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Archaic Sumerian Pictographic Signs

by

Ashur Cherry

Archaic Sumerian Pictographic Signs

Ashur Cherry
York University
Toronto, Ontario

Copyright 2016
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication
may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or
mechanical, including
photocopy, recording, or any
information storage and
retrieval system, without
permission in writing from
the author.

Acknowledgement
Apart from the efforts of myself, the success of any project depends largely on the encouragement of many others. I would like to show my
greatest appreciation to my friends, especially late Dr. Goliath Nessan, Mr. Mirza Shmoil, Ms. Iannuzziello, Ms. Zuccarelli, Mr. Durnan, Mr.
Storoschuck, Ms. Clarke, Mr. Stuart, and Miss Smith for the encouragement that I have always received from them in publishing my
previous books, journal entries and developing my software. Also, I am personally would like to thank my late father, Petros Cherry, for he
always supported and encouraged me while working on Assyriological projects.

I dedicate this book in memory of His Holiness Mar Yousip Khnanisho


Archbishop of Shamisdin and Rustaqa

Seventy-Two Years of Dedication Toward His People, Church and Assyrian Nation
Thursday, May 18, 1893 (Mar Ishoo, Turkey) Sunday, July 3, 1977 (Baghdad, Iraq)

Vowels

A4
Ax

E4
Ex

I4
Ix

U4
Ux

Consonants

a4
ax

Order

e4
ex

i4
ix

u4
ux

first

ab

Examples
me
lim

second

lm

tul

third

lm

tul

fourth

ab4

me4

lim4 utul4

to be determined later

abx

mex

limx utulx

Name

Phonetic Pronunciation in English

aleph

glottal stop as 'a' in apostrophe

ng

like sing or ring or long or young or coming

kh

Khartoum or sheikh

tsade or tzadi or sadhe

as deeper 's' in saw

shin or sheen

as 'sh' in shy

shin or sheen

as 'sh' in shy

teth or tet

utul

as deeper 't' in tall

Sign Name

Sign

Variant(s)

Syllabic Value(s)
Examples
B
b; p; le8; let; li8; lid; lit; liti; li; lii; rm; rme; rm; rmu

BRA
br; bra; barag; par6; para10; parag; a23; ar6; ara

A
u4; a; ia; ya; barx; bunix; burx; dur5; duru5; e4; ea; bir; emx; pir;
e10; a10; ia10; id5; me5; mu14; sedx; egx; ur5; ya10
AB
ab; aba; abba; agarinx; ap; ax; eri12; s; sa; ; a; eex; ; z;
giraba; iri12; s; i7; ; z; unu5
AB-gun
ab4; aba4; eri11; erim5; erin5; gun4; guna4; gunu4; iri11; rigal; nu7; sirara5;
unu; unug; rugal; uruk
B
b; p; le8; let; li8; lid; lit; liti; li; lii; rm; rme; rm; rmu

B
gir9; kr; kiri9; libi; lipi; agx; em; b
AD
b; ba; ad; ada; p; at; a
AK
a5; ag; a; ak; aka; akix; aq; aqa; k; k; kd; me6; n; ra6; a5
AL
al; la; il10; m; ma

ALAN
l; alag; ala; alala; alam; alan; belili; beba; bebi; keba; kebi
AMAR
amar; mr; mra; marad; surx; r; ur; uru; zur
AN

a11; am6; an; na; anu; d; dalamunx; der; dibur; digir; diir; dimer; dimir;
dimmer; diner; dingir; dingira; dinir; dr; l; u; l; ila; ili; ilu; le4;
sa8; ubul; ; usanx; za5

AN&AN
nab; nap; tillax
3AN
knga; kngi; mul; mulu; munx; np; sub; ub; n
ANE
ane; ani; anu; sumugan; kan
APIN
bsin; bin; apin; apina; bin; engar; engara; ere4; eri4; pin; ur11; uru4;
u8

ARAD
wardu; arad; arda; r; erad; ri; eru; erum; r; irda; nintax; nnta; nta;
nta; suburx; subarrumx; bur; urda; urdu; wr
A

na; s; a; aa; aa; ; z; dl; del; dele; deli; d; dil; dili; d;


e18; e20; ge15; ge4; in6; ina; lri; lru; lrum; mka; mkka; rm; rim5;
r; rum; sagtag; sagtak; satak; salugub; santa; santag; santak; simed; p;
tl; te; til4; il; zux

AGAB
agab; erib; irib; igagu; ikangu


s; sa; a; ; a; ; z; bae; bane; d; deu; t; d; udeu; t;
utu5

; a5; i; ed; et; e; id; di; it; i; te8; ti8

BA
ba; be4; bi6; libit; p; w
BAD

ba9; bad; bada; bara4; bat; bata; ba; be; bi4; bd; bt; dii; dim7; edim;
e7; idin; mt; me4; med; met; me; mit; miti; mitu; mi; md; mt; pax; pd;
pt; p; p; pt; p; pd; pt; qt; sugin; sungin; i; ti5; tile; l;
ulal; zar5; zara5; zaz; zis; ziz; zu4; zuru9

