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ZXMP S385

SDH Based Multi-Service Node Equipment


Maintenance Manual
(Volume III) Troubleshootings

Version 2.60

ZTE CORPORATION
NO. 55, Hi-tech Road South, ShenZhen, P.R.China
Postcode: 518057
Tel: +86-755-26771900
Fax: +86-755-26770801
URL: http://ensupport.zte.com.cn
E-mail: support@zte.com.cn
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The ultimate right to interpret this product resides in ZTE CORPORATION.

Revision History

Revision No. Revision Date Revision Reason

R1.0 20110130 ZXMP S385(V2.60) Issued

Serial Number: SJ-20110216144245-007

Publishing Date: 2011-01-30(R1.0)


Contents
Preface............................................................................................................. I
Chapter 1 Basic Ideas and Methods for Fault Locating.......................... 1-1
1.1 Troubleshooting Procedure ................................................................................. 1-1
1.2 Basic Principles of Troubleshooting ..................................................................... 1-1
1.3 Basic Ideas for Fault Locating ............................................................................. 1-2
1.3.1 Fault Causes ........................................................................................... 1-2
1.3.2 Principles of Fault Locating ...................................................................... 1-3
1.4 Common Methods of Fault Locating .................................................................... 1-4
1.4.1 Observation & Analysis Method................................................................. 1-4
1.4.2 EMS Test Method..................................................................................... 1-4
1.4.3 Unplugging/Plugging Method .................................................................... 1-5
1.4.4 Replacement Method ............................................................................... 1-5
1.4.5 Configuration Data Analysis Method .......................................................... 1-5
1.4.6 Reconfiguration Method............................................................................ 1-6
1.4.7 Instrument Test Method ............................................................................ 1-6
1.4.8 Processing by Experiences ....................................................................... 1-7

Chapter 2 Typical Troubleshootings......................................................... 2-1


2.1 Service Interruption Fault .................................................................................... 2-1
2.1.1 Symptoms and Causes of Service Interruption Fault................................... 2-1
2.1.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Service Interruption Fault...................................... 2-2
2.1.3 Analysis and Handling of Service Interruption Fault .................................... 2-4
2.2 Bit Error Fault..................................................................................................... 2-5
2.2.1 Symptoms and Causes of Bit Error Fault ................................................... 2-5
2.2.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Bit Error Fault ...................................................... 2-5
2.2.3 Analysis and Handling of Bit Error Fault .................................................... 2-7
2.3 MS Protection Switching Fault............................................................................. 2-8
2.3.1 Symptoms and Causes of MS Protection Switching Fault............................ 2-8
2.3.2 Troubleshooting Flow of MS Protection Switching Fault .............................. 2-9
2.3.3 Analysis and Handling of MS Protection Switching Fault ........................... 2-10
2.4 SNCP Protection Switching Fault ...................................................................... 2-10
2.4.1 Symptoms and Causes of SNCP Protection Switching Fault ..................... 2-10
2.4.2 Troubleshooting Flow of SNCP Protection Switching Fault .........................2-11
2.4.3 Analysis and Handling of SNCP Protection Switching Fault....................... 2-13

I
2.5 Board 1:N Protection Switching Fault................................................................. 2-14
2.5.1 Symptoms and Causes of Board 1:N Protection Switching Fault................ 2-14
2.5.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Board 1:N Protection Switching Fault .................. 2-14
2.5.3 Analysis and Handling of Board 1:N Protection Switching Fault ................. 2-15
2.6 Clock Fault ...................................................................................................... 2-17
2.6.1 Symptoms and Causes of Clock Fault ..................................................... 2-17
2.6.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Clock Fault ........................................................ 2-17
2.6.3 Analysis and Handling of Clock Fault ....................................................... 2-18
2.7 EMS Monitoring Fault ....................................................................................... 2-19
2.7.1 Symptoms and Causes of EMS Monitoring Fault ...................................... 2-19
2.7.2 Troubleshooting Flow of EMS Monitoring Fault......................................... 2-20
2.7.3 Analysis and Handling of EMS Monitoring Fault ....................................... 2-22
2.8 Equipment Interconnection Fault ....................................................................... 2-24
2.8.1 Symptoms and Causes of Equipment Interconnection Fault ...................... 2-24
2.8.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Equipment Interconnection Fault......................... 2-25
2.8.3 Analysis and Handling of Equipment Interconnection Fault........................ 2-27
2.9 Data Service Fault............................................................................................ 2-28
2.9.1 Symptoms and Causes of Data Service Fault........................................... 2-28
2.9.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Data Service Fault ............................................. 2-28
2.9.3 Analysis and Handling of Data Service Fault ........................................... 2-30
2.10 Orderwire Fault .............................................................................................. 2-30
2.10.1 Symptoms and Causes of Orderwire Fault ............................................. 2-30
2.10.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Orderwire Fault ................................................ 2-31
2.10.3 Analysis and Handling of Orderwire Fault............................................... 2-32
2.11 Fan Fault ....................................................................................................... 2-32
2.11.1 Symptoms and Causes of Fan Fault ...................................................... 2-32
2.11.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Fan Fault ......................................................... 2-32
2.11.3 Analysis and Handling of Fan Fault ....................................................... 2-33

Figures............................................................................................................. I
Glossary ........................................................................................................ III

II
Preface
About This Manual
This manual is applicable to the Unitrans ZXMP S385 SDH based multi-service node
equipment (ZXMP S385 for short).
ZXMP S385 is a multi-service node equipment with the highest transmission rate of 10
Gbit/s. It can apply to the long-haul backbone transmission network, regional backbone
transmission network, and metropolitan area transmission network (at the access layer
and convergence layer).
The whole manual suite of ZXMP S385 is listed as follows:

Manual Name Contents

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V2.60) SDH Based It describes the system architecture, system
Multi-Service Node Equipment System features, system functions, and application
Description example.

