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Short History of Urban Planning

City Planning Principles


Usually includes the following
1. Physical Development
2. Social Development
3. Economic Development
Masterplan Package for a city
- Land use plan for lands within city borders. Residential, recreational,
industrial, commercial, green, cemeteries
- Roads and transportation
- Building Lines
- Water and Sewage
- Professions
- Building regulations: setbacks, density, height, services

History of Urban Planning


1. The dawn of urbanization
2. The birth of a village
3. The birth of a city
4. Mesopotamian Towns
5. Early Egyptians Towns
6. Greek Towns
7. Roman Towns
8. Middle Ages Towns
9. Renaissance Towns
10.Industrial Towns
11.Modern Towns and Cities

1. Dawn of Urbanization
Primitive societies had a culture but had no physical civilization
Tents, caves, and huts
2. The birth of a Village
Tribes started to gather for protection and compose villages
Built on sites where there is a natural defensive measures
3. The birth of towns
Increase of the size of the village and at the same time change of life style
Emergence of new professions like trade, investors, religious, and other
urban elements.
Had a central religious and political center
Used to be surrounded by a fence and had three authorities: political,
religious, economic
Its planning integrated with the requirements of war
4. Mesopotamian Towns
5000 BC great towns of Ur
Integrated with the rivers as transportation and a place where there is
food and water
Houses of mud, ziggurats, and temples
Hammurabi (Babel) issued building regulations and penalties
5. Early Egyptian Towns
Social Structure
o Aristocratic: Pharaohs, nobles, priests
o Free: Middle class, merchants, professionals
o Peasant Class
o Slave Class
Central Area
o Temple and Palace
Tel Alamarna
o Royal road in the middle
o City quarters are gathered around palaces, temples and public
buildings
o Houses of high classes lied on major roads and surrounded by
gardens
o Worker city is far from the original city, has small homes
6. Roman Cities
Plenty of towns in invaded areas medium towns to keep agriculture
around
Division of agricultural land into rectangular parcels
Grid pattern for most of roman cities
The city was divided into neighborhoods and quarters with their own
centers
Two major and central intersected roads
o Cardo (north south)
o Decomanus (east west)
7. Medieval Cities
Feudalism System
Importance of cathedrals, castles, and palace
Fences around the city with gates. Fortification
8. Renaissance Cities
Shrinkage of Feudalism system and the authority of commerce and
industry
Artistic features in city
Public spaces like piazza or squares
9. Industrial Cities
Industry and industrial towns close to factories, facilities like school and
shops
Active movement from country to towns
Railways and rail way stations played a role in the planning of towns
10.Modern Cities
As a reaction to industrial towns, there were many theories for modern
and future cities started from the end of the 19 th century until the time
being.
Historical Figures in Urban Planning
1. Hippodamus of Miletus
a. Greek architect
b. Rectangular street system
c. Miletus and Priene
d. Acropolis, agora, gridiron pattern,
2. Leon Battista Alberti
a. Ideal cities star-shaped
b. Solidity (firmitas), Functionality (utilitas), Beauty (Venustas)
3. Pierre Charles Lenfant
a. French-american engineer
b. Inspired by the renaissance
i. Linked settlements to transport
ii. Built roads to expand empires
iii. Built military cities for defense and security
iv. Characterized by square pattern of plans with housing consisting
of small apartments for masses and with atrium for the rich
c. Washington D.C. Plan
4. Sir Christopher Wren
a. English architect
b. Prepared plan for London
c. Inspired by St. Peter and St. Paul Cathedral
d. Straight boulevards and piazzas
5. John Gwynn
a. Improved London and plan for westminister
b. Introduced the Building Act of 1774 which improved standards of
materials and workmanship
6. James Craig
a. Scottish architect planned linear new towns for Edinburg
b. Composed of rectilinear arrangement of three parallel streets
7. Don Arturo Soria y Mata
a. Spanish engineer, suggested the idea of linear city
b. Logic of linear utility lines should be basis of city layout
c. Houses and buildings could be set alongside linear utility systems
8. Tony Garnier
a. French architect
b. Industrial city with linear structure Une Cite Industrielle
c. Characterized with separation of spaces by function through four
zoning categories: leisure, industry, work, and transport
9. Robert Owen
a. English social reformer
b. Village of unity and mutual cooperation
c. Established a silent monitor system to determine daily behavior of
workers in a village
10.Baron George Eugene Haussman
a. Architect-theorist
b. Urban design should attend tot the workers as well as memebers of the
ruling class
c. Designs of network of large avenues, railway stations, monuments,
squares at crossroads, public facilities
11.Ebenezer Howard
a. Concept of social city, polycentric settlement surrounded by greenbelt
and garden cities
b. Supported high residential density
12.Daniel Hudson Burnham
a. Proponent of city beautiful movement and father of American city
planning
b. Greatest achievement is the Chicago plan
c. Beauty creates moral and civic virtue among urban populations
d. Embraces all public works that gave way to City Functional concepts
including zoning
e. Chicago Plan, criticism: it has no health and sanitation concerns
13.Patrick Geddes
a. Scottish social evolutionist and planner
b. The regional city
c. Survey before plan
d. Urban conurbation: conglomeration of town aggregates, describing the
waves of population to large cities, followed by over-crowding and slum
formation
14.Henry Wright and Clarence Stein
a. Survey a manifesto containing concepts of a region
b. Explained how New York developed from a city of small trade centers
to an industrial belt, to a financial and managerial center
15.Constantine Doxiadis
a. Proposed ekistics as a science of human settlement which presented
the emergence of increasingly large and complex settlements
b. Ecumenopolis: the worldwide city
16.Lewis Mumford
a. The structures of modern cities is partially responsible for many social
problems in the society
b. Planning should consider relationship of people to their living spaces
c. Wrote City in History
17.Charles-Edouard Jeanneret
a. Le Corbusier
b. Swiss born French architect
c. Une Ville Contemporaine, Contemporary City is a hypothetical plan for
a city of 3 million people
d. La Ville Radieuse, Radiant City is a linear city based upon the abstract
shape of the human body with head, spine, arms, and legs