BALAG
balag; bala; bulug5; bulu5; bulunx; bm; gud10; gudu10; luma; takax

BAR
ba15; bar; bara; bare; pr; pra; sutu; war
BRA
br; bra; barag; par6; para10; parag; a23; ar6; ara
BU
bu; bur12; dim13; dul10; dur7; gazibu; gazimbi; gazinbi; gazinbu; gi27; gd;
gda; gdi; gdim; gim7; gt; g; gz; ildumx; kid10; km; kit10; madal;
madla; madlu; malla; mudla; mudlu; mdra; mdru; mudul; mulla; mullu; nn;
pi8; pu; qd; qt; ra5; sr; six; sr; su13; sud4; sugx; surx; s; aki;
aku; r; r; d; tur8

10

BI
b; bi; biz; dugx; ebirx; pir; eemen5; eemin5; ga; uburx; ka8; ks; ka;
k; p; p; sa18; siris4; su15; a21; u13
BUR
bur; buru; limx; pur; puru
BR
bl; bu8; bl; blug; br; bru; du9; dun5; pl; su16; sun5; um5; uu; uum

11

DA
ax; da; dix; du20; di; le10; li10; qb; t; a
DAG
br; bra; brag; da8; dag; dak; daq; pr; pra; tg; tk; tq; ak
DG
abnu; atumx; bar4; dg; dk; dq; i4; ia4; na4; tk; tq; ya4; z
DAM
da4; dam; dama; dm; lm; ta4; tm; tum10; a4; am

12

DAR
dax; dar; da4; dr; gux; gn; gnu; tr; tr; r; ir4
DI
de; di; dux; s; sl; salagud; salgud; salim; se8; si8; silix; silim; silima;
sm; sisax; ; a18; l; te10; ti4; e; i
DIB
dab; daba; dabe; dap; deb; dix; dib; dibi; dip; dubba; dul8; nu12; teb; tep;
tib; tip; b; p; eb; ep; ib; ip
DIM
di11; dim; dum4; mn; tm; tem; t; tim; tum8; em; im

13

DM

dm; dix; dm; dma; ge18; gem; gen7; gi18; gim; gimi; gin7; ke5; kem; ki5; kim;
kin8; muda; mudam; mudama; qim; idi; idim; ilamx; itim; italamx; tam6;
m; m

DU

ar6; ara6; aragub; de6; di6; du; dulx; er10; ge13; gen; gim6; gin; ginax; gir7;
gub; guba; gubu; gup; en; in; im6; im6; ir10; ka5; kim6; kin7; kux; kub;
kup; kurx; la6; mn; mix; nax; qub; qup; r; re6; ri6; a4; e13; t; tm;
tma; tmu; ; ur8

14

DIN
dan5; den; d; din; dini; gurun8; idinx; krun; tn; t; tilx; tm; tin; in
DUB

le um; dab4; de; dei; di; dub; duba; dubba; dubu; dup; kib; mbulug;
mnbulug; ms; samag; simig; sumug; en4; tee; tei; tub; tup; ub; up;
rud; rudu; zamug

DB
dim5; db; dba; dbu; dp; sagkurini; tg; tu16; tb; tunx; tp; b

15

DUG

dug; duk; duka; duq; ebir; pig; epir; gurin; gurun7; kurum10; kurin; krun;
l; lud; lm; lmu; lut; lutu; lu; luu; si14; kin; urub; tg; tk;
tq; ulud; urrub; ursub; urub; urzub; zurzub

DU
du
DUN
du24; dun; duna; dur9; duru9; s; su17; sul; ; an; ul; tun4; zu7

16

DN
du5; dug5; dulx; dn; su18; sug5; tu18; tn; tna; tug8; u
DN-gun-gun
aga; agu; ir17; mer; mere; migir; mir; miri; nigir; niir; nimgir; nimirx;
tn; tn; uku
DUN4
dul4; dun4; mgir; ngir; nir; nmgir; udul4; udun4; utul4; utun4; tul6

17

E
e; g; eki; i15; g; urux; y
EDIN
bilx; bir4; dinx; eden; edena; edimx; edin; edina; eru5; rua; girx; gurx;
idenx; la8; rabita; ri10; ribx; ru6
EGIR
eger; egera; egir; eer; eera; eir; lumax; tum13
EL
dam; el; le; e14; il5; ili5; ram; sikil

18

EN
adx; amx; en; ena; eni; enu; in4; ru12; uru16; urunx
RIN

ab; bu; br; erem; ren; rena; erim; rin; rina; ; l; l; nura;
nuri; nuru; par5; pr; pr; rn; rna; sp; surx; ab; ap; apa; tam5; udax;
zab; zlag; zap

EZEN
asilx; asilax; asilalx; badx; esen; esin; ezem; ezema; ezen; ezena; ezin;
izen; izim; izin; izun; sr; sidra; silx; sr; sirda; srim; r; r

19

EZENBAD
anx; ba8; bd; bda; bt; dur8; durum; u9; ubx; ug5; uga5; u5; uk5; n; uq5
EZENKASKAL
asilax; km; sil5; sud5; ubar; ubara; ul5; umbara; un4; usigi

; ; a14; btu; bed; bet; betu; bid; bit; biti; bitu; bi; ; ; iski;
pet; pid; pit; pi

ege; ger; egi; gir; ; e; ge7; ger15; gi7; gir15; e7; er15; i7; ir15;
ug; u; un; i9; izid; n; samanx; a16; ; i4; ; i9; b; ba; p

