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INFORMATION THEORY

so.

-Galileo

To define the information content of a message

To emphasize the need for measure of information and average information content of

a system.

To develop a mathematical model to measure the information content of a message.

To detail the properties of entropy.

To develop a Markoff model to measure entropy for a dependent source.

2.1 Introduction

Today we are living in the era of information. Modern communication being one of

the key areas of interest, information exchange in an efficient manner is the need for the day.

Until 1948, when Claude E Shannon published his premiere work on Mathematical Theory

on Communication in Bell System Technical journal, information was considered to be an

abstract entity which cannot be measured. However he has given a mathematical model for

measuring the information.

An information source generates the information. But the amount of information

conveyed by the source is different for different symbols it emits. A mathematical modeling

can be formulated to quantify the amount of information conveyed by a symbol.

Consider the following statements.

(B) There was a heavy rainfall in Rajastan the last night.

Although both statements infer the occurrence of heavy rainfall, the amount of

information conveyed by them are different. The first statement will not create any surprise

as heavy rainfall is a common event in Chirapunji. However the second statement will

certainly create some degree of surprise as it is less likely to have heavy rainfall in Rajastan.

From the above example, it can be concluded that the amount of information

conveyed by a message is inversely proportional to the probability of its occurrence.

Therefore we can write the amount of information conveyed or self information of a

message k, Ik is inversely proportional to its probability of its occurrence Pk

1

i.e. Ik

(2.1)

Also there are some other facts on information:

(i)

i.e Ik 0

(2.2)

(ii)

If the event is definite, i.e if the probability of the occurrence of the event is 1,

then the corresponding information conveyed by the event will be 0.

i.e if

Pk= 1, Ik = 0

(2.3)

(iii)

simply given by the sum of the individual self information contents

i.e I(m1,m2)= I(m1)+ I(m2)

(2.4)

The only mathematical operator which satisfies the relations (2.2), (2,3) and (2.4) is

the LOGARITHM operator. Therefore the self information content of a message is given by

Ik =

units

(2.5)

The unit of the self information is dependent on the base of the logarithm used.

If r= 2, the unit is bits

If r= e, the unit is nats

If r= 10, the unit is Hartley or Decits

In our entire discussion, unless otherwise specified, the unit of self information is

considered to be bits.

Example 2.1 Consider a binary system emitting two symbols {0,1} with probabilities 0.6

and 0.4 respectively. Find the information conveyed by a bit 0 and a bit 1.

Solution:

We have the self information content of a symbol is given by,

1

Ik = bits

And probability of the occurrence of 1 at the source output is P(1)= 0.4

I0

= 2

Similarly

I1

= 2

1

Example 2.2 Consider a source emitting two symbols s0 and s1 with the corresponding

probabilities and respectively. Find the self information of the symbols in

(i)

Bits

(ii)

Decits

(iii)

Nats

Solution:

(i)

Ik

= bits

Is0

= 2

1

(0)

= 2 34 = 0.415 bits

Is1

= 2 (1)

1

= 2 14 = 2 bits

(ii)

Ik

= 10 decits

Is0

= 10 (0)

= 10 34 = 0.124 decits

Is1

= 10 (1)

1

= 10 14 = 0.602 decits

(i)

Ik

= nats

Is0

= (0)

= 34 = 0.287 nats

Is1

= (1)

1

= 14 = 1.386 nats

2001), The Father of Information Theory was an American

engineer. At the age of 21 doing his masters at MIT, he wrote

a thesis giving an insight on the usage of Boolean concepts in

solving electromechanical problems. He also has contributed

a lot in the field of cryptanalysis during World War II. He

had two Bachelor degrees, one in electrical engineering and

the other in mathematics. His paper A Mathematical Theory

of Communication which was published in two parts of the

Bell System Technical Journal is considered to be one of the

most promising works in the field of information theory.

