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LECTURE 1

Basic concepts in Geophysical

Fluids Dynamics

I- Basic Laws and Notions

1) Newtons Laws of Motion

2) Forces, work, energy

3) Flow, Flux and Transport

II- Important Notions in Geophysical

Fluids Dynamics (GFD)

1) Why do we define the cube?

2) Coordinate System

3) Dominant Forces

4) Temperature (and Salinity)

III- Derivation of the Forces in GFD

1) Pressure

a) E-Laboratory

b) Horizontal pressure

c) Vertical pressure

d) Hydrostatic balance

e) Examples

2) Buoyancy

a) E-laboratory

b) Archimedes Principle

c) Stratification and Compressibility

d) BruntVisl frequency

3) Compressible Fluids

a) Irreversibility and Entropy

b) E-Laboratory

c) Adiabatic Process

d) Effect of Compressibility

e) Stratification and Compressibility

4) Earth rotation

a) Effect of the Earth rotation

b) Coriolis Acceleration and Force

c) Geostrophic balance

d) Rossby Number

e) Centripetal Acceleration

f) Curvature terms

5) Friction

a) E-Laboratory

b) Definitions

c) Molecular viscosity

d) Turbulence

e) Expression of the friction

f) Wind and bottom frictions

g) Reynolds Number

I- 1. Newtons Laws of Motion

The three laws of motion were first

compiled by Isaac Newton in his

Philosophi

Naturalis

Principia

Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of

Natural Philosophy), first published in

1687.

Newton used them to explain and

investigate the motion of many physical

objects and systems.

I- 1. Newtons Laws of Motion

either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by

a force

In other words:

If the vector sum of all forces acting on an object (i.e. net force) is zero,

then the velocity of the object is constant.

Velocity is a vector quantity which expresses both the object's speed and

the direction of its motion; therefore, the statement that the object's

velocity is constant is a statement that both its speed and the direction of

its motion are constant.

I- 1. Newtons Laws of Motion

Mathematical expression of the

first law:

= = 0 =

=1

where

is the net force in Newton

(N=kg.m.s-2)

n is the total number of forces

is the velocity (m.s-1)

is the displacement of the

object (m)

t is the time (s)

is a constant vector (m.s-1)

= 0

=1

I- 1. Newtons Laws of Motion

proportional to, and in the same direction as, the net force

acting on the body, and inversely proportional to its mass

Mathematical expression of the second law

=

= 2 =

=1

where

is the acceleration of the

object (m.s-2)

m is the mass of the object

(kg)

I- 1. Newtons Laws of Motion

3) Third law: When one body

exerts a force on a second

body, the second body

simultaneously exerts a force

equal in magnitude and

opposite in direction to that

of the first body.

if one object A exerts a force

on a second object B, then B

simultaneously exerts a force

on A, and the two forces are

equal and opposite

I- 2. Forces, work and energy

Skater Simulator

http://www.cpalms.org/RESOURCES/URLresourcebar.aspx?Resource

ID=PZabyusqjLo=D

I- 2. Forces, work and energy

Skater at rest on the horizontal part of

the ramp:

= =

skater

Where

m is the mass (kg)

g is the gravitational acceleration

(m.s-2)

I- 2. Forces, work and energy

No normal movement:

= = cos

= gcos

+ =

Projected following x:

Projected following z:

2

2

2

2

=

=

=

2

2

=

= 2

=

(2 + 1)

2

=

2

=

2. 2 +1 + 0

2

2

4

2

(2 1) = 2 1 . 2 + 1 + 0

2 =

I- 2. Forces, work and energy

Work:

The work () done by a resultant force or net force on a body that moves with a

()

displacement = () is:

=

.

()

Units:

Force: N=kg.m.s-2

Displacement: m

I- 2. Forces, work and energy

Kinetic Energy:

The kinetic energy ( ) of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion.

The principle of work () and kinetic energy ( ) - also known as the work-energy

principle - states that the work done by the resultant force or net force on a body ()

equals the change in the kinetic energy ( ) of the body:

= = .

I- 2. Forces, work and energy

Assumptions:

Net Force:

with m the mass, the velocity, t the time and the acceleration

()

Displacement: = () - this is a small displacement

()

Work:

=

= = .