20

GA
ebir4; epir4; ga; gar9; gara9; ge20; gu11; gur11; a7; k; kur15; q; izbu
GABA
du8; dudda; du; ga15; gab; gaba; gap; irtu; pitru; qab; qap; t; tu24; tu;
tuu; ; u; u5
GAD
gad; gada; gadu; gat; gid4; gida4; kad; kat; kid9; kit9; kt; qd; qt; q;
qid4
GAL
gal; gala8; gale; kl; qal; rb; rp

21

GAM
ar5; gam; gan7; girum; gum4; gr; gru; gurum; qam; qr
GAN
gam4; gan; gana; ; ; kan; kana; li6; qan; sag7; seg16; sig16
GAR

ga4; gar; gara; garak5; ar; nda; nta; kar5; kux; mr; menari; mu8; nq; n;
ng; nigix; n; nk; nim5; nin6; ninda; nindan; nnni; nq; niqix; nita4;
qr; qra; sa15; ; ikin; u7

22

GN
eqlu; l; alalx; aa5; aag; burux; g; gn; gna; ; girrix; iku; uru;
urum; kalax; kn; kna; karx; mulu4; ul8; ululx
GR
gr; gra; r; kr; qar; qer5
G
alba; ba4; bisag; bisa; bisan; da; g; ge26; ; e26; ilba; m; mal; mala;
pisag; pisa; pisan; a13
GAN
ama; ame; ami; ammax; aru4; dagal; dagala; daal; damal; eme4; egal; mi;
max; aganx; akkan7

23

GKAK
am4; ama4
G(ME.EN)
dn; ra; eri15; men; menax; mi4; min7; tn
GNUN
ganun; anun; uu
GPA
era4; eri16; iara4; iur4; iuru4; sila4; silaku

24

GSAL
am5; ama5; me; mi; aru; eme8; ur14;
GETIN
getin; getina; etin; etina
GI
a; ge; gen6; gi; gin6; gitag; k; k; qn; q; q; seg17; si22; sig17;
sissix; tar5; taru5
GI%GI
esir4; ge16; gel; gg; gi16; gib; gil; gili; gilibx; gilim; gillim; kl; klim;
ql; qli; unu10

25

GIG
ge17; gi17; gb; gig; ki; kik; qiq; simx
GR-gun
d; adda4; ddu; t; ; ka; keg; kii17; kig; kik; tb; ul4
GR(A.IGI)
alim; alima
GI
iu; es; e19; e; ez; ge; gez; gis; gi; gia; gi; giz; e; i; izzalx;
is; i6; i; iz; ks; m; mu9; ns; n; n

26

GI4
ga8; gagri; ge4; gi4; ki8; qe4; qi4
GU
gu; gumx; ku8; q
GUD

alpu; alap; baar; dapar; dapara; dipar; etub; gadma; gar4; gara4; gidim7;
gu4; gud; gudma; gudu; gugarid; gurx; r; ra; kamu; ku15; kudim; kugim;
kum; lagabx; qadma; qudmax; ruban; rupan; ugim; zb; zb

27

GU%GU
sax; sa4; si5; s; zax; zi
GUL
gul; gulu; si; sim; simu; kl; ql; si23; smun; smuna; smunu; sn;
sna; n
GUM
gs; gz; gu8; gum; kas6; ku13; kum; kn; nag4; naga4; naa4; qu; qum; a9;
qu
GUR
gur; gura; guru; kr; qur; quru; tari; taru

28

GURU
gre; gri; guru; re; uru; murux
G
kidu; g; gn; lil6; qu6; tek; tik; tiq; usanx
GKAK
dur; tr; ur; usanx
GNUN
mnsub; msub; sb; usan; usian; uen

29

A
a4; a7; ayax; gir14; a; kir9; ku6; kua; pe11
AL
bulu; bur8; buru8; buru; al; ala
A-gun
bs; bi; b; ger; gir; giri; ir; iri; a6; kar4; ker; kir; kiri; pes;
pe; pis; pi; pia; pus; p; qer; qir; qiri; egx
I
; da10; db; de8; d; du10; db; dg; dugu; a4; e; i; i11; kugu; mux; ta8;
t; t; ; ab6; ;

30

I.GR
i4; u; ua; uux; ru
IA
kaz8; kazaza; ml; mu4; sr; u17; ua; zinanutu; zz; surx
I

r; ra; endibdim; ga11; gadibdim; gin8; gu13; gudibdim; gunux; gur14; ar;
ara; r; u4; ur; uru; ir5; kikken; kikkin; kn; kn; kinkin; mar6; mur;
muru; murum; sagbar; sggar; sar; surx; unux; ur5; ura5; urux

31

IBAD
du15; eri6; gm; gma; d; ka13; kam; kama; qm; tu7; dul; tul
INUN
; a; aa; bi9; dga; ; e; girix; gudux; ; i; nu13; nmun; u13; ;
u; uu; uman; mun; uplux
INUN.ME
gudx; gda; guddax; gudu4; gudug; tug
IE
ber; bir; biri; dubur; llag; lla; ellamx; gere; gire; giri; klam; pr;
urx; zanzana

