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ARCHITECTURE HUMANITARIA EMERGENCIES 01 ARCHIT ECTUR E HUMA N ITARIA N EMERG ENCIE S MARIA GOMEZ-GUILLAMON
ARCHITECTURE HUMANITARIA EMERGENCIES
01
ARCHIT ECTUR E
HUMA N ITARIA N
EMERG ENCIE S
MARIA GOMEZ-GUILLAMON
JORGE LOBOS
0
1
EDITOR BOARD Peder Duelund Mortensen, lector, cand. arch. MAA Jørgen Eskemose Andersen, lector, cand. arch. MAA
EDITOR BOARD
Peder Duelund Mortensen, lector, cand. arch. MAA
Jørgen Eskemose Andersen, lector, cand. arch. MAA
Jorge Lobos, architect
María Gómez-Guillamón, cand. arch. MAA
Vicki Thake, cand. arch. MAA
GRAPHIC DESIGN
TRANSLATION
PHOTOGRAPHS
PRINTING
TYPOGRAPHY
FUNDS
Vicki Thake, cand. arch. MAA
Yolanda Baz
© page 60
Arco Grafisk A/S
Arch
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. Denmark
Faculty of Architecture of Alghero, University of Sassari, Italy
COPYRIGHT
© 2011 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture and the authors
www.karch.dk
ISBN
978-87-7830-255-7

ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES

01

  • I INTRODUCTION

    • II ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES

      • 1 CIRCLE OF TRAGEDY

      • 2 TRAGEDY TYPES

      • 3 PROJECT MATRIX

      • 4 PREDICTABILITY OF DIFFERENT TRAGEDIES

  • III WORKSHOP 5X5 ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITARIAN TRAGEDIES

    • 1 5 CASES X 5 PLACES OVER THE WORLD

    • 2 GENERAL INFORMATION

    • 3 COMPARATIVE INFORMATION

  • 4 PROJECT CASES

MOZAMBIQUE Chokwe

Floods

ITALY

L’Aquila

Earthquake

CHILE

Chaiten

Volcano Eruption

SRI LANKA

Manik Farm

Civil War

MALDIVES

Malé

Climate Change

IV

CONCLUSION

A

PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE

B

ARCHITECTURE THEORY

C

ACADEMIC

I'm not a Humanitarian Architect. I'm just an architect whose clients have less money

Fernando Ferreiro, architect U.N. Mozambique 2010

MORE THAN 90% OF ARCHITECTS LIVE AND WORK IN THE RICHEST AREAS OF THE WORLD

It has to date been difficult to reach the less developed regions of the world from the architecture profession.

Natural hazards and extreme weather conditions are occurring at an increasingly frequent rate due to climate change. This has disproportionate impact on the poorest areas of the world.

THE POOREST AREAS OF THE WORLD SUFFER CONTINUOSLY FROM HUMANITARIAN DISASTERS

Only few architecture institutions, professionals within practise or universities work with the consequences of disasters (U.N. Habitat, UNCHR, Architects for Humanity, etc.). This unbalanced situation is one of the challenges for architecture in the 21st century, and it is about time to assume a deeper knowledge about an ethical behaviour through a new architectural approach.

This booklet documents the first structured attempt at the School of Architecture in Copenhagen to build up systematic teaching and research experience.The hypothesis of the teaching experiment presented in this booklet is that architects ought to be involved from the very beginning after a given disaster. Any catastrophe will imply a transformation of the built environment in the short and long perspective. Architects have the capacity to guide such transformations. The long term spatial impact of a disaster is often neglected and many temporary settlements end up as slum.

Therefore, it is important that architects take their social responsibility seriously. It is our responsibility to respond to the Human Rights Declaration; e.g. in the right to appropriate shelter as declared by U.N. in 1948.

THIS COURSE HAS BEEN CREATED POINTING AT THE FOLLOWING ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES

A

To show that architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies is not a second-class architecture. It is necessary that top professionals and

architecture schools work seriously with this topic and hence incorporate such activities in the curriculum.

B

To work with low-cost and sustainable projects in emergencies affected communities which need support from architecture, in order

to create solutions that may help to mitigate future problems.

C

To understand that different identities and cultures can represent an endless source of architectonic inspiration.