. . . . = .

= = .

and we have: .

= 2 = 2.

2 2.

1

2

Energy:

1

1

2

= = = 2

2

2

1

2

= 2 2

1

= 2 2 (Joule)

I- 2. Forces, work and energy

Potential Energy:

The potential energy ( ) of an object is the energy due to the position of the object.

A conservative force ( ) is a force that depends only of the position of the object.

The principle of work ( ) and potential energy ( ) states that the work done by a

conservative force on a body ( ) equals to minus the change in the potential energy

( ) due to that force:

=

The kinetic energy is applied to the net force of the system while the potential

energy is only applied to the conservative forces of the system!

I- 2. Forces, work and energy

Assumptions:

Conservative Force:

Displacement: = ()

()

Work: = = . = + +

Energy: =

0

0

Case of the gravity:

= =

where m is the

= (Joule)

mass (kg) and g the gravitational acceleration (m.s-2)

h vertical displacement (m)

= = . = mg =

m mass (kg)

g gravitational acceleration (m.s-2)

I- 2. Forces, work and energy

Heat:

The Heat () is the energy in transfer between a system and its surroundings other

than by work or transfer of matter. The transfer can occur in two simple ways,

conduction, and radiation, and in a more complicated way called convective circulation.

Heat is not a property or component or constituent of a body itself.

The heat can be defined as follow:

= (Joule)

Total energy:

the difference in temperature (C)

m is the mass (kg)

= + + (Joule)

I- 3. Flow, Flux and Transport

Flow:

http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/fluid-pressure-and-flow

I- 3. Flow, Flux and Transport

Flow:

The flow is defined as the quantity of fluid (gas, liquid or vapor) that passes a point per

unit time. =

103

Bernoulli Principle:

Daniel Bernoulli worked on the conservation of Energy.

We have seen that a moving body exchanges its kinetic

energy for potential energy when it gains height.

Bernoulli realized that in a similar way, a moving fluid

exchanges its kinetic energy for pressure.

Mathematically this law is

now written:

where

P, P1 and P2 is pressure in Pa

is the density of the fluid

V, V1 and V2 is its velocity

1 2

+ + =

2

A consequence of this law is that if the velocity increases then the pressure falls.

I- 3. Flow, Flux and Transport

Heat flux or thermal flux is the rate of

heat energy transfer through a given

surface.

=

. 2

Salt flux is the rate of mass of salt

transfer through a given surface.

=

. 2

The transport is the integral over a

surface of the flux:

= .

= .

II- 1. Why do we define the cube?

1m

1m

1m

a predefined shape. It is easy to weight an object but think about

it, how do you weight the ocean or the atmosphere?

A convenient way to study geophysical fluids is thus to take a small

volume of it and to see the properties of this portion of fluid =

we define THE CUBE!

Generations of students have been traumatized by THE CUBE but in fact it is just a

mind game consisting in simplifying the entire problem!

For example now I can define the fluid density () in kg.m-3 as the weight of the cube

as m= V and V=1m3!

It also means that generally, when studying geophysical fluids, we dont speak about

mass but much more about the density => m= V with V the volume!

II- 2. Coordinate system

Coordinate systems:

The simplest systems used in GFD are the following:

Cartesian Coordinate System is the one which is used most commonly to derive the

equations because it is the most simple. We can describe most processes in Cartesian

coordinates without the mathematical complexity of spherical coordinates. The standard

convention in geophysical is x is to the east, y is to the north, and z is up.

f-Plane is a Cartesian coordinate system in which the Coriolis force is assumed constant. It is

useful for describing flow in regions small compared with the radius of the Earth and larger

than a few tens of kilometers.

-plane is a Cartesian coordinate system in which the Coriolis force is assumed to vary

linearly with latitude. It is useful for describing flow over large areas.

Spherical coordinates are used to describe flows that extend over large distances and in

numerical calculations of basin and global scale flows.

Descriptions of other systems can be found in geography and geodesy books.

II- 3. Dominant Forces

Dominant Forces:

Only a few forces are important in GFD:

gravity, buoyancy due to difference in density, pressure gradients and friction.

Gravity is the dominant force. The weight of the fluid produces pressure.

