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High voltage station Design, construction and commissioning

process
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11/11/2016

High voltage station Design, construction and commissioning process (on photo: Construction of 400 kV SF6 switching station; credit: gruner.ch)

High Voltage Station 3 Main Processes


Having selected the right site location for high voltage station, the design construction and commissioning process
would broadly follow the steps shown in Figure 1. Recent trends in utilities have been toward sourcing design and
construction of HV stations through competitive bidding process to ensure capital efficiency and labor
productivity.
Now, lets start discussing the three main processes:
1. Design
2. Construction
3. Commissioning

1. HV Station Design
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Now the final detailed designs can be developed along with all the drawings necessary for construction. The electrical
equipment and all the other materials can now be ordered and detailed schedules for all disciplines negotiated. Final
manpower forecasts must be developed and coordinated with other business units.
It is imperative that all stakeholders be aware of the design details and understand what needs to be built and by
when to meet the in-service date.
Once the designs are completed and the drawings published, the remaining permits can be obtained.

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Figure 1 Establishment of a new substation

The following can be used as a guide for various design elements:

Basic Layout
Stage development diagram
Bus configuration to meet single line requirements
Location of major equipment and steel structures based on single line diagram
General concept of HV station
Electrical and safety clearances
Ultimate stage

Design
Site Preparation Drainage and erosion, earth work, roads and access, and fencing
Foundations Soils, concrete design, and pile design
Structures Materials, finishes, and corrosion control
Buildings
Control, metering, relaying, and annunciation buildings types such as masonry, prefabricated, etc.
Metalclad switchgear buildings
GIS buildings

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Mechanical Systems
HVAC
Sound enclosure ventilation
Metalclad switchgear or GIS buildings ventilation
Fire detection and protection
Oil sensing and spill prevention
Buswork
Rigid buses
Strain conductors swing, bundle collapse
Ampacity
Connections
Phase spacing
Short circuit forces
Insulation Basic impulse level and switching impulse level
HV Station Insulators
Porcelain post type insulators
Resistance graded insulators
Polymeric post insulators
Subtation insulator hardware
Selection of subtation insulator TR ANSI and CSA standard
Pollution of insulators pollution levels and selection of leakage distance
Suspension Insulators
Characteristics
Porcelain suspension insulators
Polymeric suspension insulators
Suspension insulators hardware
Selection of suspension insulators
Pollution of insulators pollution levels and selection of leakage distance
Clearances
Electrical clearances
Safety clearances

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Overvoltages
Atmospheric and switching overvoltages
Overvoltage protection pipe and rod gaps, surge arresters
Atmospheric overvoltage protection lightning protection (skywires, lightning rods)
Grounding
Function of grounding system
Step, touch, mesh and transferred voltages
Allowable limits of body current
Allowable limits of step and touch voltages
Soil resistivity
General design guidelines
Neutral Systems
Background of power system grounding
Three and four wire systems
HV and LV neutral systems
Design of neutral systems
HV Station Security
Physical security
Electronic security
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2. HV Station Construction
With permits in hand and drawings published, the construction of the substation can begin. Site logistics and
housekeeping can have a significant impact on the acceptance of the facility.
Parking for construction personnel, traffic routing, truck activity, trailers, fencing, and mud and dirt control along with
trash and noise can be major irritations for neighbors, so attention to these details is essential for achieving
community acceptance.
All the civil, electrical, and electronic systems are installed at this time. Proper attention should also be paid to site
security during the construction phase not only to safeguard the material and equipment, but also to protect the
public.
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3. HV Station Commissioning
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Once construction is complete, testing of various systems can commence and all punch-list items addressed. To avoid
duplication of testing, it is recommended to develop an inspection, testing and acceptance plan.
Elements of inspection, testing and acceptance plan include:
1. Factory acceptance tests (FAT)
2. Product verification plan (PVP)
3. Site delivery acceptance test (SDAT)
4. Site acceptance tests (SAT)
Final tests of the completed substation in a partially energized environment to determine acceptability and
conformance to customer requirements under conditions as close as possible to normal operation conditions will
finalize the in-service tests and turn-over to operations.
Environmental cleanup must be undertaken and final landscaping can be installed! Note that, depending upon the
species of plants involved, it may be prudent to delay final landscaping until a more favorable season in order to
ensure optimal survival of the foliage.
Public relations personnel can make the residents and community leaders aware that the project is complete and the
station can be made functional and turned over to the operating staff.
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Reference: The Electric Power Engineering Handbook by Grigsby, L.L ( Get it from Amazon )

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