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Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

LECTURE 1
Basic concepts in Geophysical
Fluids Dynamics
I- Basic Laws and Notions
1) Newtons Laws of Motion
2) Forces, work, energy
3) Flow, Flux and Transport
II- Important Notions in Geophysical
Fluids Dynamics (GFD)
1) Why do we define the cube?
2) Coordinate System
3) Dominant Forces
4) Temperature (and Salinity)
III- Derivation of the Forces in GFD
1) Pressure
a) E-Laboratory
b) Horizontal pressure
c) Vertical pressure
d) Hydrostatic balance
e) Examples

III- Derivation of the Forces in GFD (cont.)

2) Buoyancy
a) E-laboratory
b) Archimedes Principle
c) Stratification and Compressibility
d) BruntVisl frequency
3) Compressible Fluids
a) Irreversibility and Entropy
b) E-Laboratory
c) Adiabatic Process
d) Effect of Compressibility
e) Stratification and Compressibility

III- Derivation of the Forces in GFD (cont.)


4) Earth rotation
a) Effect of the Earth rotation
b) Coriolis Acceleration and Force
c) Geostrophic balance
d) Rossby Number
e) Centripetal Acceleration
f) Curvature terms
5) Friction
a) E-Laboratory
b) Definitions
c) Molecular viscosity
d) Turbulence
e) Expression of the friction
f) Wind and bottom frictions
g) Reynolds Number

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 1. Newtons Laws of Motion

Newtons Laws of Motion


The three laws of motion were first
compiled by Isaac Newton in his
Philosophi
Naturalis
Principia
Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of
Natural Philosophy), first published in
1687.
Newton used them to explain and
investigate the motion of many physical
objects and systems.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 1. Newtons Laws of Motion

1) First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object


either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by
a force
In other words:
If the vector sum of all forces acting on an object (i.e. net force) is zero,
then the velocity of the object is constant.
Velocity is a vector quantity which expresses both the object's speed and
the direction of its motion; therefore, the statement that the object's
velocity is constant is a statement that both its speed and the direction of
its motion are constant.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 1. Newtons Laws of Motion
Mathematical expression of the
first law:

= = 0 =
=1

where
is the net force in Newton
(N=kg.m.s-2)
n is the total number of forces
is the velocity (m.s-1)
is the displacement of the
object (m)
t is the time (s)
is a constant vector (m.s-1)

= 0
=1

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 1. Newtons Laws of Motion

2) Second law: The acceleration of a body is directly


proportional to, and in the same direction as, the net force
acting on the body, and inversely proportional to its mass
Mathematical expression of the second law

=
= 2 =

=1

where
is the acceleration of the
object (m.s-2)
m is the mass of the object
(kg)

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 1. Newtons Laws of Motion
3) Third law: When one body
exerts a force on a second
body, the second body
simultaneously exerts a force
equal in magnitude and
opposite in direction to that
of the first body.
if one object A exerts a force
on a second object B, then B
simultaneously exerts a force
on A, and the two forces are
equal and opposite

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 2. Forces, work and energy
Skater Simulator
http://www.cpalms.org/RESOURCES/URLresourcebar.aspx?Resource
ID=PZabyusqjLo=D

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 2. Forces, work and energy
Skater at rest on the horizontal part of
the ramp:

Third law of Newton:


= =

skater

Where
m is the mass (kg)
g is the gravitational acceleration
(m.s-2)

center of gravity of the skater

MAR 561 - Physical Oceanography

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 2. Forces, work and energy
No normal movement:
= = cos

= gcos

Skater moving on the ramp:

Second Law of Newton:


+ =

Projected following x:
Projected following z:

2
2

2
2

=
=

=
2
2

=
= 2

=
(2 + 1)
2

=
2

=
2. 2 +1 + 0
2

2
4
2

(2 1) = 2 1 . 2 + 1 + 0
2 =

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 2. Forces, work and energy
Work:

The work () done by a resultant force or net force on a body that moves with a
()
displacement = () is:

=
.
()

Units:
Force: N=kg.m.s-2
Displacement: m

Work: . = kg.m2.s2= J (Joule)

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 2. Forces, work and energy
Kinetic Energy:

The kinetic energy ( ) of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion.
The principle of work () and kinetic energy ( ) - also known as the work-energy

principle - states that the work done by the resultant force or net force on a body ()
equals the change in the kinetic energy ( ) of the body:


= = .