D

To develop research-based teaching. (Institute 3, DHS and Department 7)

1

CIRCLE OF TRAGEDY

DISASTER

0 PREPAREDNESS 3 months EMERGENCY plans emergency exercises and training warning systems evacuation routes Search and
0
PREPAREDNESS
3 months
EMERGENCY
plans
emergency exercises and training
warning systems
evacuation routes
Search and rescue
Emergency relief
Delivery food and shelter
First hours to 10 days
PREVENTION
RECOVER
Architecture model for shelters
to incorporate Disaster Risk Reduction
concepts adaptation
24 months
Assessment phase
Temporary housing
Mall grants
Medical care
Refugee camps
10 days - 3 months
MITIGATION
RECONSTRUCTION
Building codes and zoning
Vulnerability analyses
Public educations
Manuals on reconstruction and Building
Back Better solutions
Posters
etc.
Long term solutions
Re-building housingsand economy systems
Loans, resettlements
3 months to 24 months (variable)
REHABILITATION
10 days

2

EMERGENCIES TYPES

A

B

NATURAL DISASTERS COMPLEX OR MANMADE EMERGENCIES

  • C PANDEMIC

  • D CLIMATE CHANGE

Earthquake, Flood, Tsunami, Drought, Volcano Eruption, Hurricane Civil Conflict, Civil War, Internal Displace Persons, Political Conflict Public epidemic diseases A new category, a mix of manmade and natural disaster

Culture Geography 3 PROJECT MATRIX A way to affront these complex cases is through an architectural
Culture
Geography
3
PROJECT MATRIX
A way to affront these complex cases is through an architectural matrix of three sides or entrances:
4
Matrix created by Jorge Lobos and designed by Cristian Gilchrist
E Architecture & Human Rights
Kind of Emergencies

PREDICTABILITY OF THE DIFFERENT TRAGEDIES

“Learning How Living with Flood” by Eduardo Feuerhake, is a positive example of how architecture can help to mitigate Human

tragedies.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nAJpn1G9wE4

Most humanitarian disasters are predictable. It allows architecture to help, mitigating a large range of problems, but it necessarily requires research and work before the tragedy happens.It means a change in the working methodology of architects; we need to imagine a situation in advance, without a determined client, and then try to give an architectonic respond according to disaster risk reduction and the development of warning systems is important.

Map: disaster concentration, according with casualty amount produced by the sasi group www.worldmapper.org

copyright 2006 sasi group (university of sheffield) and mark newman (university of michigan)

Refugee Camps have an average life of 7 years and they receive thousands of people

Peter Kjaer, Copenhagen University 2009

80% of different tragedies are predictable and expectable

Doctors without Borders, Barcelona 2007

1

ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES

 

5

CASES X 5 PLACES OF THE WORLD

METHODOLOGY

STUDYING DIFFERENT CASES IN DIFFERENT GEOGRAFICAL LOCATIONS ALLOWS US TO HAVE A WIDE VIEW OF THE WORLD AND EXPLORING HOW MUCH ARCHITECTURE CAN HELP IN EXTREME SITUATIONS:

First week

Topic presentation. Comprehensive explanation of every problem Lectures: New experiences within the presented topics Practice: Everyone works on the five cases

Mozambique

Chokwe

Floods

Italy

L’Aquila

Earthquake

Second week

5 groups x 5 cases. Each group develops one case.

Chile

Chaiten

Volcano Eruption

Final presentation: Project strategy

Sri Lanka

Manik Farm

Civil War

Maldives

Malé

Climate Change

THESE EXTREME CASES OBLIGATE OUR PROJECTS TO CONSIDER:

A

Being closer to the social reality. It gives us better architectural answers to problems of different communities.

B

Understanding that architecture has very much to say in a humanitarian crisis. By developing better architectural responses, we can alleviate the sufferings of millions of people.

C

Low- cost and fast implementation is a fundamental condition of our projects.