Buoyancy is the upward or downward force due to gravity acting on a parcel of

fluid that is more or less dense than other parcel of fluid at its level.

For example, cold air blowing over the sea cools surface waters causing them to be

more dense than the water beneath. Gravity acting on the difference in density

results in a force that causes the water to sink.

Horizontal pressure gradients are due to the varying weight of water in different

regions of the ocean.

Friction is the force acting on a body as it moves past another body while in

contact with that body.

For example, wind stress is the friction due to wind blowing across the sea surface.

It transfers horizontal momentum to the sea, creating currents. Wind blowing over

waves on the sea surface leads to an uneven distribution of pressure over waves.

II- 3. Dominant Forces

Dominant Forces:

Pseudo-forces are apparent forces that arise from motion in curvilinear or rotating coordinate systems.

Thus, writing the equations for inertial motion in a rotating coordinate system leads to additional force terms called

pseudo forces.

For example, Newton's first law states that there is no change in motion of a body unless a resultant force acts on

it. Yet a body moving at constant velocity seems to change direction when viewed from a rotating coordinate

system.

The change in direction is attributed to a pseudo-force, the Coriolis Force. Coriolis Force is the dominant pseudoforce influencing currents moving in a coordinate system fixed to the Earth.

Dominant Forces

Gravity

Coriolis

Friction

Wind stress is an important frictional force for the

ocean.

II- 4. Temperature (and Salinity)

Importance of Temperature

(and Salinity for oceans) distribution:

Changes in temperature (and salinity) can increase or decrease the density of a

fluid which can lead to convection.

For example, if water from the surface sinks into the deeper ocean, it retains a

distinctive relationship between temperature and salinity which helps

oceanographers track the movement of deep water.

In addition, temperature, (salinity,) and pressure are used to calculate

density.

The distribution of density inside the fluid is directly related to the

distribution of horizontal pressure gradients and buoyancy.

For all these reasons, we need to know the distribution of temperature,

(salinity,) and density in the fluid.

II- 4. Temperature

Atmospheric scientists are using the SI units which is K for the temperature.

However, Physical Oceanographers are NOT using the SI units for the TEMPERATURE

which is expressed in C instead of K!

Be aware!

Units are critical and you MUST pay attention to them before trying to calculate any

quantities.

Pressure simulator:

III- 1. Pressure

III-1. a) E-Laboratory

http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/fluid-pressure-and-flow

III- 1. Pressure

III-1. b) Horizontal Pressure

()

=0

.

y ()

=

with m the mass in kilograms

What is ?

= 1 2 is the resulting

pressure force.

What are 1 and 2 ?

()

III- 1. Pressure

III-1. b) Horizontal Pressure

1 = 1

where

1 is the pressure

2 = 2

where

2 is the pressure

= 1 2

1 2 1

1

=

1

=

And similarly:

1

=

III- 1. Pressure

III-1. c) Vertical Pressure

()

2

2

= +

=0

. 3 =

y ()

1

=

1

=

()

III- 1. Pressure

III-1. d) Hydrostatic Balance

()

=

=0

. 3 =

y ()

1

=0

=0

=0

between pressure gradient and

gravity => hydrostatic balance:

()

III- 1. Pressure

() III-1. d) Hydrostatic Balance

=0

If z =cst= 0 :

. 3 =

y ()

= 0

=

= + 0

with

= + and p =

()

III- 1. Pressure

III-1. d) Hydrostatic Balance

Hydrostatic balance:

= 1

If z is not a constant:

2

= 4

= 2

= 3

=1

= 5

= +

pressure plus the weight of the water above the point where we

are measuring it.

3

4

III- 1. Pressure

III-1. e) Examples

Case I. constant density fluid

The hydrostatic pressure will be given by:

= + 0

where

=+

= is the atmospheric pressure

=0

an additional contribution to the hydrostatic pressure

given by:

1

1

+

=

+ 0

0

0

Case II. two layer fluid

III- 1. Pressure

III-1. e) Examples

a sloping interface between the two layers.

