled down with tap water. As
the result , the can is crushed and crumpled.
Explain why ?

Steam

Water
Metal can

Air removed
Atmospheric
pressure

## 1. When we suck through a straw, the air pressure in the

straw is lowered.
2. Then the pressure of the atmosphere acting on the
surface of the drink in the glass pushes the juice up the
straw and into our mouth.

Juice

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## Measuring atmospheric pressure by using Simple Fortin Barometer

1. The simple barometer Fortin is along glass tube that has been filled with mercury and the
inverted into a dish of mercury.
2. The mercury column rises or falls according to the pressure of air on the mercury in the dish.
3. The space above the mercury column is a vacuum so it exerts no pressure on the top of the
mercury column.
4. If the vertical height of the mercury is h cm ,therefore the atmospheric pressure reading is h
cm mercury .
Long glass tube

Vacuum

76 cm

Mercury

Mercury

Dish
How does the height ,h of the Fortin barometer vary?
The height, h will remains unchanged when
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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## The height, h will increases

1. when the barometer is slowly submerged in water.
The height, h will decreases when
1.
2.
Measuring gas pressure by using Bourdon Gauge
1. When the gas supply is connected to a Bourdon gauge, the pressure in the curved metallic
tube will try to straighten it.
2. Hence the pointer will rotate.
3. The magnitude of the gas pressure can be read off the scale of the gauge.

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## Measuring gas pressure by using manometer

Atmospheric
Pressure

Atmospheric
Pressure

Atmospheric
Pressure

Gas

h
Gas

Gas

Example 1
The figure shows a manometer containing
mercury is connected to a gas supply.
Calculate the pressure of the gas supply in the
units
(i) cm Hg
(ii) Pa
[ Density of mercury = 1.36 x 104 kg m-3 and
Atmospheric pressure = 76 cm Hg ]

15 cm

Gas

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## 3.4 Pascals Principle

Pascals Principle
When pressure is applied to an enclosed fluid, the ________________ will be
throughout the whole enclosed fluid.
Verify the Pascals Principle

Glass sphere

## When the piston is pushed into the glass sphere the

jet of water is shot out from the holes in the glass
sphere with the same speed.

## This is because the pressure acting on the water is

transferred uniformly throughout the water.

Water

Piston

Jet of water
Hydraulic system
F1
F2
Input
Piston A1

A2

d1

d2

Output
Piston

## 1. A small input force, F1 is applied to the small

piston resulting in a large output force, F2.
2. Based on the Pascals Principle, the
pressure is transmitted uniformly in all
directions, P1 = P2 =F1/A1 = F2/A2.

Fluid

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3. When incompressible fluid is moved through a hydraulic system, the volume through which
the input system moved must be the same as the volume through which the output system,
Hence, ______________
4. Hydraulic systems acts as a force multiplier. They multiply the input force by a certain factor
to gain a larger output force.
5. The magnitude of the force at the large piston depends on
1. ____________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________
Incompressible
fluid

Hydraulic
Fluid

## Must not contain any air bubbles.

Existence of air bubbles will
reduce the efficiency of the system
as part of the applied force will be
used up to compress the air
bubbles.

Non corrosive
High boiling point
Important Formulas ***

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Exercise 3.4
1. The figure shows a basic hydraulic system has
small and large pistons with cross-sectional area
of 0.005 m2 and 0.1 m2 respectively. A force of
20 N is applied to the small piston. Determine
a) The pressure transmitted in the hydraulic
fluid.
b) The mass of the load.
c) If the small piston is pushed down at a depth
a 0.04 m, what is the distance moved by the
large piston.

20N

Small
Piston

Large
Piston

Fluid

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## 2. The figure shows a hydraulic system with two

pistons A and B, connected to a tube that contains
oil. The area of pistons A and B is 5 cm2 and 50
cm2 respectively, and a force of 10 N is exerted on
piston A.
Calculate the pressure that is exerted by piston A
on the oil.
a) What is the pressure that is exerted by the oil on
b) Calculate force F, if the friction of the piston can
be ignored.

10N

Oil

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## Application of Pascals Principle

Hydraulic Jack

Pivot

Atmospheric
pressure

Small
Piston
Valve Q

Reservoir

Big
Piston

Hydraulic
Oil

Valve P
Release Valve
1. When the small piston is lifted, hydraulic oil rushes in from the reservoir through the open valve
P. In the meantime, valve Q is closed. The cylinder connected to the small piston is filled with
hydraulic oil.
2. When the small piston is pressed downwards, the pressure produced is transferred onto the
hydraulic oil to the big piston. At the same time, valve P closes and valve Q opens.
3. A huge force is created depending on the area of the big piston. The, the lift on the big piston
exerted is locked in position.
4. With another lift from the small piston, the big piston is lifted higher and higher until the desired
height is reached.
5. When release valve opened, hydraulic oil from big cylinder returns to reservoir and the load
comes down.
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Hydraulic Brake

1. A small force acting at the pedal can transmit a large force to all wheels simultaneously to
stop the car.
2. It is because the pressure will be transferred through the pedal brake liquid to cars tyre .

