0 views

Uploaded by turbo385

Telfor

- soundapi
- 11I15-IJAET0715567_v6_iss3_1132to1139
- An Improved AMR AMI Approach for Metering & Energy Monitoring
- CS5460A_F5.pdf
- BioTector Data Analysis for Troubleshooting
- jpconf6_48_088
- FAN7380-D
- dsplus
- 12-Bit, 5 MHz Calibrating, Pipelined AD Converter
- Experiment 3
- Arduino Wattmeter __ Electronic Measurements Code
- Utd2000_3000 Operating Manual
- Rigol DS1022C User-s Manual
- EE 2001 GATE Questions
- Ads 7843
- Signals and Systems Sample Questions
- Final Report
- IC695ALG508
- Afe 4404
- Reliable Protection and Fast Changeover Method for Boiler Feed Pump by Using Computerized Control.

You are on page 1of 4

Current Even Harmonics in the Power

Transformer by Using Dither

Velibor Pjevalica, Nebojsa Pjevalica, Member, IEEE, Nenad Petrovic, Nikola Teslic, Member, IEEE

Abstract This paper presents stochastic method for measurement of such small offset is challenging task. For

measurement of DC voltage offset in 0.4kV distribution network measuring purpose, our 0.4kV signal could be treated as a

influence on magnetizing current even harmonics presence in the noise, and finally it exposes poor signal-to-noise ratio

power transformer. Variety of phenomenon, like geomagnetic 0.001/4002,5ppm. It is almost impossible to measure such

field, asymmetry of different loads, photovoltaic converters in

small signal in so large noise without some state of the art

smart grid, etc. can produce small DC voltage offset in power

transformer. Order of magnitude of this offset is around 1mV in oversampling measurement method. Significant step forward

0.4kV distribution network. Such extremely low DC signal level in DC offset voltage measurement is given in [1], where in

detection (in presence of high AC amplitude) presents analysis of even harmonics (II, IV, VI and VIII) of

challenging measurement task. By using stochastic method, even magnetizing current DC offset could be evaluated directly. In

the direct measurement of such small offset is possible. It is also this paper, stochastic adding A/D conversion (in further text

possible to measure even harmonics of magnetizing current in

SAADK) is utilized for direct and parallel measurement:

power transformer in order to measure input voltage DC offset

component indirectly, since even harmonics in magnetizing 1 Input voltage DC offset

current are consequence of DC component in input voltage. 2 True RMS of input voltage

3 Amplitude and phase of even harmonics of magnetizing

Index Terms Power Transformer, Measurement, Peak-to- current

Peak, Even Harmonics. In order to obtain valid simulation model, first task was to

achieve full correlativity between input voltage and

magnetizing current. For that purpose, input sine voltage

I. INTRODUCTION

together with DC offset is introduced throughout hysteresis

Presence of small DC voltage offset in distribution power transfer function. After numerical mapping of voltage

network (several mV order of magnitude in 0.4kV network), samples, we obtain adequate current samples. Further signal

can be important indicator that there are some anomalies processing is continued over both samples by using stochastic

present in distribution network [1]. DC offset could be a method. Paper is organized as follows: in section II simulation

consequence of photovoltaic solar panels connected to the model is presented. Section III explains stochastic method. In

grid. Value range of this offset is covered by norm [2]. section IV simulation results are evaluated. Section V is

Together with power inverters in photovoltaic sources [3], discussion. In section VI conclusion is given. Section VII

geomagnetic disturbances [4] can cause DC offset appearance. gives references.