Example 2.3 A pair of die is rolled simultaneously. The outcome of the first dice is

considered to be x and that of the second as y. Three events are defined as

Q= {(x,y) such that (x+y) is an even number}

R= {(x,y) such that (x+y)=7}

Which event conveys more information? Justify your answer with mathematical

calculation.

Solution:

To find which event conveys more information, we need to find the probabilities of the

events. Less probable the event, more will be the information conveyed.

To find the probabilities find the sets of sample space and events P, Q and R.

S

(2,1), (2,2), (2,3), (2,4), (2,5), (2,6)

(3,1), (3,2), (3,3), (3,4), (3,5), (3,6)

(5,1), (5,2), (5,3), (5,4), (5,5), (5,6)

(6,1), (6,2), (6,3), (6,4), (6,5), (6,6)}

P

= {(1,2), (1,5), (2,1), (2,4), (3,3), (3,6), (4,2), (4,5), (5,1), (5,4), (6,3), (6,6)}

Q = {(1,1), (1,3), (1,5), (2,2), (2,4), (2,6), (3,1), (3,3), (3,5), (4,2), (4,4), (4,6), (5,1), (5,3),

(5,5), (6,2), (6,4), (6,6)}

R

12

P (P) = 36

18

P (Q) = 36

6

P (R) = 36

statement can be justified by considering the self information of the events P, Q and R.

1

Ik

= 2 bits

IP

= 2 ()

Similarly

IQ

= 2 ()

1

= 2 1836 = 1 bits

IR

= 2 ()

= 2

1

636

= 2.584 bits

A zero memory source or a Discrete Memoryless Source is the one in which the

emission of the current symbol is not dependent on the emissions of the previous symbols.

Consider a source emitting symbols

S= {s1, s2, s3, . . . sN} with respective probabilities

P= {p1, p2, p3, . . . pN}

Now consider a long message of length L emitted by the source. Then it contains

P1L number of symbols of s1

P2L number of symbols of s2

...

...

...

PNL number of symbols of sN

1

Is1= 2 1 bits

1

p1L number of s1 symbols are present on an average in a length of L symbols.

1

1

1

2

bits.

...

...

...

1

Therefore the total information conveyed by the source is simply the sum of all these

information contents.

1

1

denoted by its entropy H(S), which is given by the expression,

H(S)=

ITotal

1

1

1

H(S)

=

=1 pk log 2 bits/ sym

(2.6)

Equation (2.6) gives the expression for the average information content of a source S.

The average rate of information can also be defined for an information system if the

symbol rate or the baud rate of the system is known. If the baud rate of the system is

rs sym/ sec, then the average rate of information is given by

RS= H(S) * rs bits/ sec

(2.7)

Example 2.4 A discrete memoryless source emits 5 symbols in every 2ms. The symbol

probabilities are {0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0625}. Find the average information rate of

the source.

Solution:

H(S)

1

= 0.52 0.5+ 0.252 0.25+ 0.1252 0.125+ 0.06252 0.0625+ 0.06252 0.0625

=1.875 bits/sym

Average rate of information is given by

RS= H(S) * rs bits/ sec

Where

rs is the symbol rate

In the problem it is given that a symbol is emitted for every 2ms.

rs = 1/2X10-3 = 500 sym/sec

RS= 1.875 * 500 = 937.5 bits/ sec

Example 2.5 A discrete source emits one of the following 5 symbols in every 1s. The

symbol probabilities are {1/4, 1/8, 1/8, 3/16, 5/16}. Find the average information content

of the source in nats/sym and Hartley/sym.

Solution:

The average information content of the source is nothing but the source entropy which is

given by

H(S)

1

=1.543 nats/sym

H(S)

= 5=1 10

1

Hartley/ sym

=0.6704 Hartley/sym

Example 2.6 The output of an information source contain 160 symbols, 128 of which

occurs with a probability of 1/256 and remaining with a probability of 1/64 each. Find

the average information rate of the source if the source emits 10,000 sym/sec.