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 2. Forces, work and energy
Assumptions:

Net Force:

second law of Newton

with m the mass, the velocity, t the time and the acceleration

()
Displacement: = () - this is a small displacement
()
Work:


=
= = .
. . . . = .

= = .

and we have: .
= 2 = 2.
2 2.

1
2

Energy:
1
1
2
= = = 2
2
2

1
2

= 2 2
1

= 2 2 (Joule)

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 2. Forces, work and energy
Potential Energy:

The potential energy ( ) of an object is the energy due to the position of the object.
A conservative force ( ) is a force that depends only of the position of the object.
The principle of work ( ) and potential energy ( ) states that the work done by a
conservative force on a body ( ) equals to minus the change in the potential energy
( ) due to that force:

=
The kinetic energy is applied to the net force of the system while the potential
energy is only applied to the conservative forces of the system!

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 2. Forces, work and energy
Assumptions:
Conservative Force:

Displacement: = ()
()
Work: = = . = + +

Energy: =

0
0
Case of the gravity:
= =
where m is the

= (Joule)
mass (kg) and g the gravitational acceleration (m.s-2)
h vertical displacement (m)
= = . = mg =
m mass (kg)
g gravitational acceleration (m.s-2)

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 2. Forces, work and energy
Heat:

The Heat () is the energy in transfer between a system and its surroundings other
than by work or transfer of matter. The transfer can occur in two simple ways,
conduction, and radiation, and in a more complicated way called convective circulation.
Heat is not a property or component or constituent of a body itself.
The heat can be defined as follow:
= (Joule)

Total energy:

is the specific heat(J.kg-1.C-1)


the difference in temperature (C)
m is the mass (kg)
= + + (Joule)

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 3. Flow, Flux and Transport
Flow:
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/fluid-pressure-and-flow

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 3. Flow, Flux and Transport
Flow:

The flow is defined as the quantity of fluid (gas, liquid or vapor) that passes a point per
unit time. =

103

Bernoulli Principle:
Daniel Bernoulli worked on the conservation of Energy.
We have seen that a moving body exchanges its kinetic
energy for potential energy when it gains height.
Bernoulli realized that in a similar way, a moving fluid
exchanges its kinetic energy for pressure.
Mathematically this law is
now written:

where
P, P1 and P2 is pressure in Pa
is the density of the fluid
V, V1 and V2 is its velocity

1 2
+ + =
2
A consequence of this law is that if the velocity increases then the pressure falls.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

I- BASIC LAWS AND NOTIONS


I- 3. Flow, Flux and Transport
Heat flux or thermal flux is the rate of
heat energy transfer through a given
surface.

=
. 2
Salt flux is the rate of mass of salt
transfer through a given surface.

=
. 2
The transport is the integral over a
surface of the flux:

= .

= .

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

II- IMPORTANT NOTIONS IN GFD


II- 1. Why do we define the cube?

1m

1m

1m

The atmosphere or the ocean contrarily to an object, doesnt have


a predefined shape. It is easy to weight an object but think about
it, how do you weight the ocean or the atmosphere?
A convenient way to study geophysical fluids is thus to take a small
volume of it and to see the properties of this portion of fluid =
we define THE CUBE!

Generations of students have been traumatized by THE CUBE but in fact it is just a
mind game consisting in simplifying the entire problem!
For example now I can define the fluid density () in kg.m-3 as the weight of the cube
as m= V and V=1m3!
It also means that generally, when studying geophysical fluids, we dont speak about
mass but much more about the density => m= V with V the volume!