The interface deviation is given by: 1

In this case, the hydrostatic pressure in layer 2 at depth z

will be given by:

=0

= + 2 2 + 1 + 1 1 1 +

The horizontal contribution is given by:

1

1

1 + 2

1 + 1 +

=

+ 2

+ 1

1

1 1

2 1

1

with

Buoyancy simulator:

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. a) E-Laboratory

http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/density-and-buoyancy/buoyancy_en.html

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. b) Archimedes Principle

()

Consider the following imaginary

situation. We have a motionless

=

sea where pressure is

in a hydrostatic balance. We take = 0

a small cube of water and

3

3

.

=

=

replace it with water of different

y ()

density:

force?

is a mean density

=

()

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. b) Archimedes Principle

We assume at first the pressure distribution is unaffected, so that there will be no

horizontal density gradient and no horizontal flow. In the vertical, again the pressure

forces does not change but the gravitational force does, since the density and thus the

mass of water in the cube is different now. Newtons equation for the cube in the

vertical becomes:

0

= +

But, since the water column was originally in a hydrostatic balance before the change in

density:

+ = 0 + =

So the force balance can be written as:

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. b) Archimedes Principle

The cube experiences a force equal to the weight of the water it displaced. This is the

famous Archimedes' Principle, which states that the weight of an object placed in a fluid

is reduced by the weight of the fluid it displaces. This reduction in weight is called

buoyancy.

The net reduction of weight is due to pressure force applied from the surrounding fluid,

which is in hydrostatic balance.

The sign of the force depends on the difference between the original and the new

densities.

If < ,

If > ,

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. c) Stratification and Compressibility

Geophysical fluids are stably stratified, that is, lighter fluid overlies heavier (denser)

fluid.

Generally, if a fluid parcel becomes denser than the parcel below it, the denser fluid will

sink and mix with the fluid below until the column is again stably stratified (convection).

Examples of processes that increase density are cooling at the oceans surface, or

evaporation, which increases salinity.

But what happens initially if a parcel of fluid is displaced a small amount vertically, so

that its density no longer matches that of the surrounding fluid?

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. c) Stratification and Compressibility

A water cube is moved from depth 1 to depth 2 in a water

column with density .

is a mean density

has density 2 .

Does the parcel try to return to its original position?

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. c) Stratification and Compressibility

Case I. Incompressible fluid (no change in density of the parcel with depth)

Cube retains its original density, so is less dense that the ambient fluid (same than what

we see before with the Archimedes principle) => upward buoyant force

Case II. Very compressible fluid (large change in density of the parcel with depth)

Cubes density increases with depth faster than the ambient density, and parcel

continues to sink to the bottom!

Cubes density increases with depth more slowly than the ambient density, so the cube is

less dense than the surrounding fluid => upward buoyant force

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. c) Stratification and Compressibility

The ocean usually belongs to case III. In attempting to return to its original depth the

ocean cube will usually overshoot, so that it is then lighter than the ambient fluid. In this

case it experiences a downward buoyant force and continue to oscillate for some time

(see the E-laboratory with the ice cube!).

If the ocean really was incompressible the sea level would rise of 2-3m. However for

coastal areas where the maximum depth reaches only 2000m, the incompressible

approximation is valid.

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. d) BruntVisl Frequency

Lets solve our previous problem by considering the ocean as

an incompressible fluid!

is a mean density

column with density .

The cube initially had density 1 , but the surrounding fluid

has density 2 .

Does the parcel try to return to its original position?

Density depends on the pressure, which according to the

hydrostatic relationship, depends on the depth, z.

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. d) BruntVisl Frequency

horizontal density gradient and no horizontal flow.

In the vertical, in this case, the pressure forces change with the depth such as at 2

before the cube is move we have:

+ 2 = 0 + = 2

as the force were at the equilibrium.

Once the cube is moved we have:

0

= + 1

of the position 2 we can write:

1 + 2

III- 2. Buoyancy

III-2. d) BruntVisl Frequency

for a small displacement

So for a small displacement we have:

2

= 2

and

2 1

with N

2 1

2 ()

=

III- 3. Compressible Fluid

III-3. a) Irreversibility and Entropy

The idea of "irreversibility" is central to the understanding of entropy.

In thermodynamics, the forward processes for example pouring water from a pitcher - are

irreversible: they cannot happen in reverse, even though, on a microscopic level, no laws of physics are

being violated.