Solution:

The source entropy is given by

H(S)

= 160

=1 2

1

= 128* 256 2

1

1

256

+ 32* 64 2

1

1

64

= 7 bits/sym

Average rate of information is given by

RS= H(S) * rs bits/ sec

Where

rs is the symbol rate given as 10,000 sym/sec in the problem

RS= 7 * 10000 = 70000 bits/ sec

Example 2.7 The international Morse code uses a sequence of symbols of dots and

dashes to transmit letters of English alphabet. The dash is represented by a current

pulse of duration 2ms and dot of 1ms. The probability of dash is half as that of dot.

Consider 1ms duration of gap is given in between the symbols. Calculate

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Solution:

Let Pdot and Pdash be the probabilities of dot and dash respectively.

1

Also Pdot+Pdash = 1

1

Pdot+ 2 Pdot = 1

2

Pdot = 3

1

(i)

Idot

= 2

=

1

2 23 =

0.5849 bits

Idash= 2

= 2 13 = 1.5849 bits

(ii)

H(S)

= 2=1 2

1

= pdot2 + pdash 2

= 0.9182 bits/sym

(iii)

From the probabilities of dot and dash, it is clear that for every three symbols

transmitted there will be one symbol of type dash and two of type dot. Also

the duration of dash is 2ms and that of dot is 1ms and 1ms gap is left in

between the symbols as follows

.._.._.._

Therefore a total of (1ms+1ms+1ms+1ms+2ms+1ms=) 7ms time is required to

transmit 3 symbols.

Therefore the symbol rate is given by,

3

rs= 7 =

Rs

3000

7

sym/ sec

= H(S) * rs

= 0.9182 *

3000

7

= 393.51 bps

The following are the properties of entropy:

system is the same irrespective of the order in which the symbols are arranged in the

list.

Inorder to define the condition for the upper bound on entropy, consider the following

scenarios when election results declared in case of

(B) One contestant is very strong and other one is least expected to win.

Amongst the two scenarios given above, the result in the first case would give

maximum information as the winning probabilities of both candidates are same. However in

the second case as one of the candidates is very strong and expected to win, the election result

conveys very little information.

In other words, the entropy of a source will be maximum if all its symbol probabilities

are equal. Let us derive the expression for the maximum entropy of a source.

Consider the term,

1

Log2N-H(S) = Log2N-

=1 2

(2.8)

We have sum of all symbol probabilities emitted by a source is unity.

i.e

=1 = 1

Multiplying this term to the first term of the RHS of equation (2.8) will not alter the

equality.

Log2N-H(S)

=

=1 pk log2N- =1 pk log 2

=

=1 pk [ log2N- log 2 ]

=

=1 pk log2(Npk)

Log2N-H(S)

= log2e

=1 pk ln(Npk)

(2.9)

ln

1

x

1-x

(2.10)

Above relation turns to be an equation if x=1. Let us reproduce the RHS of equation

(2.9) starting from the relation given in (2.10). Further comparing the LHS of equation (2.9)

we can deduce the upper bound for H(S).

1

Substitute x= NP

ln Npk 1- NP

=1 pk

1

log2e

=1 pk ln Npk log2e =1 pk [1- NP ]

k

The LHS of the above relation represents Log2N-H(S) from the equation (2.9).

Log2N-H(S) log2e

=1 pk [1- NP ]

k

Log2N-H(S) log2e [

=1 pk - =1 ]

N

N

But

=1 pk = 1 and k=1 N = N + N + N + N (N times) = 1

Log2N-H(S) log2e [1 -1 ]

Log2N-H(S) 0

H(S) Log2N

(2.11)

1

The efficiency of an information source is defined as the ratio of the average

information conveyed by the source to that of the maximum average information.