32

U
u5; bag; ba; bak; baq; burux; dalx; u; mu8; muen; muena; pa7; pag; p;
pak; paq; pq; talx; u11; usan5
U.I
mt; mu12; mud; mut; mu; muux
U.SI
u5; d
B
dux; b; p; kp; tu11; tukx; tumx; tn

33

L
bibra; bibri; guggal; gukkal; l; la; kungal; ku8; ku
U
hi4; hu; hua; huux; ru

34

I
i; nt
IB
arkabx; dr; dra; dri; dru; drum; dri; eb; ep; ib; ibbi; ip; ura; urta
IDIM
ri; banda4; dei4; e; ani; idim; iri8; kir5; mid; nagbu; pax; rpiqu;
sullat; ullat; tei4; uri4; urumx
IG
da11; eg; e; ek; eq; ga7; gagal; gl; gala7; l; ig; iga; ik; iq; kagar; ml

35

IGI

maru; panu; bad5; badi; bat5; dmu; ge8; gi8; igax; igi; igu; na; ni; nu;
lam5; l; lem; l; lib4; lim; lima; limi; lm; pa10; pad4; pn; rax; si17; e20;
i

IGI.DUB
agrig; arig; gekim; ekim; giskim; gikim; gizkim; iskim; ikim; iskim;
izkim
IGI.
libir; si5

36

IGI.RI
ar; ara8
IGI.RU
p; pd
IGI.UR
ul; ula; ulu
IGI-gun
agar4; gi; igigunux; mma; nab4; nam4; sa7; sag12; samag6; se12; seg7; si12;
sig7; amagx; ex; i7; gur; ukur5; zix

37

IL
al9; l; il
IM

adad; anegi; did; dalamunx; em; enegi; enegir; ennegi; ennigi; ilumer; im;
imex; imi; igurx; ikur; kakra; kakru; karkar; karkara; mr; mr; mr;
murim; mru; ar5; ara5; eg7; e7; teub; tid; tu15; tum9; tumu

IR
ereu; er; ere14; re; eri14; ir; ire14; iri14

38

I
es5; e15; s; isi; isi; i; i; ii; ; z; kkkuda; kukku; kkuda; ku7;
mel; mil; mili; milla; saar; saardub; sux; en6; ; ukum

39

KA

bux; da12; dag5; du11; dug4; duga4; e7; emex; en4; enem; enim; ga14; gir17;
giri17; g; gur18; i5; inim; i5; ka; kg; kk; kir4; kri; mex; nagx; pe4; pi4;
pu5; qirx; q; sigx; su11; sugx; sumux; sumurx; e28; ed17; eg13; ix; udx;
uzugx; zib4; z; zg; zu; kax; zu9

KAGN-ten
puzru; ba11; b; bum; burx; buzur5; kala; kan6; kana6; mux; p; pum; puzur5;
tugure
KAGAR
gu7; k; kur8; agar; aar

40

KAB
gb; gba; gbu; gp; gb; gbu; kab; kap; kapa; qb; qp
KD
gt; kd; kt; qad6; qat6; d
KD
gt; kd; kt; kta; kud6; qat7; ed4
KAK
ban4; d; d; gag; gak; enbur; ka15; kak; kl; kaq; ki7; qa6; qaq; qi6; re12;
ri12; r; tu20; usanx; zarx

41

KAK.TAR
ku; kksu
KAL
dannu; elu; lad; batum; dan; dna; dun6; esi; esig; eax; gal9; kal; kala;
kalag; kalaga; kalga; la6; lab; lla; lma; lamar; lamassu; lamma; lammar;
lap; lb; lp; mirx; nir6; qal4; rab4; reb; rib; rip; rub; sa14; sag8; seg15;
si21; sig15; slim; slima; subx; sun7; sunax; edu; rub; tan; tana; an;
rrub; rsub; zi8; zrzub
KASKAL
b; bu; dna; dnna; e8; ir7; ; kas; kasa; kaskal; k; kaz; ras; ra;
rin6; ubtumx

42

K
aganx; aka4; kan; bba; babu; gu16; k; kan4; kankan; ppa
K
gir11; giri11; girid; er; ir; k; keda; ke; ki; kiri7; kirid; kiris;
kirit; k; ki
KI
eretu; qaqqaru; ammax; gagar; ge5; gi5; gu14; ibunx; ke; ki; ku11; q; q;
sasx; ubdax
KIN
gur10; ken; kg; k; kimx; kin; kinga; kun10; qe; qi; qin; sag11; saga11;
seg18; sig18; siga18

43

KID

bur6; buru6; g; g; gid; git; gub5; gup5; ke4; ket; ki4; kid; kit; ki; kub4;
kup4; ll; ll; lla; muru12; qi5; qid; qit; sa; s; s; su4; ; ;

KISAL
bur6; dag4; kisal; par4; lel4
KI
ke; kis; ki; kiex; kii; ki; qis; qi

44

KU

be5; bd; bt; bi7; bd; bt; bu7; bulx; dab5; daba5; db; db; du; gu5; gud7;
gz; ux; ku; kd; kz; nu10; q; sax; su5; su5; sur11; su; e10; ed6; i5;
tibx; tukul; tukula; tum5; tuma; tu; tuu; u; ugu4; zp

