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f - p h y s i c s . c om
u

Speed of light
Planck constant
Gravitation constant
Boltzmann constant
Molar gas constant
Avogadros number
Charge of electron
Permeability of vacuum
Permitivity of vacuum
Coulomb constant
Faraday constant
Mass of electron
Mass of proton
Mass of neutron
Atomic mass unit
Atomic mass unit
Stefan-Boltzmann
constant
Rydberg constant
Bohr magneton
Bohr radius
Standard atmosphere
Wien
displacement
constant

c
h
hc
G
k
R
NA
e
0

Projectile Motion:

3 108 m/s
6.63 10 34 J s
1242 eV-nm
6.67 10 11 m3 kg 1 s
1.38 10 23 J/K
8.314 J/(mol K)
6.023 1023 mol 1
1.602 10 19 C
4 10 7 N/A2

y = ut sin 12 gt2
g
y = x tan
x2
2u2 cos2
2u sin
u2 sin 2
u2 sin2
T =
, R=
, H=
g
g
2g
x = ut cos ,

R1
B
a0
atm
b

1.097 107 m 1
9.27 10 24 J/T
0.529 10 10 m
1.01325 105 Pa
2.9 10 3 m K

1.3: Newtons Laws and Friction


Linear momentum: p~ = m~v
Newtons first law: inertial frame.
Newtons second law: F~ =

Banking angle:

v2
rg

= tan ,

Pseudo force: F~pseudo =

Notation: ~a = ax + ay | + az k
q
Magnitude: a = |~a| = a2x + a2y + a2z

~
a ~b

~
a

ax bz )
| + (ax by

m~a0 ,

v2
r
mv 2
r

Fcentrifugal =

Average and Instantaneous Vel. and Accel.:


~vav =

~r/ t,

~vinst = d~r/dt

~aav =

~v / t

~ainst = d~v /dt

Motion in a straight line with constant a:

~vB

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

l
l cos
g

1.4: Work, Power and Energy


~ = F S cos ,
Work: W = F~ S

W =

Kinetic energy: K = 12 mv 2 =

p2
2m

Potential energy: F =

v2

mg

ay bx )k

1.2: Kinematics

Relative Velocity: ~vA/B = ~vA

ac =

|~a ~b| = ab sin

s = ut + 12 at2 ,

+tan
1 tan

~b

v = u + at,

mv 2
r ,

Conical pendulum: T = 2

Dot product: ~a ~b = ax bx + ay by + az bz = ab cos

az by ) + (az bx

v2
rg

fkinetic = k N

Minimum speed to complete vertical circle:


p
p
vmin, bottom = 5gl, vmin, top = gl

1.1: Vectors

~a ~b = (ay bz

F~BA

Frictional force: fstatic, max = s N,

MECHANICS

Cross product:

F~ = m~a

d~
p
dt ,

Newtons third law: F~AB =

Centripetal force: Fc =

F
me
mp
mn
u
u

1
40

u cos

8.85 10 12 F/m
9 109 N m2 /C2
96485 C/mol
9.1 10 31 kg
1.6726 10 27 kg
1.6749 10 27 kg
1.66 10 27 kg
931.49 MeV/c2
5.67 10 8 W/(m2 K4 )

u sin

0.1: Physical Constants

u2 = 2as

~
F~ dS

@U/@x for conservative forces.

Ugravitational = mgh,

Uspring = 12 kx2

Work done by conservative forces is path independent


and depends only on initial and final points:
H
F~conservative d~r = 0.
Work-energy theorem: W =

Mechanical energy: E = U + K. Conserved if forces are


conservative in nature.
Power Pav =

W
t

Pinst = F~ ~v

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1.5: Centre of Mass and Collision


Centre of mass: xcm =

P
Pxi mi ,
mi

mr 2

xcm =

CM of few useful configurations:

R
R xdm
dm

m1

ring

m2 r
m1 +m2

2r

4. Semicircular disc: yc =

4r
3

6. Solid Hemisphere: yc =

m1 r
m1 +m2

h
3

3r
8

2r

4r
3

~vcm =
Impulse: J~ =

mi~vi
,
M

p~cm = M~vcm ,

F~ dt =

~acm

disk

shell

2
1
2
2
2 mr m(a +b )
12

mr 2

sphere

rod

hollow

solid rectangle

Ik

Theorem of Parallel Axes: Ik = Icm + md2

Radius of Gyration: k =

r
2

3r
8

F~ext
=
M

p~

y
x

I/m

~ = ~r p~,
Angular Momentum: L
~ =

Ic
d
cm

Theorem of Perp. Axes: Iz = Ix + Iy

Torque: ~ = ~r F~ ,

7. Cone: the height of CM from the base is h/4 for


the solid cone and h/3 for the hollow cone.
P
Motion of the CM: M =
mi
P

2
1
12 ml

h
3

r
2

5. Hemispherical shell: yc =

2
2
5 mr

m2

r
C

3. Semicircular ring: yc =

2
2
3 mr

1. m1 , m2 separated by r:

2. Triangle (CM Centroid) yc =

2
1
2 mr

f - p h y s i c s . c om

~
dL
dt ,

~ = I~
L
!
y

P ~
F
~
r x

= I
O

~ ~ext = 0 =) L
~ = const.
Conservation of L:
P~
P
Equilibrium condition:
F = ~0,
~ = ~0
Kinetic Energy: Krot = 12 I! 2
Dynamics:
F~ext = m~acm ,
p~cm = m~vcm
2
2
1
1
~
K = 2 mvcm + 2 Icm ! , L = Icm !
~ + ~rcm m~vcm

~cm = Icm
~,

1.7: Gravitation
Before collision After collision

Collision:

m1

m2

v1

m1

m2

v10

v2

v20

Momentum conservation: m1 v1 +m2 v2 = m1 v10 +m2 v20


2
2
Elastic Collision: 12 m1 v1 2+ 12 m2 v2 2 = 12 m1 v10 + 12 m2 v20
Coefficient of restitution:

(v10 v20 )
1,
e=
=
0,
v1 v2

If v2 = 0 and m1 m2 then v10 = v1 .


If v2 = 0 and m1
m2 then v20 = 2v1 .
Elastic collision with m1 = m2 : v10 = v2 and v20 = v1 .

F F

m2

Potential energy: U =

GM m
r

Gravitational acceleration: g =
completely elastic
completely in-elastic

m1

2
Gravitational force: F = G mr1 m
2

GM
R2

Variation of g with depth: ginside g 1


Variation of g with height: goutside g 1

2h
R
h
R

Eect of non-spherical earth shape on g:


gat pole > gat equator (* Re Rp 21 km)
Eect of earth rotation on apparent weight:
!
~

1.6: Rigid Body Dynamics


Angular velocity: !av =
Angular Accel.: av =

t,
!
t,

!=
=

d
dt ,

d!
dt ,

~v = !
~ ~r

mg0 = mg

mg

m! 2 R cos2

m! 2 R cos

~a =
~ ~r

Rotation about an axis with constant :


! = !0 + t,

= !t + 12 t2 ,

Moment of Inertia: I =

mi ri 2 ,

!2
I=

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

!0 2 = 2

Orbital velocity of satellite: vo =

r2 dm
Escape velocity: ve =

GM
R

2GM
R

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vo

Keplers laws:
a

Compressibility: K =
Poissons ratio:

1
B

F/A
l/l ,

B=

P
V

F
A

, =

1 dV
V dP

lateral strain
longitudinal strain
1
2

D/D
l/l

stress strain volume

kx (for small elongation x.)

Acceleration: a =

d2 x
dt2

Time period: T =

2
!

k
mx

=
= 2

Surface tension: S = F/l

!2 x

Surface energy: U = SA

k
m

Excess pressure in bubble:

Displacement: x = A sin(!t + )
p
Velocity: v = A! cos(!t + ) = ! A2

pair = 2S/R,

x2

Capillary rise: h =
U

Potential energy: U = 12 kx2

K
0

Total energy: E = U + K = 12 m! 2 A2

Simple pendulum: T = 2

Physical Pendulum: T = 2

1
k1

2S cos
rg

Hydrostatic pressure: p = gh

v2

v1

Viscous force: F =

dv
A dx

Stokes law: F = 6rv

I
mgl

Equation of continuity: A1 v1 = A2 v2

Bernoullis equation: p + 12 v 2 + gh = constant


p
Torricellis theorem: veux = 2gh

l
g

Torsional Pendulum T = 2

1
keq

psoap = 4S/R

Buoyant force: FB = V g = Weight of displaced liquid

Kinetic energy K = 12 mv 2

Springs in series:

Elastic energy: U =

1.8: Simple Harmonic Motion


Hookes law: F =

1.9: Properties of Matter


Modulus of rigidity: Y =

First: Elliptical orbit with sun at one of the focus.