H(S)

S= H(S)

max

X 100 %

(2.12)

RS= 1- S

= [ 1=

H(S)

H(S)max

H(S)maxH(S)

H(S)max

X 100 %

(2.13)

Example 2.8 Consider a system emitting one of the three symbols A, B and C with

respective probabilities 0.7, 0.15 and 0.15 respectively. Calculate its efficiency and

redundancy.

Solution:

()

S= () X 100 %

H(S)

1

= 1.1812 bits/sym

H(S) max

= log2 N

= log2 3

= 1.5849 bits/sym

1.1812

= 1.5849 X 100 %

= 74.52%

RS= 1- S = 25.48%

Example 2.9 A certain digital frame consists of 15 fields. First and the last field of each

frame is the same. The remaining 13 fields can be filled by any of 16 symbols with equal

probability. Find the average information conveyed by the frame. Also find the average

rate of information if 100 frames are transmitted in every second.

Solution:

Consider the frame with 15 fields as shown below

1

10

11

12

13

14

15

The total average information conveyed by the source is simply the sum of the individual

entropies of each field in the frame.

i.e H(S)Total = H1+ H2+ H3+ . . . + H15

As the first and last fields are same for all frames, it conveys no information i.e, H1= H15 = 0

Remaining fields can be filled with one of the 16 symbols with equal probability. Therefore

the corresponding entropy is the maximum entropy H(S)max

H2= H3= . . . = H14= H(S) max = log2 N = log2 16= 4 bits/field

H(S)Total

= 13*4= 52 bits/frame

Rs= H(S) * rs

Given rs= 100 frames/sec

Rs = H(S) * rs

= 52*100

= 52,000 bps

Example 2.10 In a facsimile transmission of a picture there are 4X106 pixels/frame. For

a good reconstruction of the image atleast 8 brightness levels are necessary. Assuming

all these levels are equally likely to occur, find the average information rate if 1 picture

is transmitted for every 4 seconds.

Solution:

Total number of pixels = 4X 106

Total number of brightness levels = 8

Total number of different frames N = 84X 106

As all brightness levels are equally likely to occur, all these frames are equiprobable.

H(S) = H(S) max

= log 2N

6

= log 2 (84X 10 )

= 12 X 106 bits/frame

Rs = H(S) * rs

It is given that each picture frame is transmitted in 4 sec.

1

rs = 4frames/sec

Rs = H(S) * rs

= 12 X 106 X

1

4

= 3 X 106 bps

Consider a zero memory source emitting two symbols s1 and s2 with probabilities

p1 and p2 respectively.

Obviously p1+ p2= 1

Also the entropy of the source S is given by

1

(2.14)

Now consider the second order extension of the source S. This source is denoted as

S2. Now the source S2 will now have four combinations viz s1s1, s1s2, s2s1 and s2s2.

Corresponding probabilities are given by,

s1s2 = p(s1) p(s2) = p1 X p2 = p1. p2

s2s1 = p(s2) p(s1) = p2 X p1 = p2. p1

s2s2 = p(s2) p(s2) = p2 X p2 = p22

The entropy of the second order extension of the source is given by,

1

= p12log 2

2

1

+ p1p2log 2

1

12

= 2p12log 2 + 2p1p2log 2

1

+ p2p1log 2

1

12

1

21

+ p22log 2

+ 2p22log 2

1

2

2

1

H(S2)

1

1

H(S2)

= 2. H(S)

H(S3)

= 3. H(S)

H(S4)

= 4. H(S)

And so on

In general for an nth order extension of S

H(Sn)

= n. H(S)

(2.15)

Example 2.11 Consider a zero memory source emitting three symbols X, Y and Z with

respective probabilities {0.6, 0.3, 0.1}. Calculate

(i)

(ii)

extension of the source

(iii)

(iv)

Solution:

(i)

H(S)

1

= 1.2954 bits/sym

(ii)

Symbols

(iii)

H(S2)

Probability

XX

XY

XZ

YX

YY

YZ

ZX

ZY

ZZ

1

= 2.5909 bits/sym

(iv)

In the previous sections we have assumed the information source to be memoryless

for our analysis. In other words, we considered that the emission of the current symbol from

the source is independent of the previous emissions. But most of the sources we consider in

real time, do have memory. For instance, in English, if the first letter of a word is Q it is

more likely to occur that the succeeding letter would be U and so on. Thus in real time,

most of the sources are dependent. Hence the model we discussed for a memoryless source

would not suffice.