Urban Planning Movements


1. New Communities Movement
a. Radburn or Newtown Ideas
b. Series of super blocks, each around open green spaces which are
themselves interconnected
c. Greenways were pedestrian ways and separation of pedestrian and
vehicular traffic
2. Town and Country Planning Act of 1947
a. Planning permission is required in land development
b. Method of planning, man assumes control over physical and human
matter and process it to serve his defined needs

Urbanism Defined
Population
- Density
- Depends on the Location
o Differs depending on location policy
o Norway (200 pax) , Portugal (10000 pax) , Ethiopia (2000 pax)
CBD
- Census
- Central city with immediate interacting communities
o Megalopolis
o Metropolitan and Micropolitan
o Overlap between suburban and urban
o The way the city is divided
Economic Diversity
- Multiple economic activities
o High order
o Low order
Cultural Diversity
Larger population
More economic activity and diversity

Origin and Evolution of Cities


Hearths
- Administrative Center
- Agricultural Centers
o Mesopotamia
o Indus River
o Nile River
o Yellow River
o Mexico
o Peru
- Trade Routes
o Greeks
o Romans
o Phoenicians
- Religious Significance
o Rites and Rituals related to location

Pre-industrial Cities
- Main city and small city routes
o Surrounded by agriculture
o Exchange goods and services
o Trading Centers
- Declined with the Roman Empire
o Provided the stability and security of the established trade network
when the Roman empire fell
- 1500 Middle Ages
o Trade becomes more important but with focus on overseas
o Coastal Cities Urban Banana
A geographic shape of city formation
- Cities of power
- Political, Economic, and Cultural
o Origin of primate cities
- Commercial / Residential
o Concentrated together, not distinguished
o Upper and Lower
o Rich = City center
o Poor = City Rim

Industrialization and City Structure


Urban vs. Rural
- 1800s is 5%
- 1950s is 16%
- 2000s is 50%
- The world used to be an agriculture centric population but today the opposite
is true.
- Improving densities also improves sustainability
- Greater capacity means greater infrastructure to support the city
Industrialization = Urbanization
- Jobs
Shock cities
- Rapid urbanization
- have a difficult type to accommodate the people moving into the city
- Doesnt have the necessary infrastructure to support the inflow
- Problems:
o Slums
o Housing
o Pollution
o Fire hazards
City Trends
- Pre 1700
o Land Based Trade Centers
- Post 1700
o Sea Based Trade Centers
- Early 1900s
o Industrial Centers
Industrial Centers
- No political connection
- Located at many places
o Raw materials
o Supply / Trade Route
- Create and distribute products

Urban Systems
Connectedness of Cities
- Economics
- Transportation
- Population
- Culture
- Information
3 Scales
1. Global
2. Regional
3. Local
Theories
- Central Place Theory
o Chistaller
- Urban Hierarchies
- Rank-Size Rule
- Borcherts Model