If it appears, DC offset can have unfavorable influence on

efficiency and reliability of the power transformer. As the

consequence of DC offset presence, there is higher reactive II. SIMULATION MODEL

power consumption as well as iron losses. Since DC voltage

offset is about 1mV, and distribution power network is 0.4kV, In order to have simulation model as realistic as possible

and closer to real transformer, it is essential to make adequate

Velibor Pjevalica is with the JP Srbijagas, (e-mail: correlation between input voltage and induced magnetizing

velibor.pjevalica@srbijagas.com). current. Correlation is established over hysteresis loop. In

Nebojsa Pjevalica is with the Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of order to make model simpler, but not losing in generality,

Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovia 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia (e-mail:

pjeva@uns.ac.rs) hysteresis loop is defined as symbolical. Left hand side and

Nenad Petrovic is with the School of Electrical Engineering Stari grad, (e- right hand side of hysteresis loop are given, respectively:

mail: nploewenstein@ gmail.com).

ut A1 arctanit

Nikola Teslic is with the Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of

Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovia 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia (e-mail: (1)

nikola.teslic@rt-rk.uns.ac.rs)

ut A1 arctanit (2)

In here, parameter A1 is scaling factor between voltage and III. STOCHASTIC METHOD

current and is phase shift. Input signal is the sum of sine

signal and DC offset. Such input signal is introduced Stochastic adding A/D conversion with two noise

throughout hysteresis loop defined by (1) and (2). In fig. 1. it generators [5, 6] (abbreviated SAADK) is oversampling

is symbolically shown model with hysteresis defined by (1) measurement method. With this method, we digitally measure

and (2). average value of the integral of two analog y1(t) and y2(t)

signals product. Block scheme of the SAADK converter is

given in fig. 2.

1

y1 (t)=f1 (t)

A/D

A h1 (t)

2

ACC

y2 (t)=f2 (t)

A/D

B h2 (t)

Fig. 1. Graph of the simulation model: input voltage, hysteresis transfer sum operation in analog manner (make analog addition) of

function and magnetizing current noise signals h1(t) and h2(t) to measured signals y1(t) and y2(t)

respectively. Conditions for normal operation are that noise

signals are mutually non-correlated with uniform distribution

Whole procedure is highly non-linear, due to non-linearity of of the amplitudes in range i , where i i=1,2, are steps of

hysteresis loop. For that reason it is important to do numerical 2

testing in order to draw reliable statistical conclusion. A/D converters 1 and 2 in fig. 2, respectively. If given

Algorithm is as follows: conditions are satisfied, content of numerical accumulator

is:

1 Calculate sample of the input voltage as the sum of sine T

1

component and low DC offset. y1 t y2 t dt (5)

2 If calculated sample is inside of first half-period, use right T 0

hand side branch of the hysteresis to calculate corresponding and upper limit for absolute measurement error is:

current sample.

3 Calculation of current sample is done by inverse function T T

1 21 2 1 22 2 2122

T 4 0 T 4 0

from (2), i.e. s2 y2 t dt y1 t dt (6)

16

u t

it tan (3)

A

1 In paper [7] it is shown that optimal criteria according to

4 If calculated sample is inside second half-period, use left hardware complexity/metrology performance in SAADK

hand side branch of the hysteresis to calculate corresponding application is to have exactly 2 bits more in stored samples

current sample. then the input A/D converter resolution. In that case

5 Calculation of current sample is done by inverse function measurement uncertainty in direct DC offset measurement is

from (1), i.e. [7]:

u t

it tan (4) s2

1 21 2

R (7)

A1 N 8

6 Obtained magnetizing current signal is analyzed in

frequency domain. In formula (7), R is input range of the A/D converter.

7 Simulations are repeated according to given procedure for Concerning that voltage DC offset order of magnitude is 1mV

different DC offset values in order to see regularity how DC on 0.4kV distributive network, scaling i.e. voltage sensing

offset at the input is transferred on magnetizing current even must be done with the precise voltage divider with scale

harmonics. 2.5:400 i.e. 1:160. With this scale, input DC voltage offset

will be reduced to 1mV/160=6.25V. Upper absolute

measurement value boundary must be at least one order of

magnitude less than calculated 6.25V so it is at least 0.5V.