KUL
gu9; gl; ku9; kul; kula; kulu; nu5; nuun; numu; numun; qul; abalbal; til8;
zar4; zarax; zer; zir; ziri
KUN
ku14; kun; kunu; megidax; qun; kun8

45

KUR

amma; anubu; ge21; gn; gn; gna; gur16; kn; kur; lad; lat; lata; la; mad;
mak; mat; ma; nad; nat; nata; qr; raman; ramanu; rammanu; rau; razu; sad;
sat; sata; ad; ada; adi; adu; aan; at; ata; a; zizanu

K
k; kug; kuk; qu5

46

LA
la; ika; ikx
LAGAB
lla; ellag; ella; gl; gli; gir8; girenx; giri8; girim; girin; gud8; gur4;
grun; ab; aba; ap; illag; kel; kele; kil; kili; kilib; kr; kux; kur4;
kuru4; lagab; lgud; ni10; ngi; ngin; ni; nin; nmen; nin4; qr; qel;
qil; qr; r; rem; reme; r; rim; rin; sim4; sux; surx; tuku6; tukulx; tukur;
tur6
LAGAB.LAGAB
banx; garadin5; ara; karadin5; kl; kl; kilax; kilux; kli; klib; kin4;
ni6; niggix; nigginaku; nigi; nigin; niin; nimenx; nn; nini; nnni; rn

47

LAGABA

a9; a; abbar; abbarax; blal; aia4; ambar; ambara; anbar; as4; aslum; te;
aya4; bugin; buni; bunin; elamku4; ellamku4; engurx; gnin; ix; idx; knin;
nammax; nammux; puginx; sug; sugix; suk; suq; k; umun11; zikumx; zug; zuk;
zuq; bunix; buninx; bgin; bni; bnin; bgin; bnin; bugin4; bunin4; bnig;
bni; kunin; bunix

LAGAB(GUD.GUD)
dibx; gana4; ganam4; gayayu; laar; larax; laru; larum; erba; urim; uru;
urum; urun; u8; ua; us5; uz5; wax
LAGABAL
angur; bnig; bni; engur; gilugu; gur22; ex; i8; d; lammu6; namma; nammu;
zigum; zikum; zikumux

48

LAGABIGI-gun
gar; bara7; immax; para7; ra
LAGABU
bu4; bu6; dl; gla; ggir; ggira; b; p; kla; p; tukurx; tl; ul; ub4
LAGAR
lagal; lagar; nagal
LAGAR-gun
du6; dul6; tl; tu21; tul5; l

49

LAL
l; lal; lux; sur5; suru5; urx; urux; zur5; zuru5
LL
kurnun; la5; la u; lal-lal; ll; lal u; lalla; lallal; papnun
LAM
ex; la12; lam; lama; lammax; lm; lugx
LAMKUR
rad; e22; eux; i11; lam7

50

LI
n; gb; gp; le; li; ni8; nu9; en8; li5
LI
dl; dli; dlim; li12; li4; lis; li; liz; mal4
LU
eze; lu; lug; nu12; si6; udu
LU
ulu; l; la; l; lu; luu; na; ra; ri; ru; sbur; sugal7; sukal;
sukkal; ukal; ukkal

51

LUL

b; bu; dnga; dugax; lumer; ka5; kum; lb; leb; lep; lib; libi; lip;
lu5; lub; lugx; lul; lulu; lup; nar; nari; pa; pn; pi; pu; sar7; sulug;
sulun; atam; attam; aam; e11; zulug

LUM
eger5; egir5; eir5; gamx; gu15; gud6; gm; gumu; gun5; guz; u5; um; umu;
us; uz; kunx; kux; ks; k; lamx; lu4; lum; luma; lumu; nim4; nu4; nm; qm
L
addax; dux; girix; l; na6; r; a11; agax; aax

52

L
gadx; gar5; gudx; gg; kk; l

53

MA
ma; p; pee; wa6
MA
al6; ma; maa; me; mi; utur
MAR

gar7; ar7; mar; mara; wr


MA
ba7; ba; ma7; mas; ma; ma; maa; ma; na; sa9; til9; wa; zipa; ma

54

MA.G.GR
dl; dalla
M
kun8; m; maaku; maz; mz
M
ux; m
ME
ba13; de4; di4; gax; galx; gex; isib; iib; ma6; me; mn; m; m; sep; sib;
sip; ab4; eb; ep; ib; ip; tuba

55

MES
dubx; kiib; mes; mesa; mesi; me; m; mez; mis; mi; mi; red; ret; rid;
rit; ri
MI
dgud; ga12; ge6; gi6; gg; giggi; ggi; gikki; e6; i6; ku10; ku10-ku10;
kukku5; kuku5; m; mi; mu9; mui; muu; sil4; sux; l; wi4
MU
gu10; u10; i14; ia5; meida; meidi; meidu; mu; mualdim; mualdima; su7;
d; u10; m; umu; t; t; wu4
MU&MU
da; ta; taa; t; a

56

MU
imdudu; iran; mus; mu; muz; nera; nira; saan; an; er10; era; ir10;
ubax; er; ir; r; wu; uludi; uluki; zr; zr
M

ennin; ga-a-an-an-na; inana; inanna; inini; innana; innin; itar; mm; m;


muku; nn; ninni6; sar5; se27; sed6; sedi6; suba4; su10; suku6; skud; suku;
ss; susbu4; sz; e23; ed12; uba4; zanaru; zannaru