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

II- IMPORTANT NOTIONS IN GFD


II- 2. Coordinate system
Coordinate systems:
The simplest systems used in GFD are the following:

Cartesian Coordinate System is the one which is used most commonly to derive the
equations because it is the most simple. We can describe most processes in Cartesian
coordinates without the mathematical complexity of spherical coordinates. The standard
convention in geophysical is x is to the east, y is to the north, and z is up.
f-Plane is a Cartesian coordinate system in which the Coriolis force is assumed constant. It is
useful for describing flow in regions small compared with the radius of the Earth and larger
than a few tens of kilometers.
-plane is a Cartesian coordinate system in which the Coriolis force is assumed to vary
linearly with latitude. It is useful for describing flow over large areas.
Spherical coordinates are used to describe flows that extend over large distances and in
numerical calculations of basin and global scale flows.
Descriptions of other systems can be found in geography and geodesy books.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

II- IMPORTANT NOTIONS IN GFD


II- 3. Dominant Forces
Dominant Forces:
Only a few forces are important in GFD:
gravity, buoyancy due to difference in density, pressure gradients and friction.
Gravity is the dominant force. The weight of the fluid produces pressure.
Buoyancy is the upward or downward force due to gravity acting on a parcel of
fluid that is more or less dense than other parcel of fluid at its level.
For example, cold air blowing over the sea cools surface waters causing them to be
more dense than the water beneath. Gravity acting on the difference in density
results in a force that causes the water to sink.
Horizontal pressure gradients are due to the varying weight of water in different
regions of the ocean.
Friction is the force acting on a body as it moves past another body while in
contact with that body.
For example, wind stress is the friction due to wind blowing across the sea surface.
It transfers horizontal momentum to the sea, creating currents. Wind blowing over
waves on the sea surface leads to an uneven distribution of pressure over waves.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

II- IMPORTANT NOTIONS IN GFD


II- 3. Dominant Forces
Dominant Forces:
Pseudo-forces are apparent forces that arise from motion in curvilinear or rotating coordinate systems.
Thus, writing the equations for inertial motion in a rotating coordinate system leads to additional force terms called
pseudo forces.
For example, Newton's first law states that there is no change in motion of a body unless a resultant force acts on
it. Yet a body moving at constant velocity seems to change direction when viewed from a rotating coordinate
system.
The change in direction is attributed to a pseudo-force, the Coriolis Force. Coriolis Force is the dominant pseudoforce influencing currents moving in a coordinate system fixed to the Earth.

Dominant Forces
Gravity

Gives rise to Pressure Gradients, Buoyancy.

Coriolis

Results from motion in a rotating coordinate system.

Friction

Is due to relative motion between two fluid parcels.


Wind stress is an important frictional force for the
ocean.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

II- IMPORTANT NOTIONS IN GFD


II- 4. Temperature (and Salinity)
Importance of Temperature
(and Salinity for oceans) distribution:
Changes in temperature (and salinity) can increase or decrease the density of a
fluid which can lead to convection.
For example, if water from the surface sinks into the deeper ocean, it retains a
distinctive relationship between temperature and salinity which helps
oceanographers track the movement of deep water.
In addition, temperature, (salinity,) and pressure are used to calculate
density.
The distribution of density inside the fluid is directly related to the
distribution of horizontal pressure gradients and buoyancy.
For all these reasons, we need to know the distribution of temperature,
(salinity,) and density in the fluid.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

II-IMPORTANT NOTIONS IN GFD


II- 4. Temperature

Atmospheric scientists are using the SI units which is K for the temperature.
However, Physical Oceanographers are NOT using the SI units for the TEMPERATURE
which is expressed in C instead of K!
Be aware!
Units are critical and you MUST pay attention to them before trying to calculate any
quantities.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


Pressure simulator:

III- 1. Pressure
III-1. a) E-Laboratory

http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/fluid-pressure-and-flow

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 1. Pressure
III-1. b) Horizontal Pressure
()

Second law of Newton:

=0
.
y ()

=
with m the mass in kilograms

Following the x-axis:

What is ?

= 1 2 is the resulting
pressure force.
What are 1 and 2 ?