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Essay Question

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## 1. Explain the necessary modifications so

that the chair in figure 1 is safe and
suitable for the use of adults, based on
following aspects :
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

## size of the pistons

material to house the liquid
size of the seat
type of liquid for the jack

Leg
Big piston
Small
piston
Figure 1

Modification

Explanation

Buoyant force

## An ________________________resulting from an object being ____________or ___________

immersed in a fluid.
Relate buoyant force with the actual weight and apparent weight
1. Buoyant force makes thing seem to be lighter.
2. The weight of an object in air is its actual weight
3. The weight measured when the object is
immersed in a fluid is its apparent weight.
4. The apparent weight loss of the object is due to
buoyant force.
5. When in water, the object experiences two
forces:
a) The actual weight which acts downwards
b) The buoyant force which acts upwards.
6. The buoyant force is equal to the apparent loss
in weight.
7. Buoyant force = actual weight apparent weight
25 15 = 10 N
8. The object displaces a volume of water. The
bigger the volume of the object immersed, the
bigger the volume of the liquid displaced.
9. Volume of liquid displaced = volume of the
submerged part of the object.

25 N
15 N

Water
displaced
Original
water
level

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## Relate buoyant force to the weight of the liquid displaced.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Pour water slowly into a eureka can until it flows out from the spout.
Weight an empty beaker and place it under the spout of the eureka can
Suspend a ball of plasticine at the hook of a spring balance by a string and weigh it in air.
Lower the plasticine into the eureka can until the plasticine is completely immersed in water.
Record the reading of the spring balance.
5. When there is no more water flowing out from the spout, weigh the beaker and water.
Spring
balance

## Weight of plasticine in air = x N

(actual weight)
Weight of plasticine in water = y N
(apparent weight)
Weight of the empty beaker = z N
Weight of the beaker and displaced water = w N

Eureka
can

=

N
Plasticine

## Weight of displaced water =

The result shows that the value of (

Buoyant force =

Beaker

N.
)=(

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Archimedes Principle
When an object is immersed in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) ,the ___________________( upthrust
force) on the object is _____________to the ______________of fluid displaced by the object.
Buoyant Force

Buoyant Force

=
=

Therefore, FB

## Where FB = Buoyant Force or Upthrust

= Density of fluid
V = Volume of fluid displaced or the volume of the object that immersed in the fluid

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Exercise 3.5.1
1. An object is hung from a spring.
a) What is the buoyant force on the object in water?
b) What is the weight of water displaced by the object?
c) Determine the volume of water displaced by the object.
[density of water=1000kgm-3]
d) What is the volume of the object?

65 N
30 N

2. A stone weights 2.5 N. When it is fully submerged in a liquid, its apparent weight is 2.2 N.
Calculate the density of liquid if its volume displaced by the stone is 25 cm 3 .

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## Buoyant Force and Flotation

Buoyant Force
State of
object
Condition

as

Buoyant force
= Weight of
object

Law of floatation

as

Buoyant force
> Weight of
object

Buoyant force
< Weight
of object

Weight

A floating object

Based on Figure (a), (b) ,(c) and (d) write the equations in words to relate the forces acting on the
objects when the objects float and stationary.

a) Buoyant Force

b)

c)

d)

Wmetal sphere
Wmetal
FB= Wmetal sphere

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Exercise 3.5.2
1. An object of mass 5 kg floats on the surface water. What is the upthrust experienced by the
object.

## 2. The figure shows a glass tube of mass 0.012 kg with uniform

diameter and cross-sectional area 4 x 10 - 4 m2 , and it is filled
with sand so that it is made vertical in a beaker containing
water.
[ Density of water is 1000 kg m-3 ]. Determine
(a) The upthrust
0.08 m
(b) The mass of sand in the glass tube.