57

NA
aniku; na; ne6; nu8
NAGA
re; ri; lib; naga; naa; nk; nama; nanga6; ndaba; nsaba; t; teme;
tu22; ugax
NAGAR
alla; bulug4; e10; aia; aya; ildumx; illa; lamga; nagar; nagara; niminx
NAM
bix; bir5; na7; nam; pir6; si13; sim; sn; m; am4; n; m

58

NM
nm
N
daramx; n; nd; ne7; n; nud; ex; timuax
NE

bar7; barax; be7; bel; b; bil; bila; bili; bir9; d; di7; didalx; du17; ge9;
gi9; gibil4; gir10; gm; ibbix; izi; izu; ku16; kum2; kun9; lm; lma; le9;
lem4; li9; lim4; ne; ni5; nunx; pe5; pel; pi5; pil; qm; arx; e6; eg6; e6;
emx; a; ; te4; ti9; ; i5; za; zix

59

NE-eig
bl; bi5; bl; ge10; gi10; gibil; gibila; ne8; pl; pl
NI

amnu; a5; b; bu16; dex; dig; digi; dik; diq; gamar; gub4; gur13; ax; ; a;
ilix; l; l; libx; ld; mu5; n; ni; sl; sr; sl; s; l; ar8; al; tk;
tq; ux; y; zagga; zaa; zal; zala; zalli; zanga; zr

NI.UD
abnu; atumx; bar4; dg; dk; dq; i4; ia4; na4; tk; tq; ya4; z

60

NIM
alamax; d; di; d; di; elam; elama; elamu; nim; nm; nem; ni7; nim;
nima; n; num; rm; te; ti; tu8; tum4; tumu4
NNDA
gur9; inda; nda; nnda
NNDANE
g; ga; ; ka; m; g; ; m; g; ; m; ram; rama; ugx
NNDAE
agx; sa10; sm; m

61

N
n; me10
NU
l; nu; sarx; sir5; surx; ir5; l
NUN
abx; agargarax; dabx; dabax; erida; eridu; eridug; eriduga; gar6; gara6; li11;
nu6; nux; nun; nuna; nunun; rabx; sl; il; za4; zalx; zel; zil
NUN.LAGAR
immalx; malx; surum; ilamx; urumx; tr

62

NUN&NUN
nr; narax; nenerx; ner; ninir; nir; nira; nur; ri5; er7; tirx
NUNUZ
nunu; nunus; nunuz; nus; nuz; pel5; sug9

63

PA
addirx; ri; aru; b; dur6; duru6; endur; getara; gidar; gidirx; gidri;
gidru; gituru; edar; edru; eturu; idri; idru; ad; ni; s; ;
at; ata; a; z; endur; ud; kumx; kn; lar; lu; lg; l; lun; ma4;
midra; mu6; mua; muati; muatu; mudru; munsubx; muwa; muwati; muya; muyati;
pa; sg; sk; sg; si2; sg; sgga; siqqax; sllat; g; llat; ux; ugula;
ugulu; zg; zk; zq
PA.B.DU
rig7
PA.LU
re u; nska; nsku; nka; nku; re e; re i; sp; sb; siba; sibad; sp;
sipa; sipad; ab5; ap5; zp

64

PAD
bd; bt; bu15; kur6; kurum6; kurummax; pax; pad; pada; pat; pata; pa; ug;
uk; uku; kun; kur; uq; utug; utugx
PAP
a; ba14; bab; bap; gur12; kr; kru; pa4; pab; pap; qur4
PI
; am7; aw; bax; be6; b; bux; dax; ex; ew; geltan; gedu; getu; getug;
getunux; gidu; gitu; gitug; gitunux; estug; edu; etu; etug;
istug; idu; itu; itug; i16; ia8; u; iw; ma; me8; metunux; mi5;
mitunux; mutu; mutug; neda; pa12; pe; pi; ta7; tl; tla; til7; u17; utu;
utug; uw; wa; we; wi; wu; ya; ye; yi; yu

65

PAP.E
pa5; pad5
PIRIGZA
as; asa; a; az; aza; ugx; us4; u4; uz4

66

RA
ra; r
RI
bagx; bakx; dal; dala; de5; degx; di5; e11; ux; re; ri; rig5; a7; tal; tala;
al
RU
geba; gebu; gepa; gepu; eba; ebu; epa; epu; ilar; illar; illulu;
illur; illuru; ru; sub7; b; ux; ub; uba5; up

67

SA
gd; sa; a; a10
SAG
ru; dul7; dunga; res; re; ris; ri; sa12; sag; saga; saggar; saar; sa;
saa; sak; samx; san; saq; sur14; a24; ag; ak; aq; egx; zg
SAG-gun
muu; almu; dilx; dl; k; kuu4; mu4; sumur; sr; r; r; ugu5
SAL.KUR
amat; amtu; ge12; gm; gme; gi12; gm; gin5

68

SAL

gal4; gambix; al4; kal4; lagarx; mm; mn; mex; mem; m; mim; mn; mu10; mg;
muk; mk; munus; munuz; murub; nunusx; rag; rak; raq; sal; sala; a12; al;
el4