All real physical processes involving systems in everyday life, with many atoms or molecules, are

irreversible.

For an irreversible process in an isolated system, the thermodynamic state variable known as entropy is

always increasing.

In everyday life, there may be processes in which the increase of entropy is practically unobservable,

almost zero.

The statement of the fact that entropy never decreases is found in the second law of thermodynamics:

The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases,

because isolated systems spontaneously evolve toward thermodynamic equilibriumthe state of

maximum entropy. Since entropy increases as uniformity increases, the second law says qualitatively that

uniformity increases.

In a physical system, entropy provides a measure of (1) the amount of thermal energy that CANNOT be

used to do work or (2) how evenly energy (or some analogous property) is distributed in a system.

Work and heat are determined by a process that a system undergoes, and only occur at the boundary of a

system.

Entropy is a function of the state of a system, and has a value determined by the state variables of the

system.

Example:

III-3. a) Irreversibility and Entropy

The flow of heat from a region of high temperature to a region of low temperature

is a spontaneous process it can proceed along by itself without needing any extra

external energy. When this process occurs, the hot region becomes cooler and the

cold region becomes warmer. Heat is distributed more evenly throughout the

system and the system's ability to do work has decreased because the temperature

difference between the hot region and the cold region has decreased.

Referring back to our definition of entropy, we can see that the entropy of this

system has increased.

III- 3. Compressible Fluid

III-3. b) E-Laboratory

http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/states-of-matter-basics

III- 3. Compressible Fluid

III-3. c) Adiabatic Process

An adiabatic process is a transfer of energy as work, occurring without transfer of heat

between a system and its surroundings. It thus means that an adiabatic process only occurs

if the entropy is constant.

As air is heated it expands becoming less dense, and as a result, lighter.

Because it is lighter, it rises upwards above the cooler air. As it does so, this air continues to

expand. This is because there is less pressure higher in the atmosphere, allowing the air

molecules to spread out more.

In order to spread out, these molecules require energy. As they do so, they become less

agitated and vibrate slower. As a result, the temperature of these air molecules drops,

despite the fact that no heat has been removed from them. This process is referred to as

adiabatic cooling.

III- 3. Compressible Fluid

III-3. c) Adiabatic Process

As the air cools down, it again begins to fall towards

the surface of the Earth. As it sinks deep into the

atmosphere, the pressure from the weight of the air

above it pushes air molecules closer together,

causing them to become more agitated and heating

them up again. As a result, their temperature rises,

even though no heat has been added. This process is

referred to as adiabatic warming.

III- 3. Compressible Fluid

III-3. c) Adiabatic Process

A parcel of water moving from one pressure to another will be compressed or expanded. When a

parcel of water is compressed adiabatically, that is, without exchange of heat, its temperature

increases. (This is true of any fluid or gas.) When a parcel is expanded adiabatically, its

temperature decreases. The change in temperature which occurs solely due to compression or

expansion does not represent a change in heat content of the fluid.

III- 3. Compressible Fluid

III-3. d) Effect of Compressibility

Adiabatic change in the ocean (as a compressible fluid) is thus linked to:

constant entropy

effect of the change of pressure on a parcel of fluid: change of form and

temperature of the cube => change of density of the cube!

The change of density of a parcel of fluid is varying with the pressure following:

with =

Which means that we consider that the temperature T is constant (and the salinity S is

constant for the ocean).

How can we link the change of density due to adiabatic change and due to ?

III- 3. Compressible Fluid

III-3. d) Effect of Compressibility

We now consider the quantity:

where 0 and

Indeed if the change of pressure of a parcel is really small its adiabatic change

of temperature is also really small. And 0 means that the temperature T

is constant!

We can consider that temperature constant is the same than entropy constant

when 0 (it is an approximation) and this leads to the definition:

1

2

the entropy (constant)

III- 3. Compressible Fluid

III-3. e) Stratification and Compressibility

for an incompressible fluid, we have seen that

the equation of the vertical motion of the cube is given by:

2 ()

=

2

0

Now that the fluid is compressible we have to add the change of density due to

adiabatic change:

2

0 2 = 2 [ 1 + ]

1

1 =

0 = 2 0

2

1

0 2 = 2 [ 1 2 0 ]

=

+

III- 4. Earth Rotation and Coriolis

III-4. a) Earth Rotation

Earth rotation

moving point at the surface of the globe:

Latitude

x

= y

z

Equator

0

= .