Glass tube

Water
Sand

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Submarine

Empty tank

Buoyant Force
= Weight of
submarine

## a) Float on sea surface

Buoyant Force
= Weight of
submarine
Tank partially filled
with water

Buoyant Force
< Weight of
submarine

## b) Float in sea surface

Tank fully-filled
with water

c) Sinking

## How does a submarine sink?

A submarine has a large balast tank, which is used to control its position and depth from the
surface of the sea. When the ballast tanks are filled with water, the buoyant force is smaller than
the weight of the submarine. The submarine sinks.
How does a submarine rises?
When the ballast tanks are filled with air (removed all water) , the buoyant force is larger than
the weight of the submarine. The submarine rises.

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Hydrometer

## Density of acid in car

accumulator measured
using hydrometer
floats lower
Low density
liquid

floats higher
High density
liquid
Hydrometer

Hydrometer

Car
battery
acid

## A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the relative

density of liquids such as milk or acid in accumulators.
It consists of a tube with a bulb at one end. Lead shots are
placed in the bulb to weigh it down and enable the hydrometer
floats vertically in the liquid.
In a liquid of lesser density, a larger volume of liquid must be
displaced for the buoyant force to equal the weight. So the
more the hydrometer is submerged.
The hydrometer floats higher in a liquid of higher density.

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Plimsoll line

## The density of sea water varies with location.

Plimsoll line marked on the body of the ship acts as a guide to ensure that a ship is loaded
within safe limits.
A ship will be submerged deeper in fresh water because the density of fresh water is less than
the sea water.
For this reason, a ship must displace more water to obtain sufficient buoyant force to support its
weight. Moreover, a ship can float lower in the cold season as cold water has a higher density.

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Hydrometer

Sea water

River water

## A boat will submerged deeper in the river. Why?

The buoyant forces in the sea and in the river are the same. This is because the buoyant force
is equal to the weight of the boat which is unchanged.
The density of fresh water is lower than sea water. The buoyant force of a floating boat is equal
to the weight of water displaced.
The lower the density of the water, the larger the volume of water displaced.
A boat must displace more river water to obtain sufficient buoyant force to support its weight.

Sea water

Sea water

If extra weight is put into the boat, why will the boat float lower in the water?

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Explain why a boat made of steel will float in water, but a block of steel will sink.

A block of steel will displaced a small volume of water only. So the buoyant force acting on it is
smaller than its weight. Therefore it sinks.
A ship floats on the surface of the sea because the volume of water displaced by the ship is
sufficiently
large. The weight of water displaced is large so the buoyant force acting on the ship is also
greater. Weight of ship equal Buoyant force. Therefore it floats.
Although a ship is constructed of metal, which has a larger density than water, its shape is
hollow so that the overall density of the ship is smaller than the sea water.
As a result, the buoyant force acting on the ship is large enough to support its weight.

## A hot-air balloon displaces a large volume of air. The

buoyant force due to the surrounding air is equal the weight
of the air displaced.
When buoyant force is smaller, than the weight of the total
weight of the balloon, the balloon will rise.
When the total weight of the balloon is equal to the buoyant
force, it remains floating in the air.

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## 3.6 Bernoullis Principle

Bernoullis principle
The pressure of a moving liquid ___________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

1
Final position

Blowing Air
Paper

## 1. When the air is blown up in the surface of a piece

of paper, its observed that the paper moves up.
2. This happened because the air moved at a very
high velocity.
3. According to Bernoullis Principle, the pressure of
the moving air decreases as the speed of the air
increases.
4. The higher atmospheric pressure which acts at
the bottom of the paper pushes up the paper.

Origin position

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2
String
Ping-pong
ball

Straw

Blowing Air

## 1. When the air is blown harder through the

straw , the two ping-pong balls will move
closely to each other.
2. The air moved at a very high velocity
between the balls.
3. According to Bernoullis Principle, the
pressure of the moving air decreases as the
speed of the air increases.
4. The higher atmospheric pressure caused
the ping-pong balls closer to each other.

Blowing Air

Filter
Funnel

Ping-pong
ball

Atmospheric
pressure

## 1. When the air blows harder, the ball is not

falling down. It is because the air moved at
a very high velocity between the balls and
the wall of the filter tunnel.
2. According to Bernoullis Principle, the
pressure of the moving air decreases as the
speed of the air increases.
3. The bottom of the ball has the higher
atmospheric pressure which can hold the
ball from falling down.

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Mark the water level in the vertical tubes P,Q and R in the following figures.
a)

d)
P

Air

Water
P

b)
Water
P

R
Q

e)

Water
c)
P

Air
Water

*** Pressure of moving fluid at point R (end) always less than pressure at point P (initial).

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## A person who stands near a railway feels

like falling into it when suddenly a train
moves with a high speed passes him. It is
because the velocity of the air in front of
him increases. The pressure of the moving
air decreases as the speed of the air
increases (according to Bernoullis
Principle). The higher atmospheric
pressure behind pushes him forward.