SAL.TG
e5; ere; eri; in5; min4; nen; ni4; nm; nin; nna
SAR
kiri6; ma4; m; mud6; nisax; nisi; nisig; nissa; nia; sar; sakar; sar;
sara; sarix; se15; si15; sigx; ar; a8; akar; ar; ara7; er9; ir9

69

SI
ux; se; seg9; si; sig9; e; i; ; ;
SI.A
dir; diri; dirig; du26; ml; nindar; sa5; six; ter4; er; tir4; ir; u15; uub
SIG
bek; big; bik; epig; ipig; pik; piq; se11; seg; sek; si11; sig; siga; sik;
siq; ; ; ag6; ak6; ex; e; ek; ; ig; ik; iq; zg; zk; zq
SIG4
bar5; eger6; egir6; gar8; gara8; ar8; kulla; kullux; murgu; seg4; sig4; e27;
eb4; ed16; eg12

70

SK
sg; sg; sk; siki; k; q; k; q
SLA
q; ga5; ka4; qa; sal4; sala4; sl; sla; l
SI-gun
gunux; sa11; si4; su4; ; ; usan4
SU
gu; kus; ku; kuz; su; sug6; sm; u; u11

71

SUD
sar4; ser; six; sir; s; sud; sug4; ; ir8; ux; ud; ut; u; uz; zir;
zir4; zu6
SD
adarx; ildag; ra4; rad; rat; rata; ra; rt; rud; ru; sd; susx; susu; idax;
ta; itanx; uu; zusu
SUUR
s; suur; smur; bi; ugab
SUM
ari6; sar8; s; seg10; s; sig10; sik10; sm; su12; sum; sumu; sn; m; e19;
m; mu; un4; zr

72

SUR
sur; sura; ur; ur; r

73

A
ara; en8; li5; na5; sa20; a; zur8
R
sr; sra; sre; r; ara6; argal

didala; lb; lp; pex; sa19; ; b; ag4; alambi


A6
a10; geimmar; genimbar; giimmar; eimmar; enimbar; iimmar; inimbar;
d; ud4; nimbar; pa9; sa6; sag9; seg6; sig6; a6; ag5

74

E
nan; nigx; niga; nigan; nigu; sagx; e; u20
E.U
bazbazx; us; u10; u; uz; uza; zu
E.NAGA
nidaba; nisaba; tux
EG9
kii6; sa21; seg14; segga; sig14; sigga; eg9; ega9; e9; enx; enbar; egga

75

E
; a; ai; mun4; mu5; nan; sas; ses; sis; si; as; a; a; e16; es;
e; e; i; i; iz; zax; zax
ID
g; ; k; ka; lal; lamu; lmu; bsag; bsa; bsan; dilib; dim12; lal;
gir13; gud9; ka9; kas7; kid4; kiri8; la10; lag; lak; laka; laq; lk; lq; mer4;
nsag; nsa; nsag; nsa; pa8; psag; psa; psan; sagga; saa8; saa;
sanga; sangu; sd; sila11; silag; sila; sinx; st; subx; anga; e14; ed; et;
id; it; ita5; iti; tim; i; ub6; utumx; ud4; udum; te6; tu14; tba;
ubisag; umbisag; umbisa; ttu; u; zadri; zadru; zandar; zandara; silax

IMGAR
bappir; bappira; birx; lmgi; lnga; nngi; nngi; sra; sris; inx

76

IDA
alax; alal; alalmu; alamu; almu; bsag; bsa; bsan; bzeg; bzem; elal;
ubub; kirbanu; mezeg; meze; mezem; mizeg; mizem; psag; psa; psan;
bisag; mbisag; mbisa
IM
sila; silal; silla; bppir; bppira; lumgi; lunga; mud5; mulugx; ningi;
nugx; nungi; reg; rek; req; rig; rik; riq; sem; sim; sira; siris; siri;
su20; em; mbi; embizi; embizid; embulugx; i6; im; mbi; imbizi
IR
as5; a7; gasax; sil8; sir4; siru; sirum; er; ir; r

77

U
kat7; qad; qat; qata; sagix; u
UBUR
s; si; subar; subir; subur; a; aa; e; i; ubar; ubur; ubura;
; e; z; z

a; gala6; ; ubartin;
.AN
n; gibil7; gbir; kbir; knga; kngi; e9; uub

78

TA
d; ta;
TAI
alammu; alamu; ll; ru8
TAB
db; dp; dpa; min6; tab; taba; tap; tapa; ab; ap
TAG
da6; daq6; guru4; sux; sub6; subu; sux; sum6; um; n; erid; erim; u14;
um; mu; u4; t; tag; taga; tak; taka; taq; tibir; tuku5; uttux; zl

79

TAK4
zad; da13; dad; dat; erbura; gid6; gudx; gudibir; irbura; kamx; kd; kt; ux;
uru6; urum6; ta6; tad; tag4; tak4; taka4; tat; tukx; at; urx
TAR

dar6; gud4; as; a; a; az; iz; s; ku5; kud; kudma; kuksu; kur5; kuru5;
kurum5; kut; kutu; qadmax; qadmu; qud; qudma; qudmu; qumx; qut; qutu; sel;
six; sil; sila; sulu; ar7; el; il; tax; tar; tara; tr; tr; ar; r;
ursagsim; ursasim; zil; zl