If there is A/D converter at the input with resolution of 14

bits, sampling frequency of 1MHz and input voltage range in DC offset = -10mV DC offset = -10mV

Amplitude Phase to phase of mains

A/D converter is R=2.5V and if measurement lasts 100s,

30 deg

upper absolute measurement error for measuring DC offset is:

35A 25 deg

30A

2

20 deg

2,5 25A

141

1 2 1 2,5 2

15 deg

20A

s (8)

100 2 10 4 8 15A 10 deg

10A

5 deg

s 0.19V (9) 5A

0 0

2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8

Overall number of the measuring samples is 100,000,000 and Fig. 2. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to

it takes 100 seconds to obtain them with 1MHz sampling mains phase with DC offset voltage of -10mV

frequency. Direct DC offset measurement on distribution

network is demanding task due to very low signal-to-noise DC offset = -5mV DC offset = -5mV

Amplitude Phase to phase of mains

ratio. With stochastic method, however, it can be obtained in 25A

100 seconds.

20A

25 deg

15A

10A

offset in distributive network are obtained. Voltage signal is

with sine waveform and effective value of 220V. Simulation 10 deg

5 deg

of 1MHz and measurement duration of 100 seconds. Results

are given in table 1. 0 0

2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8

Table 1. Simulation results Fig. 3. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to

mains phase with DC offset voltage of -5mV

UEFF -10mV 10mV

DC offset = -1mV DC offset = -1mV

0.15V 0.10V Amplitude Phase to phase of mains

4.5A

UEFF -5 mV 5 mV 4A

30 deg

0.11V 0.13V 3.5A

3A 25 deg

UEFF -1mV 1mV

2.5A 20 deg

0.10V 0.12V

2A

15 deg

1.5A

Together with DC offset measurement, magnetizing current 10 deg

1A

spectral measurement is done as well. In figures from 2 to 7

amplitudes and phases of even harmonics (0, II, IV, VI and 0.5A 5 deg

offset is given. Given harmonics are measured for DC voltage 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8

offset of -10mV, -5mV, -1mV, +1 mV, +5mV and +10mV Fig. 4. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to

respectively. mains phase with DC offset voltage of -1mV

DC offset = +1mV DC offset = +1mV per each DC offset magnitude level, as expected. If there is no

Amplitude Phase to phase of mains

DC offset in distributive power network at given moment,

4.5A 2 4 6 8 there is no even harmonics in magnetizing current as well. As

-145 deg

4A soon as DC offset voltage appears, even harmonics in

3.5A -150 deg magnetizing current appears as well. With appropriate

3A calibration of given transformer it is possible to indirectly

2.5A

-155 deg measure voltage DC offset via measurement of even

2A harmonics in magnetizing current.

-160 deg

1.5A

1A -165 deg

0.5A VI. CONCLUSION

-170 deg

0

2 4 6 8

First result of this paper is application of stochastic adding

Fig. 5. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to

mains phase with DC offset voltage of +1mV A/D conversion in measurement of very small DC voltage

offset in voltage signal in the transformer primary on 0.4kV

DC offset = +5mV DC offset = +5mV distributive power network. By utilizing 14 bit A/D converter

Amplitude Phase to phase of mains and with sampling frequency of 1MHz, it is possible to

25A 2 4 6 8 measure small DC offset voltage values with accuracy of 3%.

-145 deg

For obtaining the results, it takes 100 seconds. Such small DC

20A -150 deg offsets are seldom present, and their presence definitely

indicates on irregularity in distributive power network.

15A -155 deg Second result is the proof that it is possible to indirectly

-160 deg

measure voltage DC offset throughout the analysis of

10A

magnetizing current even harmonics (II, IV, VI and VIII).

-165 deg Even harmonics are present only if symmetry of voltage

5A

signal on primary of the transformer is disrupted i.e. when

-170 deg

0

primary voltage gets small DC offset. Presence of even

2 4 6 8 -175 deg harmonics in magnetizing current is clear signal that DC

Fig. 6. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to offset appeared in the input voltage. When we compare even

mains phase with DC offset voltage of +5mV

to odd harmonic ratio in magnetizing current, it is from one to

DC offset =+10mV DC offset = +10mV several orders of magnitude times better then signal-to-noise

Amplitude Phase to phase of mains ratio when we measure voltage DC offset directly.

