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Higher Technological institute

Mechanical Department
Thermo-Fluid Lab. (A)
4- Impact of Jet
OBJECTIVES
-To determine the force produced by a water jet, when it strikes surfaces with different
deflecting angles (deflectors).
- To compare the value of forces determine experimentally with that obtained theoretically.
THEORY
Force can be defined as the rate at which momentum changes in a system. When a fluid
is deflected by a solid surface the fluid momentum changes because the direction changes and
it therefore exerts a force on that surface.
EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

Figure 2. Schematic of impact of jet demonstration apparatus.

The unit is designed to investigate jet forces impacting against stationary deflectors with
angles () 90, 30, 120 and 180. The impact forces are produced by a water jet exiting from
a nozzle. The impact forces are measured using a spring mechanism and loading weights.

90 30

120 180
Figure 3. Deflectors.

The water volume flow rate "Q" discharged from the nozzle is expressed by
Q=AV (1)
A = (/4) D2 (2)
, where;
Q: Water volume flow rate, m3;
A: Nozzle crossectional area, m2;
V: Jet velocity, m/s;
D: Nozzle diameter = 0.008, m.
The magnitude of force exerted by water jet on the deflector is expressed by
Fth = m [V (-Vcos)] (3)
m = Q (4)
= 180 - (5)
, where;
Fth: Force exerted by water jet on the deflector (theoretically), N;
m: Water mass flow rate, Kg/s;
: Water density. Kg/m3;
: Deflection angle;
: Deflector angle.

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Note: The magnitude of the velocity does not change as fluid flows around the deflector, and
that only its direction changes.
Fex = W = mg
, where;
Fex: Force exerted by water jet on the deflector (experimentally), N;
g: Gravity acceleration = 9.81 m/s2.
PROCEDURES
1. Remove the top plate and transparent cylinder fro the test rig.
2. Fit one of the four flow deflectors.
3. Reassemble the test rig.
4. Connect the apparatus to the hydraulic bench
5. Adjust the height of level gauge until it aligns with the datum line on the weight pan.
6. Open the hydraulic bench control valve to produce a flow.
7. Add weights until the level gauge aligns with the datum line on the weight pan.
9. Measure the flow rate "Q" using the volumetric tank and stop watch.
10. Repeat using the remaining three deflectors.

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Thermo-Fluid Lab. (A)
Student Name: Student No.: Gr.:

Experiment No. 4
Impact of Jet
Objectives

Introduction (Must contain the definition of Jet, operation principle and application)
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Schematic of Experimental Apparatus

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Experimental Setup
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PROCEDURES
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Data Reduction
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Table 1. Collected Data.

Deflector Deflector angle, Weighs mass, m (Kg)

1 Plate 90
2 Slope 30
3 Cone 120
4 Hemispherical 180
Table 2. Calculated Data.

Force, Fth (N) Force, Fex (N)

Deflector angle, Deflection angle,
Theoretically Experimentally

1 90
2 30
3 120
4 180

Conclusion

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