()

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 1. Pressure
III-1. b) Horizontal Pressure

1 = 1
where
1 is the pressure

2 = 2
where
2 is the pressure

Second law of Newton following the x-axis:

= 1 2

1 2 1
1
=

1
=

And similarly:

1
=

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 1. Pressure
III-1. c) Vertical Pressure
()

Second law of Newton following the z-axis:


2
2

= +

=0

. 3 =

y ()

1
=

1
=

()

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 1. Pressure
III-1. d) Hydrostatic Balance
()

In the absence of flow:


=

=0
. 3 =
y ()

1
=0

=0

=0

balance of vertical forces


between pressure gradient and
gravity => hydrostatic balance:

()

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 1. Pressure
() III-1. d) Hydrostatic Balance

=0

If z =cst= 0 :

. 3 =
y ()

= 0

=

= + 0

with
= + and p =

()

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 1. Pressure
III-1. d) Hydrostatic Balance

Hydrostatic balance:

= 1

If z is not a constant:
2

= 4

= 2
= 3

=1

= 5

= +

At any depth, the pressure will simply be given by the atmospheric


pressure plus the weight of the water above the point where we
are measuring it.

3
4

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 1. Pressure
III-1. e) Examples
Case I. constant density fluid
The hydrostatic pressure will be given by:

= + 0
where
=+
= is the atmospheric pressure

=0

Where the sea surface height is sloped, then there will be


an additional contribution to the hydrostatic pressure
given by:

1
1
+
=
+ 0
0
0

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


Case II. two layer fluid

III- 1. Pressure
III-1. e) Examples

In this case, we have a sea surface height slope, as well as


a sloping interface between the two layers.
The interface deviation is given by: 1
In this case, the hydrostatic pressure in layer 2 at depth z
will be given by:

=0

= + 2 2 + 1 + 1 1 1 +
The horizontal contribution is given by:
1
1
1 + 2
1 + 1 +
=
+ 2
+ 1

1
1 1

2 1
1

with

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


Buoyancy simulator:

III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. a) E-Laboratory

http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/density-and-buoyancy/buoyancy_en.html

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. b) Archimedes Principle
()
Consider the following imaginary
situation. We have a motionless
=
sea where pressure is
in a hydrostatic balance. We take = 0
a small cube of water and
3
3
.
=

somehow (dont ask me how!)


=
replace it with water of different
y ()
density:

How would this affect the balance of


force?

is a mean density
=

()

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. b) Archimedes Principle
We assume at first the pressure distribution is unaffected, so that there will be no
horizontal density gradient and no horizontal flow. In the vertical, again the pressure
forces does not change but the gravitational force does, since the density and thus the
mass of water in the cube is different now. Newtons equation for the cube in the
vertical becomes:

0
= +

But, since the water column was originally in a hydrostatic balance before the change in
density:
+ = 0 + =
So the force balance can be written as:

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. b) Archimedes Principle
The cube experiences a force equal to the weight of the water it displaced. This is the
famous Archimedes' Principle, which states that the weight of an object placed in a fluid
is reduced by the weight of the fluid it displaces. This reduction in weight is called
buoyancy.
The net reduction of weight is due to pressure force applied from the surrounding fluid,
which is in hydrostatic balance.
The sign of the force depends on the difference between the original and the new
densities.
If < ,

> 0, the resultant force is upward, and

results in an upward flow lighter fluids tend to rise.


If > ,

heavier fluids tend to sink.

< 0, the resultant force is downward

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. c) Stratification and Compressibility
Geophysical fluids are stably stratified, that is, lighter fluid overlies heavier (denser)
fluid.
Generally, if a fluid parcel becomes denser than the parcel below it, the denser fluid will
sink and mix with the fluid below until the column is again stably stratified (convection).
Examples of processes that increase density are cooling at the oceans surface, or
evaporation, which increases salinity.
But what happens initially if a parcel of fluid is displaced a small amount vertically, so
that its density no longer matches that of the surrounding fluid?

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. c) Stratification and Compressibility
A water cube is moved from depth 1 to depth 2 in a water
column with density .

is a mean density

The cube initially had density 1 , but the surrounding fluid


has density 2 .
Does the parcel try to return to its original position?

It depends on the compressibility of the fluid.


Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. c) Stratification and Compressibility
Case I. Incompressible fluid (no change in density of the parcel with depth)
Cube retains its original density, so is less dense that the ambient fluid (same than what
we see before with the Archimedes principle) => upward buoyant force
Case II. Very compressible fluid (large change in density of the parcel with depth)
Cubes density increases with depth faster than the ambient density, and parcel
continues to sink to the bottom!

Case III. Slightly compressible fluid


Cubes density increases with depth more slowly than the ambient density, so the cube is
less dense than the surrounding fluid => upward buoyant force

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. c) Stratification and Compressibility
The ocean usually belongs to case III. In attempting to return to its original depth the
ocean cube will usually overshoot, so that it is then lighter than the ambient fluid. In this
case it experiences a downward buoyant force and continue to oscillate for some time
(see the E-laboratory with the ice cube!).

Assumption in coastal oceanography: the ocean is incompressible


If the ocean really was incompressible the sea level would rise of 2-3m. However for
coastal areas where the maximum depth reaches only 2000m, the incompressible
approximation is valid.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. d) BruntVisl Frequency
Lets solve our previous problem by considering the ocean as
an incompressible fluid!

is a mean density

A water cube is moved from depth 1 to depth 2 in a water


column with density .
The cube initially had density 1 , but the surrounding fluid
has density 2 .
Does the parcel try to return to its original position?
Density depends on the pressure, which according to the
hydrostatic relationship, depends on the depth, z.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. d) BruntVisl Frequency

Archimedes' principle and buoyancy:

We assume at first the pressure distribution is unaffected, so that there will be no


horizontal density gradient and no horizontal flow.
In the vertical, in this case, the pressure forces change with the depth such as at 2
before the cube is move we have:
+ 2 = 0 + = 2
as the force were at the equilibrium.
Once the cube is moved we have:

0
= + 1

But, since the pressure only depends


of the position 2 we can write:

1 + 2

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 2. Buoyancy
III-2. d) BruntVisl Frequency
for a small displacement
So for a small displacement we have:

2
= 2

and

2 1


with N

2 1

2 ()
=

the Brunt-Visl buoyancy frequency

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 3. Compressible Fluid
III-3. a) Irreversibility and Entropy
The idea of "irreversibility" is central to the understanding of entropy.
In thermodynamics, the forward processes for example pouring water from a pitcher - are
irreversible: they cannot happen in reverse, even though, on a microscopic level, no laws of physics are
being violated.
All real physical processes involving systems in everyday life, with many atoms or molecules, are
irreversible.
For an irreversible process in an isolated system, the thermodynamic state variable known as entropy is
always increasing.
In everyday life, there may be processes in which the increase of entropy is practically unobservable,
almost zero.
The statement of the fact that entropy never decreases is found in the second law of thermodynamics:
The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases,
because isolated systems spontaneously evolve toward thermodynamic equilibriumthe state of
maximum entropy. Since entropy increases as uniformity increases, the second law says qualitatively that
uniformity increases.
In a physical system, entropy provides a measure of (1) the amount of thermal energy that CANNOT be
used to do work or (2) how evenly energy (or some analogous property) is distributed in a system.
Work and heat are determined by a process that a system undergoes, and only occur at the boundary of a
system.
Entropy is a function of the state of a system, and has a value determined by the state variables of the
system.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


Example:

III- 3. Compressible Fluid


III-3. a) Irreversibility and Entropy

The flow of heat from a region of high temperature to a region of low temperature
is a spontaneous process it can proceed along by itself without needing any extra
external energy. When this process occurs, the hot region becomes cooler and the
cold region becomes warmer. Heat is distributed more evenly throughout the
system and the system's ability to do work has decreased because the temperature
difference between the hot region and the cold region has decreased.
Referring back to our definition of entropy, we can see that the entropy of this
system has increased.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 3. Compressible Fluid
III-3. b) E-Laboratory
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/states-of-matter-basics

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 3. Compressible Fluid
III-3. c) Adiabatic Process
An adiabatic process is a transfer of energy as work, occurring without transfer of heat
between a system and its surroundings. It thus means that an adiabatic process only occurs
if the entropy is constant.