2 4 6 8

-145 deg ACKNOWLEDGMENT

35A -150 deg This work was partially supported by the Ministry of

30A Education, Science and Technological Development of the

25A

-155 deg

Republic of Serbia, under grant number: "TR32014".

20A -160 deg

15A REFERENCES

10A -165 deg

-170 deg DC Bias in AC Grids IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 2015,

0

2 4 6 8 Volume: 30, Issue: 3, pp 1179 1186.

-175 deg [2] IEEE standard for interconnecting distributed resources with electric

Fig. 7. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to power systems, IEEE standard 1547-2003

mains phase with DC offset voltage of +10mV [3] M. Armstrong, D. J. Atkinson, and C. M. Johnson, "Auto-calibrating dc

link current sensing technique for transformerless, grid connected, H-

bridge inverter systems", IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 21, no. 5,

pp. 1385- 1393, Sept. 2006.

V. DISCUSSION [4] P. R. Price, "Geomagnetically induced current effects on ransformers", IEEE

Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1002-1008, Oct. 2002.

[5] V. V. Vujicic, ''Generalized Low-Frequency Stochastic True RMS

Second harmonic phase (when referenced to main harmonic Instrument'', IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement,

phase) of magnetizing current is directly correlated with the Vol. 50., No. 5, October 2001.

DC offset voltage polarity in distributive network. Positive [6] V. Pjevalica, V. Vujicic, Further Generalization of the Low-Frequency

True RMS Instrument, IMTC 2005, Ottawa, Canada, 17-19 May 2005.

phase difference for second harmonic corresponds to negative [7] V. Pjevalica, V. Vujicic, "Further Generalization of the Low-Frequency

polarity of DC offset in the primary voltage and vice versa. True-RMS Instrument", IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and

Validity of presented simple hysteresis transfer function Measurement, vol. 59, No. 3, March 2010, pp 736

model is exposed in fact that even harmonic phase difference

between positive and negative offsets is exactly 180 degree

- soundapiUploaded byJanula Gracia
- 11I15-IJAET0715567_v6_iss3_1132to1139Uploaded byAnonymous Ndsvh2so
- An Improved AMR AMI Approach for Metering & Energy MonitoringUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- CS5460A_F5.pdfUploaded byNirav Rana
- BioTector Data Analysis for TroubleshootingUploaded byKrishna
- jpconf6_48_088Uploaded bytgazmanmohd
- FAN7380-DUploaded byflo72af
- dsplusUploaded byalejolondon
- 12-Bit, 5 MHz Calibrating, Pipelined AD ConverterUploaded byHakob Arshakyan
- Experiment 3Uploaded byShah Hussain
- Arduino Wattmeter __ Electronic Measurements CodeUploaded byYuvaraja
- Utd2000_3000 Operating ManualUploaded byVerónicaMh
- Rigol DS1022C User-s ManualUploaded byEverton Klinger Sousa Silva
- EE 2001 GATE QuestionsUploaded bychinjuthara
- Ads 7843Uploaded byncamilo.so
- Signals and Systems Sample QuestionsUploaded bySimon Deshte Nderitu
- Final ReportUploaded byBhuwan Shrestha
- IC695ALG508Uploaded byAndres Varela
- Afe 4404Uploaded byRicky
- Reliable Protection and Fast Changeover Method for Boiler Feed Pump by Using Computerized Control.Uploaded byKumar Goud.K
- Circuit Breaker - Monitoring and Assesment of Circuit Breaker Operation for Diagnostics and Control ApplicationsUploaded bycadtil
- HM303-6_englUploaded bydugoprsti
- BR 8BITs BYNDBITS4Uploaded byVincent Fabricio Mancera Hernandez
- Experiement 6Uploaded by3a2d
- Kwh Meter MonitoringUploaded byThanhha Nguyen
- AD 20Flash 20ConverterUploaded byChú Cá Con
- 097276Uploaded bymasterd28
- fredenbu_1Uploaded byAbderrahmane Elboubakri
- Xapp795 Driving XadcUploaded byRicardo Alonso Muñoz Canales
- Lab C - Force VibrationUploaded byAzrul Amir