~
Second: Areal velocity is constant. (* dL/dt
= 0).
4 2 3
Third: T 2 / a3 . In circular orbit T 2 = GM
a .

f - p h y s i c s . c om

Poiseuillis equation:

Volume flow
time

I
k

1
k2

Terminal velocity: vt =

k1

pr 4
8l

r
l

)g

k2

k2
k1

Springs in parallel: keq = k1 + k2

~
A

Superposition of two SHMs:

2r 2 (
9

~2
A

~1
A

x1 = A1 sin !t,

x2 = A2 sin(!t + )

x = x1 + x2 = A sin(!t + )
q
A = A1 2 + A2 2 + 2A1 A2 cos
tan =

A2 sin
A1 + A2 cos

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

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Waves

f - p h y s i c s . c om

4. 1st overtone/2nd harmonics: 1 =

2.1: Waves Motion

2
2L

5. 2nd overtone/3rd harmonics: 2 =

General equation of wave:

@2y
@x2

2
1 @ y
v 2 @t2 .

3
2L

6. All harmonics are present.

Notation: Amplitude A, Frequency , Wavelength , Period T , Angular Frequency !, Wave Number k,


1
2
T = =
,

v= ,

k=

y = f (t

x/v),

+x;

String fixed at one end:

1. Boundary conditions: y = 0 at x = 0

y
A

y = A sin(kx

x
2

!t) = A sin(2 (x/

t/T ))

2.2: Waves on a String

2. Allowed Freq.: L = (2n + 1) 4 , = 2n+1


4L
0, 1, 2, . . ..
q
1
T
3. Fundamental/1st harmonics: 0 = 4L

q
3
T
4. 1st overtone/3rd harmonics: 1 = 4L

q
5
T
5. 2nd overtone/5th harmonics: 2 = 4L

T
,

n =

6. Only odd harmonics are present.

Speed of waves on a string


with mass per unit length
p
and tension T : v = T /
2

2 2

Transmitted power: Pav = 2 vA


Interference:
y1 = A1 sin(kx

/2

y = f (t + x/v),

Progressive sine wave:

Progressive wave travelling with speed v:

Sonometer: /

1
L,

T, /

p1 .

n
2L

2.3: Sound Waves


!t),

y2 = A2 sin(kx

!t + )

y = y1 + y2 = A sin(kx !t + )
q
A = A1 2 + A2 2 + 2A1 A2 cos

Standing Waves:

Displacement wave: s = s0 sin !(t


Pressure wave: p = p0 cos !(t

x/v)

x/v), p0 = (B!/v)s0

Speed of sound waves:


s
s
B
Y
vliquid =
, vsolid =
,

A2 sin
tan =
A1 + A2 cos

2n,
constructive;
=
(2n + 1), destructive.
2A cos kx

S h e e t f or

Intensity: I =
A

2 2 B
2 2
v s0

p0 2 v
2B

vgas =

p0 2
2v

Standing longitudinal waves:

/4

p1 = p0 sin !(t
y1 = A1 sin(kx

!t),

y2 = A2 sin(kx + !t)

x/v),

p2 = p0 sin !(t + x/v)

p = p1 + p2 = 2p0 cos kx sin !t

y = y1 + y2 = (2A cos kx) sin !t

n + 12 2 , nodes; n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
x=
n2,
antinodes. n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

String fixed at both ends:

1. Boundary condition: y = 0 at x = 0

/2

1. Boundary conditions: y = 0 at x = 0 and at x = L


q
n
T
2. Allowed Freq.: L = n 2 , = 2L
, n = 1, 2, 3, . . ..
q
1
T
3. Fundamental/1st harmonics: 0 = 2L

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

Closed organ pipe:

v
2. Allowed freq.: L = (2n + 1) 4 , = (2n + 1) 4L
, n=
0, 1, 2, . . .

