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# F or m u l a e

P h y si cs

S h e e t f or

www . c o n c e p t s - o

f - p h y s i c s . c om
u

Speed of light
Planck constant
Gravitation constant
Boltzmann constant
Molar gas constant
Charge of electron
Permeability of vacuum
Permitivity of vacuum
Coulomb constant
Mass of electron
Mass of proton
Mass of neutron
Atomic mass unit
Atomic mass unit
Stefan-Boltzmann
constant
Rydberg constant
Bohr magneton
Standard atmosphere
Wien
displacement
constant

c
h
hc
G
k
R
NA
e
0

Projectile Motion:

3 108 m/s
6.63 10 34 J s
1242 eV-nm
6.67 10 11 m3 kg 1 s
1.38 10 23 J/K
8.314 J/(mol K)
6.023 1023 mol 1
1.602 10 19 C
4 10 7 N/A2

y = ut sin 12 gt2
g
y = x tan
x2
2u2 cos2
2u sin
u2 sin 2
u2 sin2
T =
, R=
, H=
g
g
2g
x = ut cos ,

R1
B
a0
atm
b

1.097 107 m 1
9.27 10 24 J/T
0.529 10 10 m
1.01325 105 Pa
2.9 10 3 m K

## 1.3: Newtons Laws and Friction

Linear momentum: p~ = m~v
Newtons first law: inertial frame.
Newtons second law: F~ =

Banking angle:

v2
rg

= tan ,

## Pseudo force: F~pseudo =

Notation: ~a = ax + ay | + az k
q
Magnitude: a = |~a| = a2x + a2y + a2z

~
a ~b

~
a

ax bz )
| + (ax by

m~a0 ,

v2
r
mv 2
r

Fcentrifugal =

~vav =

~r/ t,

~vinst = d~r/dt

~aav =

~v / t

~vB

l
l cos
g

## 1.4: Work, Power and Energy

~ = F S cos ,
Work: W = F~ S

W =

Kinetic energy: K = 12 mv 2 =

p2
2m

Potential energy: F =

v2

mg

ay bx )k

1.2: Kinematics

ac =

## |~a ~b| = ab sin

s = ut + 12 at2 ,

+tan
1 tan

~b

v = u + at,

mv 2
r ,

Conical pendulum: T = 2

az by ) + (az bx

v2
rg

fkinetic = k N

## Minimum speed to complete vertical circle:

p
p
vmin, bottom = 5gl, vmin, top = gl

1.1: Vectors

~a ~b = (ay bz

F~BA

MECHANICS

Cross product:

F~ = m~a

d~
p
dt ,

## Newtons third law: F~AB =

Centripetal force: Fc =

F
me
mp
mn
u
u

1
40

u cos

8.85 10 12 F/m
9 109 N m2 /C2
96485 C/mol
9.1 10 31 kg
1.6726 10 27 kg
1.6749 10 27 kg
1.66 10 27 kg
931.49 MeV/c2
5.67 10 8 W/(m2 K4 )

u sin

u2 = 2as

~
F~ dS

## @U/@x for conservative forces.

Ugravitational = mgh,

Uspring = 12 kx2

## Work done by conservative forces is path independent

and depends only on initial and final points:
H
F~conservative d~r = 0.
Work-energy theorem: W =