.

=

. .

=

III- 4. Earth Rotation

III-4. a) Earth Rotation

Effect of the Earth rotation on one moving point at the surface of the globe:

= . =

.

Dimension analysis:

Vertical velocities in the ocean: w 104 . 1

Horizontal velocities in the ocean:u, 101 . 1

. . + . .

. .

. .

Neglected in comparison with

the horizontal velocities!

Except for equatorial areas

where . and we cant

neglect the vertical velocities!

III- 4. Earth Rotation

III-4. b) Coriolis

The Force due to the Coriolis effect is defined as: = in N/m3

. .

= 2. = 2 . . =

. .

2. . .

The Coriolis parameter is defined as: = .

At our latitude we can consider that = =

. ( ) .

III- 4. Earth Rotation

III-4. c) Geostrophic Balance

The geostrophic balance is reached when the pressure gradient force is balanced by

the Coriolis effect. The direction of geostrophic flow is parallel to the isobars, with the

high pressure to the right of the flow in the Northern Hemisphere, and the high

pressure to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. When the balance is reached, the fluid

as a constant velocity and thus the first Law of Newton applies:

Coriolis effect Weight

= = 0 + + = 0

=1

Pressure force

III- 4. Earth Rotation

III-4. c) Geostrophic Balance

If we project the balance we obtain:

1

+ = 0

1

= 0

1

+ . 2. = 0

Dimension analysis:

- density 103 . 3

- Difference of pressure over difference

of depth 104

- acceleration due to gravity:

g 10 2 . 1

- Rotation of the earth

7.27 105 . 1

Problem

this

= . (. . )

How fast should the Earth rotate in order to not neglect the rotation on the z axis?

2. . . 10 . . .

III- 4. Earth Rotation

III-4. d) Rossby Number

The notion of scale for Geophysical Fluids is defined when the Earth rotation is taken

into account.

We define the following length:

L (m) characteristic length of the flow (for example the distance between the center

of an anticyclonic flow and a depression)

U (m.s-1) characteristic horizontal velocity

= 2.

= 2

III- 4. Earth Rotation

III-4. d) Rossby Number

Scale of the Coriolis acceleration:

2 = (2)

Scale of the Relative acceleration:

2

= ( )

The non-dimensional Rossby Number is defined by the ratio of the Relative and

Coriolis accelerations such as:

2

=

=

2 2

For the atmosphere: L=1000 km and U = 20 m.s-1 = 0.137

For the ocean: L=100 km and U = 1 m.s-1 = 0.07

III- 4. Earth Rotation

III-4. e) Curvature terms

x and y coordinates: geopotential surface at the sea level

z coordinate: perpendicular direction to the geopotential surface

Real Geopotential surface: ellipsoidal with some irregularities of the order of 100m

Radius: ~6378.139 km at equator and ~6356.754 km at poles

Geopotential surface as a sphere: r = 6367.456 km with ~0.17% error.

The accelerations on the terrestrial system must then be projected on curvilinear

coordinate system with the following curvilinear terms:

+

following the x axis

+

following the y axis

2 + 2

following the z axis

III- 4. Earth Rotation

III-4. e) Centripetal Acceleration

III- 4. Earth Rotation

III-4. e) Centripetal Acceleration

Geophysical Fluids as a potential function:

= 2 =

and:

2 2

2

function (universal attraction law of Newton):

= 3 =

with M the mass of the Earth, G the gravitational force

and: =

We can then define:

= +

Dimension analysis:

- acceleration due to gravity:

g 10 2 . 1

- Rotation of the earth

7.27 105 . 1

- Earth radius 6400 km

III-4. e) Centripetal Acceleration

2 r

= 0.034

m. 1

=

290

290

Conclusion:

The centripetal force can be neglected in comparison with the gravitational acceleration!

Friction simulator:

III- 5. Friction

III-5. a) E-Laboratory

http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/friction/friction_en.html

III- 5. Friction

III-5. b) Definitions

Throughout most of the interior of the ocean and atmosphere, friction is relatively

small, and we can safely assume that the flow is frictionless.