THE PROGRAM OF THE COURSE:

ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES

A

Seminary:

Five lectures by different specialists:

Red Cross, Copenhagen University UNHCR Architects without Borders Denmark

B

Workshop

11th to 22nd January 2010 Participants:

U.N. Habitat Mozambique University Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique

C

Research

Publication 2010

2 GENERAL INFORMATION TRAGEDY EUROPEAN CATHOLIC CULTURE EARTH QUAKE HINDU TAMILS BUDDHIST SINHALESE CIVIL WAR ISLAMIC
2
GENERAL INFORMATION
TRAGEDY
EUROPEAN
CATHOLIC CULTURE
EARTH QUAKE
HINDU TAMILS
BUDDHIST SINHALESE
CIVIL WAR
ISLAMIC SUNNI
ETHNIC MIX( MUSLIM/HINDU ETC)
CLIMATE CHANGE
DIFFERENT RELIGIONS
AFRICAN CULTURE
FLOOD
LATIN AMERICA
CATHOLIC CULTURE
VOLCANO
CULTURE
ERUPTION
CLIMATE
CHILE
GDP USD 9.525
MOUNTAINS
COLD RAINY
ITALY
GDP USD 35.435
COLD CLIMATE
MOUNTAINS
MOZAMBIQUE
GDP USD 465
SUBTROPICAL
COASIAL PLAIN RIVER
MALDIVES
GDP USD 3.932
SRI LANKA
MODERATED TROPICAL
CORAL ISLANDS/ REEFS
GDP USD 2.041
TROPICAL ISLAND
INDIC OCEAN
COUNTRY

MOSAMBIQUE

SRI LANKA

MALDIVES

CHILE

ITALY

CHOKWE

CHAITEN

MANIK

MALÉ

FARM

CIVIL WAR

ERUPTION

VOLCANO

CHANGES

CLIMATE

  • 2009 (FINISH)

    • 50 YEARS

NEXT

2008

350.000

250.000

5000

3

COMPARATIVE

INFORMATION

COUNTRY

PLACE

TRAGEDY

YEAR

AFFECTED

PEOPLE

L’AQUILA
L’AQUILA
60.000 2000 FLOOD 50.000 2009 EARTH QUAKE
60.000
2000 FLOOD
50.000
2009 EARTH QUAKE
FARM ERUPTION CHANGES CLIMATE 2009 (FINISH) 50 YEARS NEXT 2008 350.000 250.000 5000 3 COMPARATIVE
MOZAMBIQUE - CHOKWE - FLOODS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3rdmxu2GwB8 PROBLEM GOVERNMENT STRATEGY Floods Each decade Mozambique suffers several large

MOZAMBIQUE - CHOKWE - FLOODS

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3rdmxu2GwB8

PROBLEM

GOVERNMENT STRATEGY

Floods

Each decade Mozambique suffers several large floods from its big rivers. Limpopo is one of them.

Mozambique Government tries to relocate people on higher land, far away from the river.

2000

Limpopo floods affected 200.000 inhabitants.

The problem is that the local economy depends on the agriculture produced at the Limpopo Basin and its rich soil.

Chokwe

73.000 inhabitants. 60.000 of them were affected.

PROJECT STRATEGY 1 Discover higher and safer places inside the Limpopo Basin: These places might coincide

PROJECT STRATEGY

1

Discover higher and safer places inside the Limpopo Basin: These places might coincide with public spaces such as squares, markets and schools.

2

Create roads (land) and canals (water) leading to safer places. People could move by boats.

3

Create Survival Platforms on these “safe places” in order to host people during floods. These platforms will be used for building schools, markets or other

social facilities.

ITALY - L’AQUILA - EARTHQUAKE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZQ2CFl1nVk PROBLEM GOVERNMENT STRATEGY 6th April 2009 L’aquila had an earthquake

ITALY - L’AQUILA - EARTHQUAKE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZQ2CFl1nVk

PROBLEM

GOVERNMENT STRATEGY

6th April 2009 L’aquila had an earthquake 6.2° Richter. Epicentre was to 10km of the city:

Building apartment blocks 40 km from the old city.

L’aquila

72.000 inhabitants.

One year later, people continued living outside L’Aquila. They complained of this solution.

50.000

lost their houses

Italy, a country that belonging to G8, was not prepared for this tragedy.

1.500

injured

300

dead

PROJECT STRATEGY 1 The destroyed public buildings could allow for the creation new public spaces. It

PROJECT STRATEGY

1

The destroyed public buildings could allow for the creation new public spaces. It turns the tragedy into a new urban opportunity for L’Aquila.