## Mechanical energy: E = U + K. Conserved if forces are

conservative in nature.
Power Pav =

W
t

Pinst = F~ ~v

F or m u l a e

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P h y si cs

www . c o n c e p t s - o

## 1.5: Centre of Mass and Collision

Centre of mass: xcm =

P
Pxi mi ,
mi

mr 2

xcm =

## CM of few useful configurations:

R
R xdm
dm

m1

ring

m2 r
m1 +m2

2r

4. Semicircular disc: yc =

4r
3

6. Solid Hemisphere: yc =

m1 r
m1 +m2

h
3

3r
8

2r

4r
3

~vcm =
Impulse: J~ =

mi~vi
,
M

p~cm = M~vcm ,

F~ dt =

~acm

disk

shell

2
1
2
2
2 mr m(a +b )
12

mr 2

sphere

rod

hollow

solid rectangle

Ik

## Theorem of Parallel Axes: Ik = Icm + md2

r
2

3r
8

F~ext
=
M

p~

y
x

I/m

~ = ~r p~,
Angular Momentum: L
~ =

Ic
d
cm

## Theorem of Perp. Axes: Iz = Ix + Iy

Torque: ~ = ~r F~ ,

## 7. Cone: the height of CM from the base is h/4 for

the solid cone and h/3 for the hollow cone.
P
Motion of the CM: M =
mi
P

2
1
12 ml

h
3

r
2

5. Hemispherical shell: yc =

2
2
5 mr

m2

r
C

3. Semicircular ring: yc =

2
2
3 mr

1. m1 , m2 separated by r:

## 2. Triangle (CM Centroid) yc =

2
1
2 mr

f - p h y s i c s . c om

~
dL
dt ,

~ = I~
L
!
y

P ~
F
~
r x

= I
O

~ ~ext = 0 =) L
~ = const.
Conservation of L:
P~
P
Equilibrium condition:
F = ~0,
~ = ~0
Kinetic Energy: Krot = 12 I! 2
Dynamics:
F~ext = m~acm ,
p~cm = m~vcm
2
2
1
1
~
K = 2 mvcm + 2 Icm ! , L = Icm !
~ + ~rcm m~vcm

~cm = Icm
~,

1.7: Gravitation
Before collision After collision

Collision:

m1

m2

v1

m1

m2

v10

v2

v20

## Momentum conservation: m1 v1 +m2 v2 = m1 v10 +m2 v20

2
2
Elastic Collision: 12 m1 v1 2+ 12 m2 v2 2 = 12 m1 v10 + 12 m2 v20
Coefficient of restitution:

(v10 v20 )
1,
e=
=
0,
v1 v2

## If v2 = 0 and m1 m2 then v10 = v1 .

If v2 = 0 and m1
m2 then v20 = 2v1 .
Elastic collision with m1 = m2 : v10 = v2 and v20 = v1 .

F F

m2

Potential energy: U =

GM m
r

Gravitational acceleration: g =
completely elastic
completely in-elastic

m1

2
Gravitational force: F = G mr1 m
2

GM
R2

## Variation of g with depth: ginside g 1

Variation of g with height: goutside g 1

2h
R
h
R

## Eect of non-spherical earth shape on g:

gat pole > gat equator (* Re Rp 21 km)
Eect of earth rotation on apparent weight:
!
~

## 1.6: Rigid Body Dynamics

Angular velocity: !av =
Angular Accel.: av =

t,
!
t,

!=
=

d
dt ,

d!
dt ,

~v = !
~ ~r

mg0 = mg

mg

m! 2 R cos2

m! 2 R cos

~a =
~ ~r

## Rotation about an axis with constant :

! = !0 + t,

= !t + 12 t2 ,

Moment of Inertia: I =

mi ri 2 ,

!2
I=

!0 2 = 2

## Orbital velocity of satellite: vo =

r2 dm
Escape velocity: ve =

GM
R

2GM
R

F or m u l a e

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P h y si cs

www . c o n c e p t s - o
vo

Keplers laws:
a

Compressibility: K =
Poissons ratio:

1
B

F/A
l/l ,

B=

P
V

F
A

, =

1 dV
V dP

lateral strain
longitudinal strain
1
2

D/D
l/l

## kx (for small elongation x.)

Acceleration: a =

d2 x
dt2

Time period: T =

2
!