Thus a dependent probabilistic model is required to model such sources. One such

model is Markoff model. Thus a Markoff model is used to represent a source with memory.

In general for an nth order Markoff source, the emission of symbol s at the current instant is

dependent on its previous n symbols.

A system can be represented using a state diagram. A state diagram represents all

possible states of a system along with the transition probabilities. Also the symbols emitted

by the source in each of the transitions are depicted in a state diagram. From the state diagram

one can construct a tree diagram. From the tree diagram the probabilities of the symbols

emitted by the source can be determined. The probabilities of messages of length n can be

determined by constructing a tree diagram of n stages.

Let the entropy of state k is denoted by Hk. It can be obtained considering all

outgoing probabilities of state k.

Hk

=

=1 plk log 2

bits/ sym

(2.16)

=

=1 bits/ sym

(2.17)

Where pk is the probability of the kth state.

The average information rate of a source is given by,

Rs= rs H bits/ sec

(2.18)

2.5.3 Average Information per Symbol

The average information content per symbol in a message of length L is given by,

1

(2.19)

Where p(mi) is the probability of the messages of length L.

The average amount of information per symbol in a long message decreases with

increase in L and will be atleast equal to H(S).

i.e G1 G2 G3 . . . H(S)

In other words = H(S)

(2.20)

Example 2.12 Consider the following Markoff source shown in Fig. 2.1.

Find

(i)

State probabilities

(ii)

State entropies

(iii)

Source entropy

(iv)

G1, G2

Solution:

(i)

To find the state probabilities we have to first write the state equations. State

equations can be written by considering all incoming transition probabilities of the

states.

Consider the equation for state 1

1

(2.21)

Similarly for state 2,

2

(2.22)

Also the sum of all state probabilities is equal to one.

i.e P(1)+P(2)=1

(2.23)

From Eq. (2.21)

1

P(1)- 3P(1) =

2

3

2

3

P(2)

P(1)= 3 P(2)

P(1)= P(2)

Substituting this in Eq. (2.23)

P(1)+P(1)=1

1

P(1)= 2 = P(2)

(ii)

To find the state entropy we need to consider all outgoing probabilities of the

states.

We have

1

=

=1 2 bits/ sym

Hk

For state 1,

1

H1= 3 2 1 + 3 2

3

1

2

3

= 0.918 bits/sym

1

H2= 3 2 1 + 3 2

3

1

2

3

= 0.918 bits/sym

(iii)

H =

=1 bits/ sym

= P(1) H1+ P(2) H2

1

(iv)

To find G1 and G2, we need to construct the tree diagram. It is as shown in figure

2.2.

From the tree diagram, we can find the probabilities of all messages of lengths 1 and two

by considering the output of stage 1 and 2.

There are two possible messages of length 1 viz A and B. The corresponding probabilities

are

1

P(A) = 2 P(B) = 2

Corresponding information per symbol G1 is given by,

1

L= 1

Figure 2.2 Tree Diagram for the Markoff Source shown in Fig. 2.1

G1 = 1 ()2 ()

=

1

2

2 1 + 2 2

2

1

1

2

= 1 bits / sym

Similarly from the second stage of the tree we can get the probabilities of all symbols of

length two which are given as follows:

1

P(AA) = 6

P(AB) = 3

P(BA) = 3

P(BB) = 6

G2 = 2 ()2 ()