2

Build new steel structures to prevent old walls of the historic city from collapsing.

These structures are the seed of the new buildings houses.

3

Debris and stones, one of the biggest problems in each earthquake, are used like a new landscape in public spaces around the old city.

CHILE - CHAITEN - VOLCANO - ERUPTION http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7CBQfVKVnA PROBLEM 2nd of May 2008 Chaiten Volcano broke

CHILE - CHAITEN - VOLCANO - ERUPTION

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7CBQfVKVnA

PROBLEM

2nd of May 2008 Chaiten Volcano broke out, after centuries without any sign of volcanic activity. It produced ash clouds covering the entire Chaiten City. The volcanic eruption changed the channel of Blanco River, dividing the city in two parts. Chaiten was totally destroyed. 5000 inhabitants lost their homes meaning the entire city.

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GOVERNMENT STRATEGY

Chilean Government wanted to build a new city, 10 km. from the old one. People from Chaiten did not want to move that long, they wanted to keep on living near their old city.

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PROJECT STRATEGY 1 Re-build city on hills, closer to the old Chaiten, where people can watch

PROJECT STRATEGY

1

Re-build city on hills, closer to the old Chaiten, where people can watch their old places and houses and maintain their social net.

2

Leave the old city like parks, sporting facilities, public and/or memory spaces. There could even be private gardens and yards related to the new housing on

the hill. This project shows a dignified respect to the original inhabitants.

3

Design new housing on pillars on the hill with a cantilevered roof to protect from future volcanic ashes.

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PROJECT STRATEGY 1 Re-build city on hills, closer to the old Chaiten, where people can watch

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SRI LANKA - MANIK FARM - CIVIL WAR http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8KZ09rsveQ PROBLEM Civil war between Hindu Tamils and

SRI LANKA - MANIK FARM - CIVIL WAR

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8KZ09rsveQ

PROBLEM

Civil war between Hindu Tamils and Buddhist Sinhalese has kept on centuries. Last year Sri Lanka Government got control over the whole country. This meant that hundreds of thousands of Tamils arrived at Refugee Camps.

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SRI LANKA - MANIK FARM - CIVIL WAR http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8KZ09rsveQ PROBLEM Civil war between Hindu Tamils and

Manik Farm is one of those camps, suitable to host 150.000 people. Right now, 250.000 people live in Manik Farm. It is a big city with extremely poor conditions. People have been demonstrating to complain about their terrible situation.

GOVERNMENT STRATEGY

There is not a public official strategy, just to maintain the refugee camps.

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Preservation of existing trees and bushes

Site Transit Administration Storage Latrines are spread out equally within the area Market Distribution Medicare School
Site
Transit
Administration
Storage
Latrines are spread out equally within the
area
Market
Distribution
Medicare
School
Trees
etary
Tent formation
Preservation of existing trees and bushes Site Transit Administration Storage Latrines are spread out equally within
Trees Trees Water points Latrines Shelters Water point Infrastructure Latrines Shelters
Trees
Trees
Water points
Latrines
Shelters
Water point
Infrastructure
Latrines
Shelters
settlements. Trees Trees Water points Latrines Water points Latrines
settlements.
Trees
Trees
Water points
Latrines
Water points
Latrines

Main roads are established. Smaller roads

and pathways are naturally formed over time in the area by the organization of the

The rapid erection of the shelterunits, cre- ates social structures and communities

throughtout the site, organized around the

infrastructure

Trees Trees Water points Latrines Shelters Water points Latrines Shelters
Trees
Trees
Water points
Latrines
Shelters
Water points
Latrines
Shelters
Preservation of existing trees and bushes Site Transit Administration Storage Latrines are spread out equally within
Preservation of existing trees and bushes Site Transit Administration Storage Latrines are spread out equally within

Keyhole structure

Closed community

Snake structure

Semi-closed community

Community

Expanding community

PROJECT STRATEGY

1

Design a new tent in order to create a new social net by seperating private spaces from public spaces.