k
mx

=
= 2

## Surface tension: S = F/l

!2 x

Surface energy: U = SA

k
m

## Excess pressure in bubble:

Displacement: x = A sin(!t + )
p
Velocity: v = A! cos(!t + ) = ! A2

pair = 2S/R,

x2

Capillary rise: h =
U

## Potential energy: U = 12 kx2

K
0

Total energy: E = U + K = 12 m! 2 A2

Simple pendulum: T = 2

Physical Pendulum: T = 2

1
k1

2S cos
rg

Hydrostatic pressure: p = gh

v2

v1

Viscous force: F =

dv
A dx

## Stokes law: F = 6rv

I
mgl

Equation of continuity: A1 v1 = A2 v2

## Bernoullis equation: p + 12 v 2 + gh = constant

p
Torricellis theorem: veux = 2gh

l
g

Torsional Pendulum T = 2

1
keq

psoap = 4S/R

## Buoyant force: FB = V g = Weight of displaced liquid

Kinetic energy K = 12 mv 2

Springs in series:

Elastic energy: U =

Hookes law: F =

## 1.9: Properties of Matter

Modulus of rigidity: Y =

## First: Elliptical orbit with sun at one of the focus.

~
Second: Areal velocity is constant. (* dL/dt
= 0).
4 2 3
Third: T 2 / a3 . In circular orbit T 2 = GM
a .

f - p h y s i c s . c om

Poiseuillis equation:

Volume flow
time

I
k

1
k2

Terminal velocity: vt =

k1

pr 4
8l

r
l

)g

k2

k2
k1

~
A

## Superposition of two SHMs:

2r 2 (
9

~2
A

~1
A

x1 = A1 sin !t,

x2 = A2 sin(!t + )

x = x1 + x2 = A sin(!t + )
q
A = A1 2 + A2 2 + 2A1 A2 cos
tan =

A2 sin
A1 + A2 cos

## c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

Visit www.concepts-of-physics.com
to buy IIT JEE Physics (1978-2015:
38 Year) Topic-wise Complete Solutions. Foreword by Prof HC Verma.

F or m u l a e

P h y si cs

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Waves

f - p h y s i c s . c om

2
2L

@2y
@x2

2
1 @ y
v 2 @t2 .

3
2L

1
2
T = =
,

v= ,

k=

y = f (t

x/v),

+x;

## String fixed at one end:

1. Boundary conditions: y = 0 at x = 0

y
A

y = A sin(kx

x
2

t/T ))

## 2. Allowed Freq.: L = (2n + 1) 4 , = 2n+1

4L
0, 1, 2, . . ..
q
1
T
3. Fundamental/1st harmonics: 0 = 4L

q
3
T
4. 1st overtone/3rd harmonics: 1 = 4L

q
5
T
5. 2nd overtone/5th harmonics: 2 = 4L

T
,

n =

## Speed of waves on a string

with mass per unit length
p
and tension T : v = T /
2

2 2

Interference:
y1 = A1 sin(kx

/2

y = f (t + x/v),

Sonometer: /

1
L,

T, /

p1 .

n
2L

## 2.3: Sound Waves

!t),

y2 = A2 sin(kx

!t + )

y = y1 + y2 = A sin(kx !t + )
q
A = A1 2 + A2 2 + 2A1 A2 cos

Standing Waves:

## Displacement wave: s = s0 sin !(t

Pressure wave: p = p0 cos !(t

x/v)

x/v), p0 = (B!/v)s0

## Speed of sound waves:

s
s
B
Y
vliquid =
, vsolid =
,

A2 sin
tan =
A1 + A2 cos

2n,
constructive;
=
(2n + 1), destructive.
2A cos kx

S h e e t f or

Intensity: I =
A

2 2 B
2 2
v s0

p0 2 v
2B

vgas =

p0 2
2v

## Standing longitudinal waves:

/4

p1 = p0 sin !(t
y1 = A1 sin(kx

!t),

y2 = A2 sin(kx + !t)

x/v),

## y = y1 + y2 = (2A cos kx) sin !t

n + 12 2 , nodes; n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
x=
n2,
antinodes. n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

## String fixed at both ends:

1. Boundary condition: y = 0 at x = 0

/2

## 1. Boundary conditions: y = 0 at x = 0 and at x = L

q
n
T
2. Allowed Freq.: L = n 2 , = 2L
, n = 1, 2, 3, . . ..
q
1
T
3. Fundamental/1st harmonics: 0 = 2L

## Closed organ pipe:

v
2. Allowed freq.: L = (2n + 1) 4 , = (2n + 1) 4L
, n=
0, 1, 2, . . .