TE
de4; di12; gal5; gallax; gl; ml; te; tg; t; temx; temen; temennax; ten;
ti7; e4; i4; unux

80

TE.A
gar14; ka11; kar; kara; kir8; qr
TI
de9; d; te9; te4; ti; tibnu; tig4; ti4; tl; tla; e6;
TIL
sumun; um4; umun; sun; suna; tel; til; ug7;
TU
d; dd; dur11; ; udu; namee; tu; tud; tum12; tur5;

81

TG
lag; zalag; zlag; dul5; i6; mu4; mur10; taskarin; takarin; te5; tikarin;
tikarini; tu9; tubax; tg; tk; tku; umu; u4
TUK
du12; dk; r; tu12; tug; tuk; tuku; tuq
TUM
dm; du4; dum; b; eger4; egir4; ep2; gekadx; gikadx; ekadx; ikadx; b;
p; suri; tam4; tm; tu4; tum; u4; um
TUR
bn; bnda; damu; di4; du13; dumx; dumu; ibila4; maru; pe7; suux; ak7; ir6;
tu19; tul4; tur; tura; turu; r; zerx

82

a6; barx; bu12; br; bru; burudx; buzur; ge14; geburx; gibiru; giburu;
giguru; guru12; ; ; puzur; l; u4; u; u; ubux; umun; n; uur5; utax;
utux

U.AD
gir4; si; sim; simu; kir13; kirix
U.DAR
adar; mu7; u-gn; ugun; ugunu

83

U.GAN
saman4; agan; aan; akan; akkan; man
U.GUD
du7; mul4; rax; ru5; ul; ula; ullu; llu; ulu; ur6
U.SAG
sagdul; sagu; sagtux; sau; ugux; sau
UB
r; ra; ub; uba; ubda; bu; up; warx

84

UD
a12; ; wit; mit; tu; al5; amna; ara7; ayax; bb; babar; babbar; bar6;
barax; br; be12; br; da7; dg; dm; e8; gal8; a5; d; da; ; e; is;
i; d; kum4; la7; la; li; lux; par; para; per; pe12; pir; prig; pri;
r; sa16; sala; ski; ama; arag; ta5; tam; tama; t; m; u4; ud; ug4; ul6;
m; un5; ut; uta; utu; u; zalax; zalag; zalaga; zala; zalaqax
UD.KU
a6; akak; garu; uya; ke18; kei18; ka; kuia; kuax; ku; kwa; kya; u 4;
; u
UDE
a13; aru; du16; id8; iti; itid; itu; itud; u22

85

UM
d; di; d; di; samag; sumug; umugx; t; ti; u16; um; umu
UMUM
simug; umum; mun
UR

a8; ia; kalbu; ya; das; da; d; dulx; leq; li7; lig; lik; liki; liq; lu6;
nigx; ru7; surx; uzi; tan8; tas; ta; taa; ta; taz; ts; t; ts; t;
t; tz; a; ur; ura; uru13

86

URI
ari; knda; tila; tilla; ur10; uri; uru19
RI
ri; urimx; urin; ru; urun
URU
al8; ala; ale; ali; alu; er4; ere; eri; ir4; iri; lu8; r; r; ru9; igx; u19;
ulu4; uru
URUBAR
barimx; kin5; ukken; ukkin; unken; unkin; unkinx

87

URUMIN
gl; gigal; igal; lu7; ql; sk; u18; ul12; lu; uru17; zk; ulux
URUUD
ararimx; erarimx; erix; erim6; erin6; ru4; ru; urumx; ururim; uruibx;
rutamga
URUDA
da5; dab6; mebulug; menbulug; minbulug; n; urud; uruda; urudu
R
r; uru8

88

RNUN
ubar; ubur
UR4
gur15; ur4; ura4
Z

surx; ud5; uda5; s; ut5; z; za; uzud

89

g; g; gurux; ; ; i10; mex; mix; ned; nid; ninta; ninta;


nintau; net; ne; nit; nita; nita; nitau; nittax; ni; unu8; s; sa; su;
u; u; ; z

ba6; bu11; azabur; kazab; kazabu; kazabur; kazbi; kazbu; kilibu; kex; k;
kuumx; kuzbi; kuzbu; maammi; maam; mat ammi; pu11; sam; am; tebi; ;
ugax; w; wux

90

ZA
s; a; za; zgga
ZAG
bute; buti; butu; en7; puta; pute; puti; putu; sax; sak6; ak; z; zag; zak;
zaq; zik
Z
se20; si20; e; i; z; z
ZI
s; s; ; ; ze; zi; zid; zg

91

ZU
ka14; ki6; s; ; zax; zu
ZU5A
azu; bar; bur; zu

92

References
Bord, Lucien-Jean and Remo Mugnaioni. L'criture Cuniforme: Syllabaire Sumrien, Babylonien et Assyrien. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner S.A., 2002.
Labat, Ren and Florence Malbran-Labat. Manuel D'pigraphie Akkadienne: Signes, Syllabaire, Idogrammes. 6th ed. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner S.A., 1988.
Oracc Global Sign List. Retrieved May 24th, 2016, from http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/ogsl/signlist/
The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary. Retrieved May 24th, 2016, from http://psd.museum.upenn.edu/epsd/nepsd-frame.html

93