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Preservation of existing trees and bushes Site Transit Administration Storage Latrines are spread out equally within

Self-supporting family-units

2

Develop a refugee camp bearing in mind that it might become a new city:

Preservation of existing trees and bushes Site Transit Administration Storage Latrines are spread out equally within

Creating public buildings (hospital, school, social meetings) like towers of several levels. By the time when there is no longer need of the refugee camp, all the buildings could be used according to three future possible situations:

A new city: Buildings would be a seed of a new city. Agriculture field: Sustainable buildings for future farm activities. Memory places: for future civil education.

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MALDIVES - MALÉ - CLIMATE - CHANGE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NGnfJGStkmE

PROBLEM

MALDIVES - MALÉ - CLIMATE - CHANGE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NGnfJGStkmE PROBLEM Maldives is the lowest country on the

Maldives is the lowest country on the planet with an average ground level of 1.5 meters above sea level with the lowest highest point in the world at only 2.3

meters above sea level. Its geography makes this country very vulnerable to Climate Change. If the prediction of scientists is correct, Maldives could disappear during this century due to rising sea levels.

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GOVERNMENT STRATEGY

Maldives Government is looking for land in India or Sri Lanka in order to be able to eventual move its 350.000 inhabitants over the next years.

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PROJECT STRATEGY

  • 1 The old buildings of Malé would be the new foundation of the future high city.

  • 2 Creating a new public transport system on water and under water.

  • 3 Creating floating islands close to the small coral islands.

  • 4 Designing housing on pillars to protect from of rising sea level.

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PROJECT STRATEGY 1 The old buildings of Malé would be the new foundation of the future
PROJECT STRATEGY 1 The old buildings of Malé would be the new foundation of the future

RESCUE AND GROWTH PLAN Diagrams showing possible changes for saving smaller and midlarge islands

  • 200 year transition

  • 500 year utopia/dystopia

URBAN GROWTH AND RESCUEPLAN Diagrams showing possible changes for saving primary islands´ coastline and inland

PROJECT STRATEGY 1 The old buildings of Malé would be the new foundation of the future
PROJECT STRATEGY 1 The old buildings of Malé would be the new foundation of the future

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2/3 (4.400.000.000) of the world populatio n have no link to professional architec ture

Julian Salas, ETSAM, Madrid 2000

Then, how can architects conclu de that they are out of work

Jorge Lobos, architect Chile 2001

...

?

A

ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE

1

In cases of Humanitarian disasters, architects are generally absent or has limited influence in the political strategies of governments

or international institutions. Architects can indeed propose new strategic solutions, more creative, cheaper respecting the local culture and hence being more sustainable.

2

Each case we studied could be used like a jumping-off experience for another similar case.

It is necessary to create a sort of benchmark with all the examined cases.

3

Large tragedies bring sufferings and pain to millions of people. However those tragedies could be considered as new opportunities to improve our urban systems, developing new strategies and plans more systematic for Disasters Risk Reduction (DRR) and protecting people in the future.

4

The refugee camps are places forgotten by architecture profession. They are places where thousands of people from different countries or Internal Displaced Persons (IDR) come to get protection. They are received by Humanitarian Organizations. These places are prepared for emergency conditions and the possibility of developing a normal life is extremely difficult. U.N. HABITAT and NGOs reckon that these camps work provisionally just for few months in theory .. The reality is very different: They have an average life of 7 years. That is why the way of conceiving a refugee camp has to change and the architecture profession has a role in this process. Since many camps become cities, they should be considered more as proper cities than just temporary solutions.

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B

ARCHITECTURE THEORY

1

Rethink the relation between Architecture and Human Rights. It opens a new theoretical line in architecture where there must be

a better balance between art and sociology, ethic and aesthetic, economy and Human Rights.

2

This means a dramatic change in the traditional conception of an architect as an aesthetic constructor for the richest people. An architect should also be a social activist with ideas from the architectural experience, research and teaching and more sensible for cultural identities. It would allow architecture knowledge to reach out to every 2/3rd inhabitant of those parts of the world with either none or little presence of professional architecture.

C

ACADEMIC

1

When teachers are able to show clear architectural problems as is often the case in disasters situations, students are able to develop

faster solutions creating deeper and better project strategies.

2

If students learn that architecture have a role concerning social problems, they may feel that their work is more meaningful

and directly human- related.

3

The two –week Workshop 5x5 opened several possibilities in project strategies and showed very innovative architectural solutions. It is proposed to continue developing some of these ideas during the whole semester within the normal studio works taking place within the different departments.