At the boundaries, friction, in the form of viscosity, becomes important. This thin,

viscous layer is called a boundary layer.

Within the boundary layer, the velocity slows from values typical of the interior to

zero at a solid boundary.

If the boundary is not solid, then there is a thin layer of rapidly changing velocity

whereby velocity on one side of the boundary changes to match the velocity on the

other side of the boundary.

Definition:

III- 5. Friction

III-5. c) Molecular Viscosity

and transfer momentum to it.

Molecules colliding with the wall and with each other transfer momentum

from the fluid to the wall, slowing the fluid velocity.

Molecules further from the boundary collide with the molecules that have struck the boundary, further

transferring the momentum into the interior of the fluid.

Molecules, however, travel only micrometers between collisions, and the process is very inefficient for

transferring momentum even a few centimeters.

Molecular viscosity is important only within a few millimeters of a boundary.

III- 5. Friction

III-5. c) Molecular Viscosity

Expression:

= +

If we only treat the term , the molecular viscosity is expressed in function of the kinematic

The form of the stress tensor (nine components of stress at a point in the fluid) can be given by:

, = , =

following the x axis

=

, = , =

following the y axis

=

, =

, =

following the z axis

III- 5. Friction

III-5. d) Turbulence

Definition and expression:

As the molecular viscosity is important only over distances of a few millimeters, and as it is not important

for most oceanic flows, unless of course you are a zooplankton trying to swim in the ocean, how then is

the influence of a boundary transferred into the interior of the flow? The answer is: through turbulence.

The effects of the turbulence can be expressed as follow by the so-called Reynolds Stresses:

, =

, =

following the x axis

=

, =

, =

following the y axis

=

, =

, =

following the z axis

Where , (~ 10 m2s1) (~ 10-4 m2s-1).are the turbulent eddy viscosities. They cannot be calculated

accurately for most oceanic flows. They can be estimated from measurements of turbulent flows.

Measurements in the ocean, however, are difficult.

III- 5. Friction

III-5. e) Expression

For an incompressible fluid, the frictional force

per unit mass takes the from:

1 + + +

+

+

+

3

1 + y + y + y

=

+

+

+

3

1 + z + +

=

+

+

+

3

=

However the effects of the friction , in the ocean is much more important following the vertical than

following the horizontal and the friction terms can be written as following:

+

+

+

+

+

+ with , and the dissipation due to friction

+

+

+

Wind stress:

III- 5. Friction

III-5. f) Surface and Bottom Friction

At the surface of the ocean, the turbulent friction is equal to the wind stress - = , .

The wind stress is the shear stress exerted by the wind on the surface of large bodies of water such as oceans,

seas, estuaries and lakes. It is the force component parallel to the surface, per unit area, as applied by the wind

on the water surface. The wind stress is affected by the wind speed, the shape of the wind waves and the

atmospheric stratification. It is one of the components of the airsea interaction, with others being the

atmospheric pressure on the water surface, as well as the exchange of heat and mass between the water and the

atmosphere.

=

where (kg.m-3) is the density of the air, (m.s-1) is the wind vector at 10m height (in general)

and is the wind-drag coefficient (a dimensionless quantity). is defined by empirical formulations

taking into account the sea state.

Bottom stress:

III- 5. Friction

III-5. g) Surface and Bottom Friction

At the bottom of the ocean, the turbulent friction is equal to the bottom stress - = , .

The bottom stress is the shear stress due to the effect of the bathymetry of the ocean on the ocean

flows. It is the force component parallel to the bottom, per unit area. The bottom stress is affected by

the ocean current speed, the size and density of the bottom sediments and the ocean stratification.

=

where (kg.m-3) is the density of the ocean, (m.s-1) is the bottom velocity and is the

bottom-drag coefficient (a dimensionless quantity). is defined by empirical formulations taking

into account the size and the density of the sediments but also the shape of the ocean floor.

III- 5. Friction

III-5. h) Reynolds Number

= ( 2 )

2

= ( )

The non-dimensional Reynolds Number is defined by the ratio of the Relative and

acceleration and the Kinematic Friction such as:

=

=

Frictional effects can be neglected

Case of oceans:

106

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