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CAN

Controller
Area
Network

Serial bus system

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Industrial requirement on the CAN-bus


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Reduction in cables
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Environmental compatibility

Convenience

Efficiency

Driving safety

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Real-time
capable!

Quality
and
reliability
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Linear bus

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Ring bus

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Star bus

Disadvantages of line bus

Advantages of line bus

Reliable plug connections, e.g. low


susceptibility to interference

Wiring less complex, more cost effective

Installation easier, changes can be made


more easily

Additional elements (e.g. control


components) can be integrated

Installation location can be changed without


electrical problems

Cable system becomes diagnosable

Data access possible at any point

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More software required


Unwanted interaction effects more probable
Increased risk of immature technology in the
customer's hands

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Nodes n
(max. 30)

Node 1

CAN bus line

Bus level
(V)

recessive

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dominant

recessive

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Time

3.75 V

CAN-H
2.5 V

CAN-L
1.25 V

2.5 V

CAN-D
0V

CAN-H CAN-L = CAN differential signal


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Bus termination
Resistors for avoiding reflections
Terminating resistor at both ends with
120
Depending on the station, this can be
switched on in the software

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CAN bus example

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Data protocol

Ack Field
Arbitration Field

Data Field

CRC Field

Control Field

End of Frame

Start of Frame

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The Start of Frame


identifies a message and synchronised all stations.

The Arbitration Field


consists of a message identifier (11 bit) and a control bit. While this field is
being transferred, the transmitter checks with each bit whether it is still clear
to send, or if there is another station transmitting with higher priority. The
control bit determines whether the message is a data frame or a remote
frame.

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The Control Field


contains the code for the number of data bytes in the data field.

The Data Field


transfers important information for the other stations.
The information content is between 0 and 8 bytes
(1 byte = 8 bits), max. 64 bits.

The CRC Field


is used for detecting a disruption in transmission.

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In the Ack Field


the receivers indicate to the transmitter that they have received the message
correctly.
If an error is detected, they notify the transmitter immediately. Following that,
the transmitter repeats its transmission.

The message ends with the End of Frame.


This is the last possibility for reporting errors in order to prompt a repetition.

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CAN bus frame measured with Gemac tester

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Resistance measurement

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Ohmic measurement of the CAN-H and CAN-L cables

The measuring points must be taken from the


electrical diagram

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If the CAN bus is intact, the resistance between


CAN-H and CAN-L is 60

Parallel connection law of resistors

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If the CAN bus is faulty, the resistance between


CAN-H and CAN-L is 120

Parallel connection law of resistors

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2.2 -2.8 V

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What to do if there is a fault? - Fault analysis


e.g. 40

e.g. 0

Terminating resistance measurement:

e.g. 0.1V

e.g. 280

The measured value is 40 or 30:

Level measurement:

There are one or two terminating resistors too many

The measured value is significantly greater


than 60:

The measured value is significantly less


than 2.2 V:
There is a short circuit or transition resistance to the measured
bus cable and T31

The measured value is less than 60 or


even 0:
There is a short circuit between the bus cables

e.g. 23V

The measured value is significantly greater


than 2.8 V:
There is a short circuit or transition resistance to the measured
bus cable and +24 V.

There is a transition resistance on the bus cable;


Terminating resistors are missing

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