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Ostomachion

" We draw a [rectangular] parallelogram ABGD, we bisect BG in E and draw EZ


perpendicular to BG [to intersect AD], we draw the diagonals AG, BZ [intersecting
AG at L], and ZG, we also bisect BE in H, and draw HT perpendicular to BE [to
intersect BZ], then we put the ruler at point H and - looking to point A - we draw HK
[to intersect BZ], then bisect AL in M, and draw BM. So the A-E rectangle is divided
into seven parts. Now we bisect DG in N, ZG in C, we draw EC and attaching the
ruler to the points B and C we draw CO [to intersect DG], furthermore CN. Thus the
rectangle ZG is also divided in seven parts, but in another way than the first one.
Therefore, the whole square has fourteen parts.

We now demonstrate that each of the fourteen parts is in rational relationship to the
whole square.

Because ZG is the diagonal of the rectangle Z-G, the triangle DZG is half of this
rectangle, that means 1/4 of the square. But the triangle GNC is 1/4 of triangle DZG,
because, if we extend the line EC, it comes to point D, and that means triangle GDC
has half area of the triangle DZG and is equal to the two triangles GNC and DNC
taken together; that means triangle GNC is 1/16 of the square. If we presume that line
OC is orientated to point B, as we have drawn it before, so the line NC is parallel to
BG, which is the side of the square and of the triangle OBG, so we get the proportion

BG : NC = GO : NO.

But BG is four times NC, and in the same way GO four times NO; therefore is GN
three times NO, and triangle GNC = 3 ONC. However, as we have shown, triangle
GNC is 1/16 of the square, that means triangle ONC = 1/48 of the square.
Furthermore, as triangle GDZ = 1/4 of the square, and therefore GNC = 1/16 of that
triangle and NCO = 1/48 of that, it remains for the quadrilateral DOCZ = 1/6 of the
squares area. According to the proposition that line NC [extended] intersects [ZE at]
point F, and GE is parallel to CF, [and labelling the intersection of AG and CE as Q,]
we get the proportion

EC : CF = EQ : CQ = GQ : FQ.
Because EQ = 2 CQ and GQ = 2 FQ, triangle EQG is double to the two triangles
GCQ and EFQ. It is clear, that triangle EGZ = 2 times triangle EFG, because ZE = 2
FE. As the triangle EGZ = 1/4 of the square, that means triangle EFG = 1/8 of the
square. This triangle is three times as big as each of the two triangles EFQ and GCQ,
so each of these two triangles = 1/24 of the square A-G. And the triangle EGQ is
double to each of the two triangles EFQ and GCQ, so it is = 1/12 of the square.
Furthermore because ZF = EF, triangle ZFG = triangle EFG. If we now take away
triangle GCQ (= triangle EFQ), it leaves quadrilateral FQCZ (= triangle EGQ),
therefore quadrilateral FQCZ = 1/12 of the square A-G.

If an Ostomachion were to be imposed onto a 12-unit square, this diagram shows the
area of each piece.

We have now divided the rectangle Z-G in 7 parts, and go on to divide the other
rectangle.

Because BZ and EC are two parallel diagonals, and ZF = EF, therefore triangle ZLF
= EFQ, and also triangle ZLF = 1/24 of the square A-G. Because BH = HE, triangle
BEZ is four times the triangle BHT, because each of them is rectangular. As triangle
BEZ = 1/4 of the square ABGD, triangle BHT = 1/16 of that. According to our
proposition the line HK [extended[ intersects point A, so we get the proportion

AB : HT = BK : KT.

Because AB = 2 HT, and BK = 2 KT and BT = 3 KT, triangle BHT is three times the
triangle KHT. However, because triangle BHT = 1/16 of the whole square, triangle
KHT = 1/48 of that. Triangle BKH is double the triangle KHT, so = 1/24 of the
square. Further, as BL = 2 ZL, and AL = 2 LF, triangle ABL is twice the triangle ALZ,
and ALZ double the triangle ZLF. However, because triangle ZLF = 1/24 of the whole
square, triangle ALZ = 1/12 of that, so triangle ABL = 1/6. But triangle ABM =
triangle BML, so each of these two triangles = 1/12 of the square. It leaves the
pentagon LFEHT = 7/48 of the entire square.

We have now also divided the square AE into 7 sections, therefore, the whole figure
ABGD in 14 parts. Each of these fourteen parts is in rational relationship to the
whole, and that is what we wanted."