Adiabatic Temperature Changes: the cloud formation


As air is heated it expands becoming less dense, and as a result, lighter.
Because it is lighter, it rises upwards above the cooler air. As it does so, this air continues to
expand. This is because there is less pressure higher in the atmosphere, allowing the air
molecules to spread out more.
In order to spread out, these molecules require energy. As they do so, they become less
agitated and vibrate slower. As a result, the temperature of these air molecules drops,
despite the fact that no heat has been removed from them. This process is referred to as
adiabatic cooling.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 3. Compressible Fluid
III-3. c) Adiabatic Process
As the air cools down, it again begins to fall towards
the surface of the Earth. As it sinks deep into the
atmosphere, the pressure from the weight of the air
above it pushes air molecules closer together,
causing them to become more agitated and heating
them up again. As a result, their temperature rises,
even though no heat has been added. This process is
referred to as adiabatic warming.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 3. Compressible Fluid
III-3. c) Adiabatic Process

Example of the ocean:

Pressure in the ocean increases greatly downward.


A parcel of water moving from one pressure to another will be compressed or expanded. When a
parcel of water is compressed adiabatically, that is, without exchange of heat, its temperature
increases. (This is true of any fluid or gas.) When a parcel is expanded adiabatically, its
temperature decreases. The change in temperature which occurs solely due to compression or
expansion does not represent a change in heat content of the fluid.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 3. Compressible Fluid
III-3. d) Effect of Compressibility
Adiabatic change in the ocean (as a compressible fluid) is thus linked to:
constant entropy
effect of the change of pressure on a parcel of fluid: change of form and
temperature of the cube => change of density of the cube!
The change of density of a parcel of fluid is varying with the pressure following:
with =

Which means that we consider that the temperature T is constant (and the salinity S is
constant for the ocean).
How can we link the change of density due to adiabatic change and due to ?

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 3. Compressible Fluid
III-3. d) Effect of Compressibility
We now consider the quantity:

where 0 and

for an adiabatic change = entropy constant: 0


Indeed if the change of pressure of a parcel is really small its adiabatic change
of temperature is also really small. And 0 means that the temperature T
is constant!
We can consider that temperature constant is the same than entropy constant
when 0 (it is an approximation) and this leads to the definition:

1
2

with the speed of the sound,


the entropy (constant)

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 3. Compressible Fluid
III-3. e) Stratification and Compressibility
for an incompressible fluid, we have seen that
the equation of the vertical motion of the cube is given by:
2 ()
=

2
0
Now that the fluid is compressible we have to add the change of density due to
adiabatic change:
2
0 2 = 2 [ 1 + ]

1
1 =
0 = 2 0

2
1
0 2 = 2 [ 1 2 0 ]



=
+

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 4. Earth Rotation and Coriolis
III-4. a) Earth Rotation

Earth rotation

Effect of the Earth rotation on one non


moving point at the surface of the globe:

Latitude

x
= y
z

Equator

0
= .
.

is the number of rotation/s

=
. .

If this point is now moving with a velocity : u =

Effect of the Earth rotation on one moving point at the

surface of the globe:


=

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 4. Earth Rotation
III-4. a) Earth Rotation
Effect of the Earth rotation on one moving point at the surface of the globe:

= . =

.
Dimension analysis:
Vertical velocities in the ocean: w 104 . 1
Horizontal velocities in the ocean:u, 101 . 1

. . + . .
. .
. .
Neglected in comparison with
the horizontal velocities!
Except for equatorial areas
where . and we cant
neglect the vertical velocities!

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 4. Earth Rotation
III-4. b) Coriolis
The Force due to the Coriolis effect is defined as: = in N/m3

. .

= 2. = 2 . . =
. .
2. . .
The Coriolis parameter is defined as: = .
At our latitude we can consider that = =

. ( ) .