=

1

2

[ 6 2 1 + 3 2

6

1

1

3

1

3

2 1 + 6 2 1 ]

3

= 0.959 bits/sym

(v)

Obviously G1>G2>H

Find

(i)

State probabilities

(ii)

State entropies

(iii)

Source entropy

(iv)

G1, G2

(v)

Solution:

(i)

5

(2.24)

Similarly for state 2,

1

(2.25)

Also P(1)+P(2)=1

(2.26)

From Eq. (2.24)

P(1)=

18

P(2)

18

5

P(2)+ P(2)=1

5

P(2)= 23

18

P(1) =23

(ii)

We have

=

=1 2

Hk

bits/ sym

For state 1,

1

H1= 6 2 1 + 6 2

6

1

5

6

= 0.65 bits/sym

3

H2= 5 2 3 + 5 2

5

1

2

5

= 0.9709 bits/sym

(iii)

H =

=1 bits/ sym

= P(1) H1+ P(2) H2

= 0.7197 bits/sym

(iv)

To find G1 and G2, we need to construct the tree diagram. It is as shown in figure

2.4.

Figure 2.4 Tree Diagram for the Markoff Source shown in Fig. 2.3

There are two possible messages of length 1 and the corresponding probabilities are

15

P(X) = 23

2

P(Y) = 23

6

P(Z) = 23

Corresponding information per symbol G1 is given by,

1

L= 1

1

G1 = 1 ()2 ()

Similarly from the second stage of the tree we can get the probabilities of all symbols

of length two which are given as follows:

25

P(XX) = 46

5

P(XZ) = 46

1

P(ZZ) = 10

6

P(ZY) = 115

5

P(ZX) = 46

6

P(YZ) = 115

4

P(YY) = 115

1

G2 = 2 ()2 ()

= 1.0597 bits/sym

(v)

Obviously G1>G2>H

Find

(i)

State probabilities

(ii)

State entropies

(iii)

Source entropy

Solution:

(i)

P(A)= 0.6 P(A) + 0.5 P(D)

(2.27)

P(B)= 0.4 P(A) + 0.5 P(D)

(2.28)

P(C)= 0.5 P(B) + 0.6 P(C)

(2.29)

P(D)= 0.5 P(B) + 0.4 P(C)

(2.30)

Also P(A)+P(B) +P(C) +P(D)=1

(2.31)

From Eq. (2.27)

P(A) =

5

4

P(D)

P(B) = P(D)

From Eq. (2.29)

P(C) =

5

4

P(D)

5

4

P(D)+ P(D) +

5

4

P(D) + P(D) = 1

P(D)= 9 = P(B)

P(A) =

(ii)

5

4

P(D) = 18

We have

Hk

=

=1 2 bits/ sym

For state A,

1

= 0.9709 bits/sym

For state B,

1

= 1 bits/sym

For state C,

1

= 0.9709 bits/sym

Finally for state D,

1

= 1 bits/sym

(iii)

H =

=1 bits/ sym

= P(A) HA+ P(B) HB + P(C) HC+ P(D) HD

= 0.9838 bits/sym

Example 2.15 Design a system to report the heading of collection of 400 cars. The

heading levels are heading straight (S), turning left (L) and turning right (R). This

information is to be transmitted every second. Construct a model based on the test data

given below.

(i)

On an average during reporting interval, 200 cars were heading straight, 100

were turning left and remaining were turning right.

(ii)

Out of 200 cars that reported heading straight 100 of them reported going

straight during next reporting period. 50 of them turning left and remaining

turning right during the next period.

(iii)

Out of 100 cars that reported as turning during a signaling period, 50 of them

continued the turn and remaining headed straight during next signaling

interval.

(iv)

The dynamics of the cars did not allow them to change their heading from

left to right or right to left during subsequent reporting periods.

Find the entropies of each states, source entropy and rate of information.

Solution:

There are three states in the model.