- AD 3 Zakljucak Senata DPetrovicUploaded byturbo385
- A Simple Braking Method for Six-Phase Induction Motor Drives With Unidirectional Power Flow in the Base-Speed RegionUploaded byturbo385
- Deset+aksioma+obrazovanjaUploaded byturbo385
- 1 program predmeta - silabus.docxUploaded byturbo385
- Ds Pf8v71nUploaded byEsteban Medina Lemos
- Deutz 913 SpecsUploaded byIr Jose
- 5. Clan 18 Statuta ETFUploaded byturbo385
- 1. Dnevni red i zapisnik (1).pdfUploaded byturbo385
- AD 1_Dnevni Red Za 34. Sjednicu NNVa i Zapisnik Sa 33. SjedniceUploaded byturbo385
- Raspored Ljetni Semestar 16 17 v5Uploaded byturbo385
- OGLASUploaded byturbo385
- engineering-industrial.pdfUploaded byturbo385
- En-HV05!01!2006-Eclosed Cap Banks for MVUploaded byturbo385
- University Pricelist 2008Uploaded byturbo385
- eurasip88Uploaded byturbo385
- MC7x4 Users Manual Ver_02.pdfUploaded byturbo385
- MC7x4 Users Manual Ver_02.pdfUploaded byturbo385
- Guidelines_IES_Technical_Cosponsorship_121111.pdfUploaded byturbo385
- Guidelines_IES_Technical_Cosponsorship_121111.pdfUploaded byturbo385
- LMS_fieldguide_20091Uploaded byzjuan22
- 1 Program Predmeta - SilabusUploaded byturbo385
- Lexium 32_VW3M8100R30Uploaded byturbo385
- QQStatusReportTemplateUploaded byturbo385
- Raspored Ljetni Semestar 16 17 v5 (1)Uploaded byturbo385

- MAKALE-New Developments in FAA Airport PavementUploaded bygokhan
- Ring CounterUploaded bykumarinweb
- Creating a Simple Joomla 3 ModuleUploaded bymasirul2009
- samiCVacaUploaded bysamirehman
- api510Uploaded byEric Ting
- A methodology to control direct-fired furnaces.pdfUploaded byjandresb23
- Aecom ME Handbook 2016Uploaded byLe'Novo Fernandez
- Device SummaryUploaded byguerrez
- Solar Pump SpreadsheetUploaded byAhmed
- asme cCase_N-60-2.pdfUploaded byJulio Cesar Wagner
- Vnl Pcu at Strategy v0.5Uploaded bysubi_ec79
- newsletter reebUploaded byapi-252343578
- Rubrics in DefenseUploaded bypeter javines
- NEUTRONIC FLUX AND POWER DISTRIBUTION IN A NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR USING WIMS-D4 AND CITATION CODESUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Soil-Cement Inspector Manual PCAUploaded bychankawai28
- EDIUploaded byTengku Muhammad Syukran
- Ahmad 2007Uploaded byLintang Noor Fitria
- Basic Drawing Commands.pdfUploaded byLance JohnPaul
- Production ReportUploaded byDanny Indio / Danny Jiminian
- Audience MeasurementUploaded byTej Tiwari
- Back Stepping Method CSTRUploaded byRodrigo Donizete
- CBSE NET Computer Science Paper 2 December 2015Uploaded byBrahmesh Mandya
- FTC RoboticsUploaded byMohammed Viquar Ahmed
- 9781784392925_Learning_NServiceBus_Second_Edition_Sample_ChapterUploaded byPackt Publishing
- Ta2132bp Radio philipsUploaded byYoel Yoel
- Lanzar-2010Uploaded byIkhsanul Asman
- kle650-fgf-parts-list.pdfUploaded byOliver
- Ma Om TMBL- KK -1Uploaded bySumati Vidya Kendra
- CoolantUploaded bymeetraj1999
- Employment Prospects for LIS ProfessionalsUploaded byAmerican Library Association