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 4. Earth Rotation
III-4. c) Geostrophic Balance
The geostrophic balance is reached when the pressure gradient force is balanced by
the Coriolis effect. The direction of geostrophic flow is parallel to the isobars, with the
high pressure to the right of the flow in the Northern Hemisphere, and the high
pressure to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. When the balance is reached, the fluid
as a constant velocity and thus the first Law of Newton applies:
Coriolis effect Weight
= = 0 + + = 0

=1

Pressure force

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 4. Earth Rotation
III-4. c) Geostrophic Balance
If we project the balance we obtain:
1

+ = 0

1

= 0

1

+ . 2. = 0

Dimension analysis:
- density 103 . 3
- Difference of pressure over difference

of depth 104

- horizontal velocity 101 . 1


- acceleration due to gravity:
g 10 2 . 1
- Rotation of the earth
7.27 105 . 1

is in contradiction with the hydrostatic balance!


Problem
this
= . (. . )

How fast should the Earth rotate in order to not neglect the rotation on the z axis?
2. . . 10 . . .

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 4. Earth Rotation
III-4. d) Rossby Number
The notion of scale for Geophysical Fluids is defined when the Earth rotation is taken
into account.
We define the following length:
L (m) characteristic length of the flow (for example the distance between the center
of an anticyclonic flow and a depression)
U (m.s-1) characteristic horizontal velocity

T = (s) - characteristic time

The horizontal equations of the geostrophic balance are given by:

= 2.
= 2

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 4. Earth Rotation
III-4. d) Rossby Number
Scale of the Coriolis acceleration:
2 = (2)
Scale of the Relative acceleration:

2
= ( )

The non-dimensional Rossby Number is defined by the ratio of the Relative and
Coriolis accelerations such as:
2

=
=
2 2

large scale flows where Coriolis cant be neglected


For the atmosphere: L=1000 km and U = 20 m.s-1 = 0.137
For the ocean: L=100 km and U = 1 m.s-1 = 0.07

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 4. Earth Rotation
III-4. e) Curvature terms

Terrestrial coordinate system:


x and y coordinates: geopotential surface at the sea level
z coordinate: perpendicular direction to the geopotential surface
Real Geopotential surface: ellipsoidal with some irregularities of the order of 100m
Radius: ~6378.139 km at equator and ~6356.754 km at poles
Geopotential surface as a sphere: r = 6367.456 km with ~0.17% error.
The accelerations on the terrestrial system must then be projected on curvilinear
coordinate system with the following curvilinear terms:

+
following the x axis

+
following the y axis

2 + 2
following the z axis

These terms will be neglected in the Dynamics of Geophysical Fluids.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 4. Earth Rotation
III-4. e) Centripetal Acceleration

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 4. Earth Rotation
III-4. e) Centripetal Acceleration

Centripetal acceleration for


Geophysical Fluids as a potential function:

= 2 =

with the Earth radius, the perpendicular vector


and:

2 2
2

Similarly it is possible to define the gravitational acceleration as a potential


function (universal attraction law of Newton):

= 3 =
with M the mass of the Earth, G the gravitational force

and: =
We can then define:

= +

the total force potential or geopotential.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


Dimension analysis:
- acceleration due to gravity:
g 10 2 . 1
- Rotation of the earth
7.27 105 . 1
- Earth radius 6400 km

III- 4. Earth Rotation


III-4. e) Centripetal Acceleration

2 r

= 0.034

m. 1

=
290
290

Conclusion:
The centripetal force can be neglected in comparison with the gravitational acceleration!

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


Friction simulator:

III- 5. Friction
III-5. a) E-Laboratory

http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/friction/friction_en.html

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 5. Friction
III-5. b) Definitions

Friction, viscosity and boundary layers:

Throughout most of the interior of the ocean and atmosphere, friction is relatively
small, and we can safely assume that the flow is frictionless.
At the boundaries, friction, in the form of viscosity, becomes important. This thin,
viscous layer is called a boundary layer.
Within the boundary layer, the velocity slows from values typical of the interior to
zero at a solid boundary.

If the boundary is not solid, then there is a thin layer of rapidly changing velocity
whereby velocity on one side of the boundary changes to match the velocity on the
other side of the boundary.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


Definition:

III- 5. Friction
III-5. c) Molecular Viscosity

Molecules in a fluid close to a solid boundary sometime strike the boundary


and transfer momentum to it.