3. Fundamental/1st harmonics: 0 =

v
4L

## 4. 1st overtone/3rd harmonics: 1 = 30 =

3v
4L

F or m u l a e

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P h y si cs

www . c o n c e p t s - o
5v
4L

Path dierence:

## 6. Only odd harmonics are present.

f - p h y s i c s . c om

d
S2

A
N

A
N
A

Phase dierence:

x=

v
2L

2v
2L

3v
2L

## Interference Conditions: for integer n,

2n,
constructive;
=
(2n + 1), destructive,

1. Boundary condition: y = 0 at x = 0
v
Allowed freq.: L = n 2 , = n 4L
, n = 1, 2, . . .
2. Fundamental/1st harmonics: 0 =

P
y

S1

dy
D

x=

n ,
n+

1
2

constructive;
destructive

Intensity:
p
I = I1 + I2 + 2 I1 I2 cos ,
p
p
p 2
Imax =
I1 + I2 , Imin =
I1

p 2
I2

l2 + d

l1 + d

## I1 = I2 : I = 4I0 cos2 2 , Imax = 4I0 , Imin = 0

Resonance column:

Fringe width: w =
Optical path:

D
d

x0 = x

l1 + d = 2 ,

l2 + d =

3
4

v = 2(l2

l1 )

## Beats: two waves of almost equal frequencies !1 !2

p1 = p0 sin !1 (t

x/v),

p = p1 + p2 = 2p0 cos
! = (!1 + !2 )/2,

p2 = p0 sin !2 (t
!(t

! = !1

!2

x = 2d =

n ,
n+

1
2

constructive;
destructive.

x/v)
x/v)

(beats freq.)

## For Minima: n = b sin b(y/D)

Doppler Eect:

Resolution: sin =

v + uo
=
0
v us

1.22
b

## where, v is the speed of sound in the medium, u0 is

the speed of the observer w.r.t. the medium, considered positive when it moves towards the source and
negative when it moves away from the source, and us
is the speed of the source w.r.t. the medium, considered positive when it moves towards the observer and
negative when it moves away from the observer.

I0

## 2.4: Light Waves

Plane Wave: E = E0 sin !(t
Spherical Wave: E =

aE0
r

x
v ),

sin !(t

I = I0
r
v ),

I=

## c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

I0
r2

Visit www.concepts-of-physics.com
to buy IIT JEE Physics (1978-2015:
38 Year) Topic-wise Complete Solutions. Foreword by Prof HC Verma.

F or m u l a e

S h e e t f or

P h y si cs

www . c o n c e p t s - o

Optics

1
f

## Lens makers formula:

f - p h y s i c s . c om

= (

1)

## 3.1: Reflection of Light

1
R1

1
R2

i
f

Lens formula:

normal

Laws of reflection:

i r

incident

(i)

reflected

1
v

1
u

1
f,

v
u

m=

## Incident ray, reflected ray, and normal lie in the same

plane (ii) \i = \r

## Power of the lens: P = f1 , P in diopter if f in metre.

Two thin lenses separated by distance d:

Plane mirror:
d

1
1
1
=
+
F
f1
f2

(i) the image and the object are equidistant from mirror (ii) virtual image of real object

d
f1 f2

d
f1

f2

Spherical Mirror:

O
f
u

## 1. Focal length f = R/2

2. Mirror equation:

1
v

3. Magnification: m =

Eyepiece

Objective
1
u
v
u

1
f

Compound microscope:

## 3.2: Refraction of Light

speed of light in vacuum
speed of light in medium

Refractive index: =
Snells Law:

sin i
sin r

real depth
apparent depth

## 1. Magnification in normal adjustment: m =

c
v

incident
1 i

2
1

Apparent depth: =

reflected

2. Resolving power: R =

d0
d I
O

1 1

sin A+2 m
,
sin A2

= (

1)A,

i0

r0

Astronomical telescope:

## i = i0 for minimum deviation

m
0

2
v

1
2 1
=
,
u
R

m=

O
u

L = fo + fe

1
1.22

A>0

= (y

1)A

2. Angular dispersion: = (v
Dispersive power: ! =

v r
y 1

## Refraction at spherical surface:

Cauchys equation: = 0 +

1. Mean deviation:

fo
fe ,

## Dispersion by prism with small A and i:

general result

for small A

fe

3.4: Dispersion

2 sin

1. In normal adjustment: m =

A,

refracted

d
d0

Deviation by a prism:

1
d

v D
u fe

fo
r

2. Resolving power: R =

= i + i0

fe
D

(y

1)A + (0y

r )A
(if A and i small)
A

A0

1)A0 = 0

## Deviation without dispersion:

(v r )A = (0v 0r )A0

1 v
2 u

## c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

F or m u l a e

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P h y si cs

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## 4.4: Theromodynamic Processes

First law of thermodynamics:

## 4.1: Heat and Temperature

Temp. scales: F = 32 + 95 C,

f - p h y s i c s . c om

n : number of moles

a
V2

(V

F
A

## Thermal stress of a material:

=Y

W = p V,

W =

b) = nRT
Wisothermal = nRT ln

Thermal expansion: L = L0 (1 + T ),
A = A0 (1 +
T ), V = V0 (1 +
T ),

U+

K = C + 273.16

## Ideal gas equation: pV = nRT ,

Q=

= 2 = 3

V2

pdV

V1

V2
V1

Wisobaric = p(V2 V1 )
p1 V 1 p2 V 2
1
Wisochoric = 0

l
l

## 4.2: Kinetic Theory of Gases

General: M = mNA , k = R/NA

T1
Q1

W
Q2

T2
vp v
vrms

## RMS speed: vrms =

Average speed: v =

3kT
m

8kT
m

## Most probable speed: vp =

2
Pressure: p = 13 vrms

3RT
M

## work done by the engine

Q1 Q2
=
heat supplied to it
Q1
Q2
T2
carnot = 1
=1
Q1
T1
=

8RT
M

2kT
m

T2

COP =

## Internal energy of n moles of an ideal gas is U = f2 nRT .

Entropy:

Q2
W

Q2
Q1 Q2

Q
T ,

S=

Const. T :

Sf

S=

4.3: Specific Heat

Si =

Q
T,

Rf

Q
T

Varying T :

Q = 0, pV

Conduction:

## Latent heat: L = Q/m

Q
t

Tf
Ti

= constant

T
x

KA

x
KA

Thermal resistance: R =

Q
n T

## Specific heat at constant pressure: Cp =

Relation between Cp and Cv : Cp

Q
n T

Rseries = R1 + R2 =

1
A

p
1
Rparallel

Cv = R

1
R1

1
R2

1
x

x1
K1

x2
K2

K1

K2

x1

x2

(K1 A1 + K2 A2 )

A2

K1

A1

U = nCv T

Kirchho s Law:

emissive power
absorptive power

Ebody
abody

n1 Cv1 + n2 Cv2
,
n1 + n2

K2

= Cp /Cv

Cv =

S = ms ln

Q
m T

W
Q2

## Equipartition of energy: K = 12 kT for each degree of

freedom. Thus, K = f2 kT for molecule having f degrees of freedoms.

Specific heat: s =

T1
Q1

= Eblackbody
E

n1 Cp1 + n2 Cp2
n1 Cv1 + n2 Cv2

## Molar internal energy of an ideal gas: U = f2 RT ,

f = 3 for monatomic and f = 5 for diatomic gas.