Urban Systems
Why they develop?
How did they develop
What is their impact?
1. Central Place
Christaller
Patterns of Urban Land Use
i. Distribution of population and services
Ideal World Assumptions
i. All things are equal
ii. Rational Thinking
4 Main Concepts
i. Urban Center
1. Center for services
2. Hinterland
ii. Threshold
1. Minimum number
2. More unique, higher threshold
iii. Range of Goods and Services
1. The maximum distance which people are willing to go
through
2. The further, the greater the range
iv. Spatial Competition
1. Competition for customers
2. with the assumption of equal resources
3. Equally distributing themselves among the landscape to
maximize the territory
Christallers Model
Economic functions dictate location
Central Place
High population
High Threshold
High range
Serve those around (termed the hinterland)
Model takes the shape of a Hexagon
No place is left unserved
Efficient and equidistant among different types of
settlements and services
Higher order and Lower order settlements
o Key Notes
i. Urban Hierarchy
ii. Determined by economic functions
iii. Higher range
iv. Higher threshold
2. Rank Size Rule
Based on Christallers assumptions
Population Size and Hierarchy
i. Population = 1/Rank of the Largest City
ii. Direct correlation between population size and the hierarchy
iii. Suggesting an economic activity
World Cities
i. Global cities
ii. Mega Cities
1. Not global but at home
2. 10 Million plus
3. A connector (i.e. Beijing, Cairo, Jakarta, Mexico)
World Economic, Political, Cultural Power
i. 1500 London, Lisbon, Amsterdam
ii. 1700 Paris Rome
iii. Present New York, Tokyo, London
Pararegional Influence
i. Across different regions
3. Borcherts Model of Urban Evolution
4 Categories
i. Transportation perspective
Stage 1
i. Sail wagon era
Stage 2
i. Iron horse cities
Stage 3
i. Steel rail age with steel production and train transportation
ii. New industrial cities
Stage 4
i. Car and plane era
ii. Sprawl of Personal Transportation
Summary
i. Important of cities based on location, comparative advantage
and economic function

Planning Concepts and Principles


Definitions

Friedman: Planning is primarily a way of thinking about socio-economic


problems, oriented predominantly toward the future, is deeply concerned
with the relation of goals to collective decisions and strives for
comprehensiveness in policy and program
Glasson: Planning is a sequence of actions which are designed to solve
problems in the future. Planning problems tend to be social and economic.
Time horizon of the future varies according to the type and level of planning
Peter Hall: The making of an orderly sequence of action that will lead to the
achievement of stated goal or goals
Levy: Planning is a conscious effort to define systematically and think through
a problem to improve the quality of a decision making. It is the shaping of the
pattern of growth to achieve a sensible and attractive land use pattern. (1)
Avoiding dense development or overly scattered and fragmentary
development (2) Encouraging a pattern of development that gives residents
ready access to recreational, cultural, school, shopping, and other facilities
Keeble: Art and science of ordering the use of land and siting of buildings and
communication routes so as to secure maximum practicable degree of
economy convenience and beauty
Ratcliffe: allocation of resources, particularly land, in such a manner as to
obtain maximum efficiency while paying heed to the nature of the built
environment and the welfare of the community. Concerned with the right site,
at the right time, and in the right place with the right people.
Serote: A comprehensive, long-range, and multi-sectoral effort to attain a set
of goals by deciding upon a mix of alternative strategies. It may have a
timeframe of 3 to 30 years.

Litman Policy View on Planning


View on Planning and Planners
1. Planners are professionals who facilitiate decision-making
2. Planners do not make decisions themselves: rather, they support
decision makers (managers, public officials, citizens) by coordinating
information and activities
3. Planners role is to create a logical, systematic decision making process
that results in the best actions
4. Planners help nurture a communitys deepest aspirations such as love
hope and beauty
5. Planners translate theoretical goals into specific actions
6. Planners facilitate change and so must overcome entrenched practices
and interests
7. Often in the middle of conflicts
8. They have the most knowledge of the project and its likely impacts of a
particular decision.
9. Often responsible for anticipating unintended consequences and
representing the interests of people who are underrepresented in the
decision making process, such as children the poor and future
generation.

Planning Principles
1. Comprehensive
2. Efficient
3. Inclusive
4. Informative
5. Integrated
6. Logical
7. Transparent

Types of Planning
1. Passive planning
2. Panic Planning
3. Scientific Planning
4. Principle Centered Planning

Skills needed by Planners


1. Accurately critically and objectively evaluate problems
2. Collect and analyze data
3. Apply general concepts to specific situations
4. Manage complex processes
5. Communicate complex issues with many types of people
6. Listen carefully

Major Schools of Thought in Planning


Instrumentalist View
Planning as Communicative Action
Critical or Radical Planning
Systems Theory of Planning
Planning as Social Physics
Planning and Social Darwinism
Planning as Social Engineering

Legal Basis of Planning


- Power of Eminent Domain
o Government has the right to take property for public purposes;
payment of just compensation, due process of law
- Power of Taxation
o Government has the right to impose taxes
- Police Power
o Regulate activities of the private parties to protect the interest of the
people health safety and public welfare

Roles of a Planner
- Regulator
- Policy Advisor
- Mediator
- Facilitator
- Designer
- Visionary
- Advocate
- Educator

Region
- Refers to a city or central place plus the outlying territories that are
functionally integrated with it.
- Based on natural physical as well as economic politica relationship s between
urban areas and its surrounding rural territories
1. Economic Linkages
2. Infrastructure Linkages
- A flexible concept referring to a continuous and localized area intermediate
between national and urban levels
- Straddles the national and local gap