Heading straight (S)

Turning left (L)

Turning right (R)

The Markoff model can be constructed based on the data given in the problem.

It is given that 200 cars were heading straight, 100 were turning left and remaining

100 were turning right in any turning interval on an average. And there are 400 cars in total.

200

100

100

P(S) = 400 = 2

P(L) = 400 = 4

P(R) = 400 = 4

Also from the second and third statements the transition probabilities can be

determined. The model constructed based on the given data is as shown in Fig. 2.6.

1

=

=1 2 bits/ sym

Hk

For state S,

1

= 1.5 bits/sym

For state L,

1

= 1 bits/sym

For state R,

1

= 1 bits/sym

Source entropy is given by

H =

=1 bits/ sym

= P(S) HS+ P(L) HL + P(R) HR

= 1.25 bits/sym

Rs

= rs H bits/ sec

Rs

MATALB PROGRAMS

year for around 200 students of E & C branch of NITK. The

students can get into one of the three fields as given below.

(i) Go abroad for higher studies ? A

(ii) Join MBA or IAS ? B

(iii) Join industry in India ? C

Based on the data given below, construct the state diagram of

the source model and find the source entropy.

(a) On the average 100 students are going abroad.

(b) Out of 100 going abroad this year, 50 were reported going

abroad next year while 25 each went to MBA & IAS or joined

industries in India.

(c) Out of 100 remaining in India this year, 50 continued to

do so while 50 went abroad next year.

(d) Those joining MBA & IAS or industry could not swap the two

fields next year.

%source model

clc

paa = 0.5;

pab = 0.25;

pac = 0.25;

pba = 0.5;

pbb = 0.5;

pbc = 0;

pca = 0.5;

pcb = 0;

pcc = 0.5;

pa = [paa pab pac];

pa1 = -log(pa)/log(2);

pb = [pba pbb ];

pb1 = -log2(pb);

pc = [pca pcc];

pc1 = -log2(pc);

P = [

1

1

-0.5 0.5

0.25 -0.5

b = [ 1 ; 0; 0];

a = P\b;

1;

0.5;

0];

PA = a(1);

PB = a(2);

PC = a(3);

ha = pa.*pa1;

hb = pb.*pb1;

hc = pc.*pc1;

HA = sum(ha);

HC = sum(hc);

HB = sum(hb);

h = [HA HB HC];

A = a';

H = sum(h.*A)

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

fprintf

('PA = %f\n\n',PA);

('Paa = %f\n',paa);

('Pab = %f\n',pab);

('Pac = %f\n\n',pac);

('The entropy of the source A is %f bit/message-symbol \n\n', HA);

('FOR SOURCE B\n\n');

('PB = %f\n\n',PB);

('Pba = %f\n',pba);

('Pbb = %f\n',pbb);

('Pbc = %f\n\n',pbc);

('The entropy of the source B is %f bit/message-symbol\n\n', HB);

('FOR SOURCE C\n\n');

('PC = %f\n\n',PC);

('Pca = %f\n',pca);

('Pcb = %f\n',pcb);

('Pcc = %f\n\n',pcc);

('The entropy of the source C is %f bit/message-symbol\n\n', HC);

('The total entropy of the source is %f bits/message-symbol', H);

ESSENCE

probability of occurrence.

1

Ik = units

1

=

=1 2 bits/ sym

H(S)

RS= H(S) * rs bits/ sec

H(S)max = Log2N bits/ sym

H(Sn) = n. H(S)

probabilities of state k

1

Hk =

=1 2 bits/ sym

H =

=1 bits/ sym

1

EXERCISE

1. Define information.

2. Explain how information is measured. Justify the usage of logarithmic function to

measure the information.

3. Consider a system emitting three symbols {X, Y, Z} with probabilities 0.5, 0.3 and

0.2 respectively. Find the information conveyed each of these symbols.