## Wiens displacement law:

mT = b
m

Stefan-Boltzmann law:
Newtons law of cooling:

Q
t

= eAT 4

dT
dt

bA(T

T0 )

F or m u l a e

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## Electricity and Magnetism

5.3: Capacitors
Capacitance: C = q/V

5.1: Electrostatics
Coulombs law: F~ =

1 q1 q2

40 r 2 r

~ r) =
Electric field: E(~

q1

1 q

40 r 2 r

Electrostatic potential: V =
~ ~r,
E

q2

## Parallel plate capacitor: C = 0 A/d

+q
d

~
E

~
r

r2

1 q1 q2
40 r

Electrostatic energy: U =

dV =

f - p h y s i c s . c om

Spherical capacitor: C =

40 r1 r2
r 2 r1

q +q

r1

1 q
40 r

V (~r) =

~
r
1

~ d~r
E

Cylindrical capacitor: C =

20 l
ln(r2 /r1 )

r2

r1

p
~

+q

## Capacitors in parallel: Ceq = C1 + C2

A
C1

C2

B
1 p cos
40 r 2

Potential of a dipole: V =

V (r)

Capacitors in series:

p
~
Er

Field of a dipole:

p
~

Er =

1 2p cos
,
40
r3

E =

~ U=
Pot. energy of a dipole placed in E:

1
C2

Drift speed: vd =

Q2
2C

= 12 QV

0 KA
d

1 eE
2 m

i
neA

P

~
E

Ohms law: V = iR

## Kirchho s Laws: (i) The Junction Law: The algebraic

sum of all the currents directed towards a node is zero
i.e., node Ii = 0. (ii)The Loop Law: The algebraic
sum of all the potential dierences along a closed loop
in a circuit is zero i.e., loop Vi = 0.
Resistors in parallel:

0,
for r < R
E
E=
1 Q
,
for r R
2
40 r
O
R
(
1 Q
40 R , for r < R
V
V =
1 Q
,
for
r
R
40 r
O

## E and V (of a uniformly charged sphere:

1 Qr
40 R3 , for r < R
E
E=
1 Q
for r R
40 r 2 ,
O
(
2
1 Qr
V
40 R3 , for r < R
V =
1 Q
for r R
O
40 r ,

C2

1
Req

1
R1

1
R2

## Resistors in series: Req = R1 + R2

A
R1

R1

R2

R1

Wheatstone bridge:

R2

20 r

C1
A

Q2
F = 2A
0

~
p~ E

## 5.2: Gausss Law and its Applications

H
~ dS
~
Electric flux: = E
H
~ dS
~ = qin /0
Gausss law: E

1
C1

## Energy density in electric field E: U/V = 12 0 E 2

~ ~ = p~ E
~
Torque on a dipole placed in E:

EP =

1 p sin
40 r 3

qx
1
40 (a2 +x2 )3/2

1
Ceq

B
R2

" G
R3

R4
V

20

## c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

Electric Power: P = V 2 /R = I 2 R = IV
0

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ig G

Galvanometer as an Ammeter:

ig
S

ig G = (i

ig )S
R

A ig

y
x

## 5.6: Magnetic Field due to Current

C

w
d

Charging of capacitors:
q(t) = CV 1

~
B

Bi
ned
i

"

VAB = ig (R + G)

~
Energy of a magnetic dipole placed in B:
~
U=
~ B
Hall eect: Vw =

Galvanometer as a Voltmeter:

f - p h y s i c s . c om

t
RC

~ =
Biot-Savart law: dB

d~l

~
B

0 i d~l~
r
4 r 3

~
r

2
C

t
RC

q(t)

~
B

B=

0 i
4d (cos 1

cos 2 )

H
Q

## Peltier eect: emf e =

Peltier heat
charge transferred .

dF
dl

i1

0 i1 i2
2d

i2
d

Seeback eect:

T0

Tn

Ti

## Field on the axis of a ring:

1. Thermo-emf: e = aT + 12 bT 2

3. Neutral temp.: Tn =
4. Inversion temp.: Ti =
Thomson eect: emf e =

H
Q

BP =

a/b.

T.