3. Fundamental/1st harmonics: 0 =

v
4L

4. 1st overtone/3rd harmonics: 1 = 30 =

3v
4L

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5v
4L

5. 2nd overtone/5th harmonics: 2 = 50 =

Path dierence:

6. Only odd harmonics are present.

f - p h y s i c s . c om

d
S2

A
N

Open organ pipe:

A
N
A

Phase dierence:

x=

v
2L

3. 1st overtone/2nd harmonics: 1 = 20 =

2v
2L

4. 2nd overtone/3rd harmonics: 2 = 30 =

3v
2L

Interference Conditions: for integer n,

2n,
constructive;
=
(2n + 1), destructive,

1. Boundary condition: y = 0 at x = 0
v
Allowed freq.: L = n 2 , = n 4L
, n = 1, 2, . . .
2. Fundamental/1st harmonics: 0 =

P
y

S1

dy
D

x=

n ,
n+

1
2

constructive;
destructive

Intensity:
p
I = I1 + I2 + 2 I1 I2 cos ,
p
p
p 2
Imax =
I1 + I2 , Imin =
I1

5. All harmonics are present.

p 2
I2

l2 + d

l1 + d

I1 = I2 : I = 4I0 cos2 2 , Imax = 4I0 , Imin = 0

Resonance column:

Fringe width: w =
Optical path:

D
d

x0 = x

Interference of waves transmitted through thin film:


l1 + d = 2 ,

l2 + d =

3
4

v = 2(l2

l1 )

Beats: two waves of almost equal frequencies !1 !2


p1 = p0 sin !1 (t

x/v),

p = p1 + p2 = 2p0 cos
! = (!1 + !2 )/2,

p2 = p0 sin !2 (t
!(t

x/v) sin !(t

! = !1

!2

x = 2d =

n ,
n+

1
2

constructive;
destructive.

x/v)
x/v)

Diraction from a single slit:

(beats freq.)

For Minima: n = b sin b(y/D)

Doppler Eect:

Resolution: sin =

v + uo
=
0
v us

1.22
b

Law of Malus: I = I0 cos2

where, v is the speed of sound in the medium, u0 is


the speed of the observer w.r.t. the medium, considered positive when it moves towards the source and
negative when it moves away from the source, and us
is the speed of the source w.r.t. the medium, considered positive when it moves towards the observer and
negative when it moves away from the observer.

I0

2.4: Light Waves


Plane Wave: E = E0 sin !(t
Spherical Wave: E =

aE0
r

x
v ),

sin !(t

I = I0
r
v ),

I=

Youngs double slit experiment

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

I0
r2

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Optics

1
f

Lens makers formula:

f - p h y s i c s . c om

= (

1)

3.1: Reflection of Light

1
R1

1
R2

i
f

Lens formula:

normal

Laws of reflection:

i r

incident

(i)

reflected

1
v

1
u

1
f,

v
u

m=

Incident ray, reflected ray, and normal lie in the same


plane (ii) \i = \r

Power of the lens: P = f1 , P in diopter if f in metre.


Two thin lenses separated by distance d:

Plane mirror:
d

1
1
1
=
+
F
f1
f2

(i) the image and the object are equidistant from mirror (ii) virtual image of real object

d
f1 f2

d
f1

f2

Spherical Mirror:

O
f
u

3.3: Optical Instruments

Simple microscope: m = D/f in normal adjustment.

1. Focal length f = R/2


2. Mirror equation:

1
v

3. Magnification: m =

Eyepiece

Objective
1
u
v
u

1
f

Compound microscope:

3.2: Refraction of Light


speed of light in vacuum
speed of light in medium

Refractive index: =
Snells Law:

sin i
sin r

real depth
apparent depth

Critical angle: c = sin

1. Magnification in normal adjustment: m =

c
v

incident
1 i

2
1

Apparent depth: =

reflected

2. Resolving power: R =

d0
d I
O

1 1

sin A+2 m
,
sin A2

= (

1)A,

i0

r0

Astronomical telescope:

i = i0 for minimum deviation

m
0

2
v

1
2 1
=
,
u
R

m=

O
u

L = fo + fe

1
1.22

A>0

= (y

1)A

2. Angular dispersion: = (v
Dispersive power: ! =

v r
y 1

Dispersion without deviation:

Refraction at spherical surface:

Cauchys equation: = 0 +

1. Mean deviation:

fo
fe ,

Dispersion by prism with small A and i:

general result

for small A

fe

3.4: Dispersion

2 sin

1. In normal adjustment: m =

A,

refracted

d
d0

Deviation by a prism:

1
d

v D
u fe

fo
r

2. Resolving power: R =

= i + i0

fe
D

(y

1)A + (0y

r )A
(if A and i small)
A

A0

1)A0 = 0

Deviation without dispersion:


(v r )A = (0v 0r )A0

1 v
2 u

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Heat and Thermodynamics

4.4: Theromodynamic Processes


First law of thermodynamics:

4.1: Heat and Temperature


Temp. scales: F = 32 + 95 C,

f - p h y s i c s . c om

n : number of moles

a
V2

van der Waals equation: p +

(V

F
A

Thermal stress of a material:

=Y

W = p V,

W =

b) = nRT
Wisothermal = nRT ln

Thermal expansion: L = L0 (1 + T ),
A = A0 (1 +
T ), V = V0 (1 +
T ),

U+

Work done by the gas:

K = C + 273.16

Ideal gas equation: pV = nRT ,

Q=

= 2 = 3

V2

pdV

V1

V2
V1

Wisobaric = p(V2 V1 )
p1 V 1 p2 V 2
Wadiabatic =
1
Wisochoric = 0

l
l

4.2: Kinetic Theory of Gases


General: M = mNA , k = R/NA

T1
Q1

Efficiency of the heat engine:

W
Q2

Maxwell distribution of speed:

T2
vp v
vrms

RMS speed: vrms =


Average speed: v =

3kT
m

8kT
m

Most probable speed: vp =


2
Pressure: p = 13 vrms

3RT
M

work done by the engine


Q1 Q2
=
heat supplied to it
Q1
Q2
T2
carnot = 1
=1
Q1
T1
=

8RT
M

Coe. of performance of refrigerator:

2kT
m

T2

COP =

Internal energy of n moles of an ideal gas is U = f2 nRT .

Entropy:

Q2
W

Q2
Q1 Q2

Q
T ,

S=

Const. T :

Sf

S=

Adiabatic process:
4.3: Specific Heat

Si =

Q
T,

Rf

Q
T

Varying T :

Q = 0, pV

Conduction:

Latent heat: L = Q/m

Q
t

Tf
Ti

= constant

T
x

KA

x
KA

Thermal resistance: R =

Specific heat at constant volume: Cv =

Q
n T

Specific heat at constant pressure: Cp =


Relation between Cp and Cv : Cp

Q
n T

Rseries = R1 + R2 =

1
A

p
1
Rparallel

Cv = R

1
R1

1
R2

1
x

x1
K1

x2
K2

K1

K2

x1

x2

(K1 A1 + K2 A2 )

A2

K1

A1

U = nCv T

Kirchho s Law:

emissive power
absorptive power

Ebody
abody

Specific heat of gas mixture:


n1 Cv1 + n2 Cv2
,
n1 + n2

K2

= Cp /Cv

Relation between U and Cv :

Cv =

S = ms ln

4.5: Heat Transfer

Q
m T

Ratio of specific heats:

W
Q2

Equipartition of energy: K = 12 kT for each degree of


freedom. Thus, K = f2 kT for molecule having f degrees of freedoms.

Specific heat: s =

T1
Q1

= Eblackbody
E

n1 Cp1 + n2 Cp2
n1 Cv1 + n2 Cv2

Molar internal energy of an ideal gas: U = f2 RT ,


f = 3 for monatomic and f = 5 for diatomic gas.

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

Wiens displacement law:

mT = b
m

Stefan-Boltzmann law:
Newtons law of cooling:

Q
t

= eAT 4

dT
dt

bA(T

T0 )

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Electricity and Magnetism

5.3: Capacitors
Capacitance: C = q/V

5.1: Electrostatics
Coulombs law: F~ =

1 q1 q2

40 r 2 r

~ r) =
Electric field: E(~

q1

1 q

40 r 2 r

Electrostatic potential: V =
~ ~r,
E

q2

Parallel plate capacitor: C = 0 A/d

+q
d

~
E

~
r

r2

1 q1 q2
40 r

Electrostatic energy: U =

dV =

f - p h y s i c s . c om

Spherical capacitor: C =

40 r1 r2
r 2 r1

q +q

r1

1 q
40 r

V (~r) =

~
r
1

~ d~r
E

Cylindrical capacitor: C =

20 l
ln(r2 /r1 )

r2

r1

p
~

Electric dipole moment: p~ = q d~

+q

Capacitors in parallel: Ceq = C1 + C2

A
C1

C2

B
1 p cos
40 r 2

Potential of a dipole: V =

V (r)

Capacitors in series:

p
~
Er

Field of a dipole:

p
~

Er =

1 2p cos
,
40
r3

E =

~ U=
Pot. energy of a dipole placed in E:

1
C2

Drift speed: vd =

Q2
2C

= 12 QV

0 KA
d

1 eE
2 m

i
neA

Resistance of a wire: R = l/A, where = 1/


P

~
E

Temp. dependence of resistance: R = R0 (1 + T )


Ohms law: V = iR

Kirchho s Laws: (i) The Junction Law: The algebraic


sum of all the currents directed towards a node is zero
i.e., node Ii = 0. (ii)The Loop Law: The algebraic
sum of all the potential dierences along a closed loop
in a circuit is zero i.e., loop Vi = 0.
Resistors in parallel:

E and V of a uniformly charged spherical shell:

0,
for r < R
E
E=
1 Q
,
for r R
2
40 r
O
R
(
1 Q
40 R , for r < R
V
V =
1 Q
,
for
r
R
40 r
O

Current density: j = i/A = E

E and V (of a uniformly charged sphere:


1 Qr
40 R3 , for r < R
E
E=
1 Q
for r R
40 r 2 ,
O
(
2
1 Qr
V
40 R3 , for r < R
V =
1 Q
for r R
O
40 r ,

C2

5.4: Current electricity

Field of a uniformly charged ring on its axis:

1
Req

1
R1

1
R2

Resistors in series: Req = R1 + R2

A
R1

R1

R2

R1

Wheatstone bridge:

R2

20 r

Field of an infinite sheet: E =

C1
A

Force between plates of a parallel plate capacitor:


Q2
F = 2A
0

Capacitor with dielectric: C =

~
p~ E

5.2: Gausss Law and its Applications


H
~ dS
~
Electric flux: = E
H
~ dS
~ = qin /0
Gausss law: E

Field of a line charge: E =

1
C1

Energy density in electric field E: U/V = 12 0 E 2

~ ~ = p~ E
~
Torque on a dipole placed in E:

EP =

Energy stored in capacitor: U = 12 CV 2 =

1 p sin
40 r 3

qx
1
40 (a2 +x2 )3/2

1
Ceq

B
R2

" G
R3

R4
V

Balanced if R1 /R2 = R3 /R4 .


20

Field in the vicinity of conducting surface: E =

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

Electric Power: P = V 2 /R = I 2 R = IV
0

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ig G

Galvanometer as an Ammeter:

ig
S

ig G = (i

ig )S
R

A ig

y
x

5.6: Magnetic Field due to Current


C

w
d

Charging of capacitors:
q(t) = CV 1

~
B

Bi
ned
i

"

VAB = ig (R + G)

~
Energy of a magnetic dipole placed in B:
~
U=
~ B
Hall eect: Vw =

Galvanometer as a Voltmeter:

f - p h y s i c s . c om

t
RC

~ =
Biot-Savart law: dB

d~l

~
B

0 i d~l~
r
4 r 3

~
r

2
C

Discharging of capacitors: q(t) = q0 e

t
RC

Field due to a straight conductor:

q(t)

~
B

B=

Time constant in RC circuit: = RC

0 i
4d (cos 1

cos 2 )

Field due to an infinite straight wire: B =


H
Q

Peltier eect: emf e =

Peltier heat
charge transferred .

Force between parallel wires:

dF
dl

i1

0 i1 i2
2d

i2
d

Seeback eect:

T0

Tn

Ti

Field on the axis of a ring:

1. Thermo-emf: e = aT + 12 bT 2

3. Neutral temp.: Tn =
4. Inversion temp.: Ti =
Thomson eect: emf e =

H
Q

BP =

a/b.

T.

Field at the centre of an arc: B =

0 i
4a

~
B

Faradays law of electrolysis: The mass deposited is


1
F

0 ia2
2(a2 +d2 )3/2

2a/b.
Thomson heat
charge transferred

~
B

2. Thermoelectric power: de/dt = a + bT .

m = Zit =

0 i
2d

Field at the centre of a ring: B =

Eit
Amperes law:

where i is current, t is time, Z is electrochemical equivalent, E is chemical equivalent, and F = 96485 C/g is
Faraday constant.