## When two speed bots move faster and closely

to each other, an accident may be occurred.
Why ?
Water moves at a very high velocity between the
boats. The pressure of the moving water
decreases as its speed increases (according to
Bernoullis Principle). The higher water pressure
on either side of the boats caused its closer to
each other.
High Pressure
F

Applications of
Bernoullis Principle
F
High Pressure

Jet of air
Piston
Atmospheric
pressure

Fast moving
water
Low Pressure

## When the piston is pushed, air is forced out

through the jet of air at a high speed. The
pressure of the moving air decreases as the
speed of the air increases (according to
Narrow Bernoullis Principle). The higher atmospheric
metalic pressure in the insect poison container will push
tube
the insect poison liquid up through the narrow
metallic tube. The high speed jet of air will cause
the poison liquid to be sprayed out.
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Aerofoil

Decreased pressure
Faster airflow

Aerofoil

Lift

Slower airflow
Increased pressure
1. The figure shows the streamlines round a thin wing at an angle of attack to the air stream.
2. When a wing in the form of an aerofoil moves in air, the flow of air over the top travels faster
and creates a region of low pressure.
3. The flow of air below the wing is slower resulting in a region of higher pressure.
4. The difference between the pressures at the top and underside of the wing causes a net
upward force, called lift, which helps the plane to take-off.
5. In addition to its use in airplanes, aerofoil is also used in racing cars. In this case, the
downward force helps to stabilize the car at high speeds.
Other applications :

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Questions
1. A strong wind blowing at a pressure of 300 kPa on a mans umbrella. If the surface area
of the umbrella is 16000 cm2, calculate the force experienced by umbrella.

2. Explain why a small aquatic bird can walk across lily pads without sinking into water.

3. Given that the density of mercury is . If the pressure due to a column of mercury is 76 cm, what
is the length of water column at the same pressure? [Density of water = 1 gcm-3 ]

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4. The acceleration due to gravity of the Moon is 1/6 of the Earth. A liquid container has a liquid
pressure of 150 kPa at its base is brought to the Moons surface. Calculate the liquid pressure.

## 5. A test tube contains two layer of liquids. The densities of

oil and water are 750 kgm-3 and 1000 kgm-3 respectively.
[ g = 10 ms-2]
a) Calculate the pressure exerted on water by the oil
layer.
b) Find the total pressure exerted on the bottom of the
container.

3.0 cm

Oil

4.5 cm

Water

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## 6. Figure shows a manometer filled with mercury

is supplied with a gas. The atmospheric Gas
supply
pressure is 76 cmHg.

Glass
tube

## Calculate the pressure of gas supply in pascal.

[Density of mercury is 1.36 x 104 kgm-3 ,
g = 10 ms-2]

20 cm

8 cm
Mercury

## 7. Figure shows a car of 15 000 N is placed on

top of the larger piston of an hydraulic jack.
a) Calculate the minimum force required by
the smaller piston to lift the car.
b) Determine the transmitted pressure

0.5 m
0.3 m
A

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8. An object of density 50 gcm-3 and mass 500 g is immersed in a liquid of density 1.8 gcm-3
Determine.
(a) the volume of the liquid displaced.
(b) the mass of the liquid displaced.
(c) the buoyant force experienced by the object.

## 9. Water flows through a horizontal

tube as shown in figure.
a) Mark the water levels at X, Y
and Z on the figure.
b) Compare the velocity of water
flowing from X, Y to Z.

X
P

Z
Q
Water flows

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## 10. Figure 1(a) shows a load suspended by a

spring balance in air whereas Figure 1(b)
shows the same load immersed in water.
Determine
a) the apparent weight of the load.
b) the apparent loss in weight of the load.
c) the mass of water displaced.

40 N
100 N

Water
(a)

(b)

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11.

Diagram 11.1

Diagram 11.1 shows a barge used to transport goods from fresh water port to the ship
anchored away from the seaside.
Using suitable physics concepts, explain the required modification needed in designing a
barge that can carry more and heavier goods, move faster and safe in fresh and salt water.

## You can emphasize on the following aspects in your modification;

i. material used
ii. plimsoll line
iii. shape and size of the barge
[10 marks]

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Modification

Explanation

## Aryabhata gave the world the digit 0 (Zero) for

which he became immortal. He was an intellectual
prodigy who could formulate the method of
calculating the motion of planets and predict the
time of. occurrence of eclipses.

Aryabhatta
(476-550 A.D.)

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