4. Establish a relationship between Hartley and nats

5. Establish a relationship between nats and bits

6. Consider a binary system emitting symbols with probabilities 0.7 and 0.3. Find the

self information of each of the symbols in nats and Hartley.

7. A pair of die is rolled simultaneously. The outcome of the first dice is considered to

be x and that of the second as y. Three events are defined as

A= {(x,y) such that (x+y) is exactly divisible by 4}

B= {(x,y) such that 3 (x+y) 8 }

C= {(x,y) such that (x+y) is a prime number}

Which event conveys more information? Justify your answer with mathematical

calculation.

8. A source emits 6 symbols in every 4ms. The symbol statistics are {0.3, 0.22, 0.20,

0.12, 0.10, 0.06}. Find the average information rate of the source.

9. The output of an information source consists of 100 symbols, 60 of which occurs with

a probability of 1/120 and remaining with a probability of 1/80 each. Find the average

information rate of the source if the source emits 2100 sym/sec.

10. A Morse code uses a sequence of symbols of dots and dashes to transmit the

information. The dash is represented by a pulse of duration 3ms and dot of 1ms. The

probability of dash is one third as that of dot. Consider 1ms duration of gap is given in

between the symbols. Calculate

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

11. Consider a binary source emitting two symbols X and Y. Let the probability of

emission of X be p. Plot the function H(S) as a function of p.

12. Consider a system emitting four symbols A, B, C and D with respective probabilities

0.5, 0.3, 0.15 and 0.05 respectively. Calculate its efficiency and redundancy.

13. A data frame consists of 10 fields. First field in each frame is the same for some

synchronization purpose. However the remaining fields can be filled by any of 32

symbols with equal probability. Find the average rate of information if 500 frames are

transmitted in every second.

14. In a facsimile transmission of a picture there are 2.6X106 pixels/frame. For a good

reconstruction of the image atleast 12 brightness levels are necessary. Assuming all

these levels are equally likely to occur, find the average information rate if 1 picture is

transmitted for every 4 seconds.

15. Consider a zero memory source emitting two symbols A and B with respective

probabilities {0.6, 0.4}. Calculate

(i)

(ii)

extension of the source. Find the entropy of the third order extension of

the source

(iii)

Find

(i)

State probabilities

(ii)

State entropies

(iii)

Source entropy

(iv)

G1, G2

(v)

Find

(i)

State probabilities

(ii)

State entropies

(iii)

Source entropy

(iv)

G1, G2

(v)

18. Design a system to report the speed of collection of 200 cars on a highway. The speed

levels can be High (H), Medium (M) and Slow (S). This information is to be

transmitted every 2 second. Construct a model based on the test data given below.

(i)

speed, 50 were in High and remaining were Slow pace.

(ii)

continue in the same pace during next reporting period. 25 of them

next period.

(iii)

Out of 50 cars that are reported as going in High or Low pace during a

signaling period, 25 of them continued in the same pace and remaining

went to Medium pace during next signaling interval.

(iv)

The rules of the Highway authority restrict the change from High to

Low or Low to High pace during subsequent reporting periods.

Find the entropies of each states, source entropy and rate of information.

REFERENCES

[1] K. Sam Shanmugam, Digital and Analog Communication Systems, John Wiley, 1996.

[2] Simon Haykin, Digital Communication, John Wiley, 2003.

[3] Ranjan Bose, Information Theory Coding and Cryptography, Tata McGraw Hill, 2007.

[4] Simon Haykin, Michael Moher, Modern Wireless Communications, Pearson Education

2007.

[5] C E Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication, Vol 27, Bell System

Technical Journal, 1948.

[6] Ian A Glover, Peter M Grant, Digital Communications, Pearson Education, 2004.

[7] Bernard Sklar, Pabitra Kumar Ray, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and

Applications, Pearson Education.

[8] Andrea Goldsmith, Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

[9] John G Proakis, Masoud Salehi, Contemporary Communication System using

MATLAB, PWS Publishing Company.

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