Molecules colliding with the wall and with each other transfer momentum
from the fluid to the wall, slowing the fluid velocity.
Molecules further from the boundary collide with the molecules that have struck the boundary, further
transferring the momentum into the interior of the fluid.
Molecules, however, travel only micrometers between collisions, and the process is very inefficient for
transferring momentum even a few centimeters.
Molecular viscosity is important only within a few millimeters of a boundary.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 5. Friction
III-5. c) Molecular Viscosity

Expression:

For a Newtonian Fluid the Kinematic Friction is given by:

= +

If we only treat the term , the molecular viscosity is expressed in function of the kinematic

molecular viscosity ( = ) via a stress (T).

The form of the stress tensor (nine components of stress at a point in the fluid) can be given by:

, = , =
following the x axis

=
, = , =
following the y axis

=
, =
, =
following the z axis

Typically = 10-6m2/s for water at 20C.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 5. Friction
III-5. d) Turbulence
Definition and expression:
As the molecular viscosity is important only over distances of a few millimeters, and as it is not important
for most oceanic flows, unless of course you are a zooplankton trying to swim in the ocean, how then is
the influence of a boundary transferred into the interior of the flow? The answer is: through turbulence.
The effects of the turbulence can be expressed as follow by the so-called Reynolds Stresses:

, =
, =
following the x axis

=
, =
, =
following the y axis

=
, =
, =
following the z axis

Where , (~ 10 m2s1) (~ 10-4 m2s-1).are the turbulent eddy viscosities. They cannot be calculated
accurately for most oceanic flows. They can be estimated from measurements of turbulent flows.
Measurements in the ocean, however, are difficult.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 5. Friction
III-5. e) Expression
For an incompressible fluid, the frictional force
per unit mass takes the from:

1 + + +

+
+
+

3
1 + y + y + y

=
+
+
+

3
1 + z + +

=
+
+
+

3
=

However the effects of the friction , in the ocean is much more important following the vertical than
following the horizontal and the friction terms can be written as following:

+
+
+

+
+
+ with , and the dissipation due to friction

+
+
+

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


Wind stress:

III- 5. Friction
III-5. f) Surface and Bottom Friction

At the surface of the ocean, the turbulent friction is equal to the wind stress - = , .

The wind stress is the shear stress exerted by the wind on the surface of large bodies of water such as oceans,
seas, estuaries and lakes. It is the force component parallel to the surface, per unit area, as applied by the wind
on the water surface. The wind stress is affected by the wind speed, the shape of the wind waves and the
atmospheric stratification. It is one of the components of the airsea interaction, with others being the
atmospheric pressure on the water surface, as well as the exchange of heat and mass between the water and the
atmosphere.
=

where (kg.m-3) is the density of the air, (m.s-1) is the wind vector at 10m height (in general)
and is the wind-drag coefficient (a dimensionless quantity). is defined by empirical formulations
taking into account the sea state.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


Bottom stress:

III- 5. Friction
III-5. g) Surface and Bottom Friction

At the bottom of the ocean, the turbulent friction is equal to the bottom stress - = , .

The bottom stress is the shear stress due to the effect of the bathymetry of the ocean on the ocean
flows. It is the force component parallel to the bottom, per unit area. The bottom stress is affected by
the ocean current speed, the size and density of the bottom sediments and the ocean stratification.
=

where (kg.m-3) is the density of the ocean, (m.s-1) is the bottom velocity and is the
bottom-drag coefficient (a dimensionless quantity). is defined by empirical formulations taking
into account the size and the density of the sediments but also the shape of the ocean floor.

Dynamics and Modelling of Geophysical Fluids

III- DERIVATION OF THE FORCES IN GFD


III- 5. Friction
III-5. h) Reynolds Number

Scale of the Kinematic Friction:

= ( 2 )

Scale of the Relative acceleration:

2
= ( )

The non-dimensional Reynolds Number is defined by the ratio of the Relative and
acceleration and the Kinematic Friction such as:

=
=

Frictional effects are dominant


Frictional effects can be neglected
Case of oceans:

106