0 i
4a

~
B

## Faradays law of electrolysis: The mass deposited is

1
F

0 ia2
2(a2 +d2 )3/2

2a/b.
Thomson heat
charge transferred

~
B

m = Zit =

0 i
2d

## Field at the centre of a ring: B =

Eit
Amperes law:

where i is current, t is time, Z is electrochemical equivalent, E is chemical equivalent, and F = 96485 C/g is

~ d~l = 0 Iin
B

## Field inside a toroid: B =

5.5: Magnetism

0 i
2a

N
l

0 N i
2r

~ + qE
~
Lorentz force on a moving charge: F~ = q~v B
~2
B

v
q

r=

mv
qB ,

T =

~1
B

~ r
B

B1 =
~
B

0 2M
4 d3 ,

B2 =

0 M
4 d3

~l
~
F

Bv

~

~ A
~

~ = iA
i

0 ni
2r ,

~ = H
~
Permeability: B

i = K tan

## Moving coil galvanometer: niAB = k,

Time period of magnetometer: T = 2

~ ~ =
~
Torque on a magnetic dipole placed in B:
~ B

Bh

Horizontal

~
F~ = i ~l B

## c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

d
N

2m
qB

i=
q

k
nAB

I
M Bh

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## 5.7: Electromagnetic Induction

H
~ dS
~
Magnetic flux: = B

RC circuit:
Z=

d
dt

Lenzs Law: Induced current create a B-field that opposes the change in magnetic flux.

Z=

~
v

(1/!C)2 ,

tan

## Self inductance of a solenoid: L = 0 n2 (r2 l)

h
Growth of current in LR circuit: i = Re 1 e
L

t
L/R

=
L

Z=

R
!L

e0 sin !t

R 2 + ! 2 L2 ,

tan
L

e=

1
!CR

LCR Circuit:
= Li,

1
!C

e0 sin !t

R2

~
B

di
L dt

LR circuit:

Self inductance:

f - p h y s i c s . c om

!L
R

e0 sin !t

R2 +

resonance =

1
!C

!L

1
!C
q

1
2

!L ,

tan

1
!C

1
!C

!L

!L
R

1
LC

e
0.63 R

e
i

L
R

Transformer:

## Decay of current in LR circuit: i = i0 e

L

t
L/R

e1
e2 ,

e 1 i1 = e2 i2

e1

N1
i1

N2
i2

e2

p
Speed of the EM waves in vacuum: c = 1/ 0 0

N1
N2

i0
0.37i0

L
R

## Time constant of LR circuit: = L/R

Energy stored in an inductor: U = 12 Li2
U
V

## Energy density of B field: u =

Mutual inductance:

= M i,

e=

B2
20
di
M dt

## EMF induced in a rotating coil: e = N AB! sin !t

i

Alternating current:

t
T

i = i0 sin(!t + ),

T = 2/!
RT
Average current in AC: i = T1 0 i dt = 0
RMS current: irms =

h R
1 T
T

i2 dt

i1/2

i0
p
2

i2
t
T

Energy: E = irms 2 RT
Capacitive reactance: Xc =

1
!C

Inductive reactance: XL = !L
Imepedance: Z = e0 /i0
Visit www.concepts-of-physics.com
to buy IIT JEE Physics (1978-2015:
38 Year) Topic-wise Complete Solutions. Foreword by Prof HC Verma.

## c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

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f - p h y s i c s . c om

Modern Physics

N
N0

Population at time t: N = N0 e

N0
2

t1/2

## Photons energy: E = h = hc/

Photons momentum: p = h/ = E/c

## Population after n half lives: N = N0 /2n .

Mass defect:

V0

Stopping potential: Vo =

hc
e

hc
e

1
e

hc
e

de Broglie wavelength:

m = [Zmp + (A

Q-value: Q = Ui

= h/p

Z)mn ]

M
M ] c2

Z)mn

Uf

## Energy released in nuclear reaction:

where m = mreactants mproducts .

mc2

## 6.2: The Atom

6.4: Vacuum tubes and Semiconductors

mZ 2 e4
,
80 2 h2 n2

En =

En =

13.6Z 2
eV
n2

a0 = 0.529
A

rn =

0 h2 n 2
,
mZe2

rn =

n2 a 0
,
Z

## Quantization of the angular momentum: l =

Photon energy in state transition: E2
E2

Output

nh
2

E1 = h

Grid

Triode Valve:

Cathode
Filament

Plate

E2
h

E1

R Output

h
E1
Absorption

Emission

## Wavelength of emitted radiation: for

from nth to mth state:

1
1
1
2
= RZ
n2
m2

transition

min

Vp
Vg

Vg =0
ip
Vg

Vp =0

ip =0

## Relation between rp , , and gm : = rp gm

K

hc
eV

K
Ie

Ic

Current in a transistor: Ie = Ib + Ic
min

Moseleys law:

Transconductance of a triode: gm =
Amplification by a triode: =

X-ray spectrum:

Vp
ip

Ib

= a(Z

b)

and

Ic
Ib ,

## Heisenberg uncertainity principle:

p x h/(2),
E t h/(2)

parameters of a transistor: =
= 1

Transconductance: gm =

Ic
Ie ,

Ic
Vbe

Logic Gates:
6.3: The Nucleus
Nuclear radius: R = R0 A1/3 ,
Decay rate:

dN
dt

R0 1.1 10

15

A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

AND
AB
0
0
0
1

OR
A+B
0
1
1
1

NAND
AB
1
1
1
0

NOR
A+B
1
0
0
0

XOR
+ AB

AB
0
1
1
0

## c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

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## IIT JEE Physics Book

7.1: Book Description
Two IIT batch-mates have worked together to provide a
high quality Physics problem book to Indian students. It
is an indispensable collection of previous 38 years IIT questions and their illustrated solutions for any serious aspirant.
The success of this work lies in making the readers capable
to solve complex problems using few basic principles. The
problems to help them understand the concepts better. Key
features of the book are:
1300+ solved problems in 2 volumes
Concept building by problem solving
IIT preparation with school education
Topic and year-wise content arrangement
Promotes self learning
Quality typesetting and figures
for providing hints or complete solutions as per their needs.
The volume 1 of the book covers three parts: Mechanics,
Waves, and Optics. The list of chapters in this volume are:
1. Units and Measurements
2. Rest and Motion: Kinematics
3. Newtons Laws of Motion
4. Friction
5. Circular Motion
6. Work and Energy
7. Centre of Mass, Linear Momentum, Collision
8. Rotational Mechanics
9. Gravitation
10. Simple Harmonic Motion
11. Fluid Mechanics
12. Some Mechanical Properties of Matter
13. Wave Motion and Waves on a String
14. Sound Waves
15. Light Waves
16. Geometrical Optics
17. Optical Instruments
18. Dispersion and Spectra
19. Photometry
The volume 2 of the book covers three parts: Thermodynamics, Electromagnetism, and Modern Physics. The list
of chapters in this volume are:
20. Heat and Temperature
21. Kinetic Theory of Gases
22. Calorimetry
23. Laws of Thermodynamics
24. Specific Heat Capacities of Gases
25. Heat Transfer
26. Electric Field and Potential
27. Gausss Law
28. Capacitors
29. Electric Current in Conductors
30. Thermal and Chemical Eects of Electric Current
31. Magnetic Field
32. Magnetic Field due to a Current
33. Permanent Magnets

## c 2016 by Jitender Singh. Ver. 2016

34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.

f - p h y s i c s . c om

Electromagnetic Induction
Alternating Current
Electromagnetic Waves
Electric Current through Gases
Photoelectric Eect and Wave-Particle Duality
Bohrs Model and Physics of the Atom
X-rays
Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices
The Nucleus

Jitender Singh is working as a Scientist in DRDO. He
has a strong academic background with Integrated M. Sc.
(5 years) in Physics from IIT Kanpur and M. Tech. in
Computational Science from IISc Bangalore. He is All India
Rank 1 in GATE and loves to solve physics problems. He
is a member of Prof. H.C. Vermas team which is dedicated
to improve the quality of physics education in the country.
Shraddhesh Chaturvedi holds a degree in Integrated
M. Sc. (5 years) in Physics from IIT Kanpur. He is passionate about problem solving in physics and enhancing
the quality of texts available to Indian students. His career spans many industries where he has contributed with
his knowledge of physics and mathematics. An avid reader
and a keen thinker, his philosophical writings are a joy to