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COPYRIGHTS

PAGES

4 / 5

 

Karuthurimai1

PAGES

22 /23

 

http://www.pontamamoli.com/Outside_Cultural_Experiences.html

PAGES

24 / 25

 

www.opendemocracy.net/ /article_1386.jsp ...

http://saharanvibe.blogspot.com/2007/05/mozambique-africas-rising-star.html

Fernando Ferreiro U.N.Habitat mozambique

PAGES

28 / 29

 

David Alexander: L'Aquila Earthquake

 

PAGES

30 / 31

 

http://florianaevelyn.blogspot.com/

 

Cricketdiane.wordpress.com/

...

/

www.internationalrubbernecker.com/?cat=11

PAGES

34 / 35

 

www. achyotros.mforos.com

PAGES

36 / 37

 

Blog.nuestroclima.com/?p=1441

 

http://achyotros.mforos.com/1879899/9367929-volcan-chaiten-nos-muestra-su-furia/

Scienceblogs.com/eruptions/2009/02/volcanism _... Leonid Plotkin

PAGES

40 / 41

 

Karuthurimai1

PAGE

43

 

http://trendsupdates.com/sri-lanka-war-exodus/

Karuthurimai1

PAGES

46 / 47

 

Ahmed ( John)

PAGES

48 / 49

AlbertoLin Mohamed Malik www.chinadaily.com.cn

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COURSE CONCEPT

WORKSHOP ARCHITECTS

Jorge Lobos

Faculty of Architecture of Alghero, University of Sassari, Italy

Kristin Astrup

AWF DK

María Gómez-Guillamón

KARCH DEPARTMENT 7

Helle Bøcken,

AWF DK

 

Jessica Strandell

AWF DK

ORGANIZATION, TEACHING AND RESEARCH

Peter Branoberg

AWF DK

Peder Duelund Mortensen

KARCH INSTITUTE 3

Rabi Shankar

Copenhagen University

Jørgen Eskemose Andersen Jorge Lobos (Visiting teacher) Silje Eroy Sollien

KARCH INSTITUTE 3 KARCH INSTITUTE 3 KARCH INSTITUTE 3

WORKSHOP STUDENTS MOZAMBIQUE

 

Anne Laerke Jørgensen

Aalborg Architecture School

Jan Søndergaard

KARCH DEPARTMENT 7

Stine Sonne

Aalborg Architecture School

María Gómez-Guillamón

KARCH DEPARTMENT 7

Morten Hansen

KARCH Department 7

 

ITALY

ADMINISTRATION

Line Sørensen

KARCH Department 7

Birgitte Weien

KARCH DEPARTMENT 7

Kaia Tallaksen

KARCH Department 7

 

Michael Brath

KARCH Department 7

VISITING ARCHITECTS

Kristian Serena

KARCH Department 7

Eduardo Feuerhake

U.N. Habitat Mozambique

Christopher Galliano

KARCH Department 7

Fernando Ferreiro

U.N. Habitat Mozambique

CHILE

Carlos Trindade

School of Architecture Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique

Mia Eskemøse

Copenhagen University

 

Lena Schrade

KARCH Department 7

LECTURERS

Gunnar Gunnarsson

KARCH Department 7

Jorge Lobos,

Visiting teacher KARCH

Vladimir Ladino

KARCH Department 7

Birgitte Bischoff,

Danish Red Cross

SRI LANKA

Peter Rasmussen,

UNHCR

Julia Anshelm

KARCH department 2

Niels Kryger,

UNHCR

Erik Pontus

KARCH Department 7

Sofie Waborg

AWF DK

Casper Juhler-Olsen

KARCH Department 7

Marianne Filtenborg

AWF DK

MALDIVES

INSTITUTIONS

Zaza Baumbach Maria Louise Tolstrup

KARCH Department 7 KARCH Department 7

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts

School of Architecture of Copenhagen, Denmark

Azra Mehmedbasic

KARCH Department 7

 

Faculty of Architecture of Alghero

University of Sassari, Italy

Sejr Siticum

Faculty of Architecture of Maputo Union Nations Habitat Architects without Borders

University Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique Mozambique Denmark (AWF)

Eyup Firinci

KARCH Department 7 KARCH Department 7

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