~ d~l = 0 Iin
B

Field inside a solenoid: B = 0 ni, n =

Field inside a toroid: B =

5.5: Magnetism

0 i
2a

N
l

0 N i
2r

~ + qE
~
Lorentz force on a moving charge: F~ = q~v B
~2
B

Charged particle in a uniform magnetic field:


v
q

r=

mv
qB ,

T =

Field of a bar magnet:

~1
B

~ r
B

B1 =
~
B

Force on a current carrying wire:

0 2M
4 d3 ,

B2 =

0 M
4 d3

Angle of dip: Bh = B cos

~l
~
F

Bv

Tangent galvanometer: Bh tan =

Magnetic moment of a current loop (dipole):


~

~ A
~

~ = iA
i

0 ni
2r ,

~ = H
~
Permeability: B

i = K tan

Moving coil galvanometer: niAB = k,


Time period of magnetometer: T = 2

~ ~ =
~
Torque on a magnetic dipole placed in B:
~ B

Bh

Horizontal

~
F~ = i ~l B

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

d
N

2m
qB

i=
q

k
nAB

I
M Bh

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5.7: Electromagnetic Induction


H
~ dS
~
Magnetic flux: = B

RC circuit:
Z=

d
dt

Faradays law: e =

Lenzs Law: Induced current create a B-field that opposes the change in magnetic flux.

Z=

Motional emf: e = Blv

~
v

(1/!C)2 ,

tan

Self inductance of a solenoid: L = 0 n2 (r2 l)


h
Growth of current in LR circuit: i = Re 1 e
L

t
L/R

=
L

Z=

R
!L

e0 sin !t

R 2 + ! 2 L2 ,

tan
L

e=

1
!CR

LCR Circuit:
= Li,

1
!C

e0 sin !t

R2

~
B

di
L dt

LR circuit:

Self inductance:

f - p h y s i c s . c om

!L
R

e0 sin !t

R2 +

resonance =

1
!C

!L

1
!C
q

1
2

!L ,

tan

1
!C

1
!C

!L

!L
R

1
LC

Power factor: P = erms irms cos

e
0.63 R

e
i

L
R

Transformer:

Decay of current in LR circuit: i = i0 e


L

t
L/R

e1
e2 ,

e 1 i1 = e2 i2

e1

N1
i1

N2
i2

e2

p
Speed of the EM waves in vacuum: c = 1/ 0 0

N1
N2

i0
0.37i0

L
R

Time constant of LR circuit: = L/R


Energy stored in an inductor: U = 12 Li2
U
V

Energy density of B field: u =


Mutual inductance:

= M i,

e=

B2
20
di
M dt

EMF induced in a rotating coil: e = N AB! sin !t


i

Alternating current:

t
T

i = i0 sin(!t + ),

T = 2/!
RT
Average current in AC: i = T1 0 i dt = 0
RMS current: irms =

h R
1 T
T

i2 dt

i1/2

i0
p
2

i2
t
T

Energy: E = irms 2 RT
Capacitive reactance: Xc =

1
!C

Inductive reactance: XL = !L
Imepedance: Z = e0 /i0
Visit www.concepts-of-physics.com
to buy IIT JEE Physics (1978-2015:
38 Year) Topic-wise Complete Solutions. Foreword by Prof HC Verma.

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

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f - p h y s i c s . c om

Modern Physics

N
N0

Population at time t: N = N0 e

6.1: Photo-electric eect

N0
2

t1/2

Photons energy: E = h = hc/


Photons momentum: p = h/ = E/c

Half life: t1/2 = 0.693/

Max. KE of ejected photo-electron: Kmax = h

Average life: tav = 1/

Threshold freq. in photo-electric eect: 0 = /h

Population after n half lives: N = N0 /2n .


Mass defect:

V0

Stopping potential: Vo =

hc
e

hc
e

1
e

hc
e

de Broglie wavelength:

m = [Zmp + (A

Binding energy: B = [Zmp + (A


Q-value: Q = Ui

= h/p

Z)mn ]

M
M ] c2

Z)mn

Uf

Energy released in nuclear reaction:


where m = mreactants mproducts .

mc2

6.2: The Atom


6.4: Vacuum tubes and Semiconductors

Energy in nth Bohrs orbit:


mZ 2 e4
,
80 2 h2 n2

En =

En =

13.6Z 2
eV
n2

Half Wave Rectifier:

a0 = 0.529
A

Full Wave Rectifier:

Radius of the nth Bohrs orbit:


rn =

0 h2 n 2
,
mZe2

rn =

n2 a 0
,
Z

Quantization of the angular momentum: l =


Photon energy in state transition: E2
E2

Output

nh
2

E1 = h

Grid

Triode Valve:

Cathode
Filament

Plate

E2
h

E1

R Output

h
E1
Absorption

Emission

Wavelength of emitted radiation: for


from nth to mth state:

1
1
1
2
= RZ
n2
m2

transition

min

Vp
Vg

Vg =0
ip
Vg

Vp =0

ip =0

Relation between rp , , and gm : = rp gm


K

hc
eV

K
Ie

Ic

Current in a transistor: Ie = Ib + Ic
min

Moseleys law:

Transconductance of a triode: gm =
Amplification by a triode: =

X-ray spectrum:

Vp
ip

Plate resistance of a triode: rp =

Ib

= a(Z

b)

and

X-ray diraction: 2d sin = n

Ic
Ib ,

Heisenberg uncertainity principle:


p x h/(2),
E t h/(2)

parameters of a transistor: =
= 1

Transconductance: gm =

Ic
Ie ,

Ic
Vbe

Logic Gates:
6.3: The Nucleus
Nuclear radius: R = R0 A1/3 ,
Decay rate:

dN
dt

R0 1.1 10

15

A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

AND
AB
0
0
0
1

OR
A+B
0
1
1
1

NAND
AB
1
1
1
0

NOR
A+B
1
0
0
0

XOR
+ AB

AB
0
1
1
0

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

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IIT JEE Physics Book


7.1: Book Description
Two IIT batch-mates have worked together to provide a
high quality Physics problem book to Indian students. It
is an indispensable collection of previous 38 years IIT questions and their illustrated solutions for any serious aspirant.
The success of this work lies in making the readers capable
to solve complex problems using few basic principles. The
readers are also asked to attempt variations of the solved
problems to help them understand the concepts better. Key
features of the book are:
1300+ solved problems in 2 volumes
Concept building by problem solving
IIT preparation with school education
Topic and year-wise content arrangement
Promotes self learning
Quality typesetting and figures
The readers can use the book as a readily available mentor
for providing hints or complete solutions as per their needs.
7.2: About Contents
The volume 1 of the book covers three parts: Mechanics,
Waves, and Optics. The list of chapters in this volume are:
1. Units and Measurements
2. Rest and Motion: Kinematics
3. Newtons Laws of Motion
4. Friction
5. Circular Motion
6. Work and Energy
7. Centre of Mass, Linear Momentum, Collision
8. Rotational Mechanics
9. Gravitation
10. Simple Harmonic Motion
11. Fluid Mechanics
12. Some Mechanical Properties of Matter
13. Wave Motion and Waves on a String
14. Sound Waves
15. Light Waves
16. Geometrical Optics
17. Optical Instruments
18. Dispersion and Spectra
19. Photometry
The volume 2 of the book covers three parts: Thermodynamics, Electromagnetism, and Modern Physics. The list
of chapters in this volume are:
20. Heat and Temperature
21. Kinetic Theory of Gases
22. Calorimetry
23. Laws of Thermodynamics
24. Specific Heat Capacities of Gases
25. Heat Transfer
26. Electric Field and Potential
27. Gausss Law
28. Capacitors
29. Electric Current in Conductors
30. Thermal and Chemical Eects of Electric Current
31. Magnetic Field
32. Magnetic Field due to a Current
33. Permanent Magnets

c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.

f - p h y s i c s . c om

Electromagnetic Induction
Alternating Current
Electromagnetic Waves
Electric Current through Gases
Photoelectric Eect and Wave-Particle Duality
Bohrs Model and Physics of the Atom
X-rays
Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices
The Nucleus

7.3: About Authors


Jitender Singh is working as a Scientist in DRDO. He
has a strong academic background with Integrated M. Sc.
(5 years) in Physics from IIT Kanpur and M. Tech. in
Computational Science from IISc Bangalore. He is All India
Rank 1 in GATE and loves to solve physics problems. He
is a member of Prof. H.C. Vermas team which is dedicated
to improve the quality of physics education in the country.
Shraddhesh Chaturvedi holds a degree in Integrated
M. Sc. (5 years) in Physics from IIT Kanpur. He is passionate about problem solving in physics and enhancing
the quality of texts available to Indian students. His career spans many industries where he has contributed with
his knowledge of physics and mathematics. An avid reader
and a keen thinker, his philosophical writings are a joy to
read.
7.4: Where to Buy
Please visit www.concepts-of-physics.com to find links
to the books page on Amazon. This website also give additional information about the book.

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