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V2.60) SDH Based It describes the technical specifications of the
Multi-Service Node Equipment Product equipment, including physical specifications,
Description environment specifications, interface
specifications, and performance specifications.

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V2.60) SDH Based It describes the equipment hardware, including
Multi-Service Node Equipment Hardware cabinet, power distribution box, subrack, boards,
Description interfaces, and indicators.

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V2.60) SDH Based It describes the equipment installation
Multi-Service Node Equipment Installation procedures, including installation preparation,
Manual hardware installation, cable layout, installation
check, and the detailed power on/off operations.

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V2.60) SDH Based It describes the major items and common
Multi-Service Node Equipment Maintenance operations of routine maintenance.
Manual (Volume I) Routine Maintenance

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V2.60) SDH Based It describes the handling methods for the
Multi-Service Node Equipment Maintenance equipment alarms and performance events.
Manual (Volume II) Alarms and Performances

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V2.60) SDH Based It describes the analyses and solutions for some
Multi-Service Node Equipment Maintenance common faults.
Manual (Volume III) Troubleshootings

I
What Is in This Manual
This manual is the Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V2.60) SDH Based Multi-Service Node
Equipment Maintenance Manual (Volume III) Troubleshootings, consisting of the following
parts:

Chapter Contents

Chapter 1, Basic Ideas and Methods for Fault Locating Describes the troubleshooting flow, and
basic principles and common methods
for troubleshooting.

Chapter 2, Typical Troubleshootings Describes the symptoms, causes,


locating procedures, analyses and
handlings of typical faults.

Revision History

Product Version Document Version Update Description

V2.60 20110130-R1.0 ZXMP S385 (V2.60) is issued.

II
Chapter 1
Basic Ideas and Methods for
Fault Locating
Table of Contents
Troubleshooting Procedure ........................................................................................1-1
Basic Principles of Troubleshooting ............................................................................1-1
Basic Ideas for Fault Locating ....................................................................................1-2
Common Methods of Fault Locating ...........................................................................1-4

1.1 Troubleshooting Procedure


Figure 1-1 shows the troubleshooting procedure.

Figure 1-1 Troubleshooting Procedure

1.2 Basic Principles of Troubleshooting


In handling the equipment faults, the maintenance staff should follow these basic
principles: observe first, then query, think, and take action finally.

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Observing
After arriving at the site, the maintenance personnel should first observe the fault
phenomena carefully, including the faulty point, alarm cause, severity level, and damage
level. Only by fully considering fault reasons of the equipment, can one feel the essence
of problem.

Querying
Put questions to onsite operators after observing fault phenomena. Check whether there
is any direct cause of the fault, such as data modification, file deletion, circuit board
replacement, power supply fault or lightening.

Thinking
After observing the symptoms and querying the operators, the maintenance person can
analyze by using his own knowledge. Locate the fault, find the faulty point, and work out
the fault cause.

Taking Action
After locating the faulty point through above given three steps, the maintenance staff
can remove the fault by performing proper fault eradication procedures, for example, by
modifying the configuration data or by replacing the board.

1.3 Basic Ideas for Fault Locating


1.3.1 Fault Causes
Engineering Problems
Project problem refers to substandard or inferior construction of the project, which results
in equipment fault. Such problems can be revealed during the construction of project and
there are some problems, which cannot be revealed, until the equipment has operated for
a certain time. These are latent risks for the equipment.
The product engineering specifications are usually summed up according to features
of the product itself and some practical experiences. Therefore, in order to prevent
such problems, you should strictly observe the engineering specifications to perform
construction and installation. You should carry out the single-site or entire-network
debugging and test.

External Causes
External causes refer to the environment and equipment factors, which result in equipment
fault. Such factors do not include transmission equipment, but include:
l Power failure, such as equipment power failure, and too low supply voltage.
l Switch fault.

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l Fiber fault: Performance deterioration of fiber due to its wear and tear, fiber cut, ill
contact of fiber connector.
l Cable fault, such as relay dropped or broken due to ill contact of cable connector.
l The equipment is improperly grounded.
l The equipment is placed in unsuitable environment.

Improper Operations
Improper operations refer to inappropriate operations performed by maintenance staff due
to lack of in-depth understanding of equipment, which results in equipment fault.
Improper operation is the most common phenomena while carrying out equipment
maintenance, especially in network reconstruction, upgrading, and expansion, where the
old and new devices are mixed or old and new versions are mixed. The maintenance
staff is usually unaware of the difference between old and new devices or between the
old and new versions and tends to trigger off a fault.

Equipment Interconnection Problems


Various services are transmitted over the transmission equipment, which is connected
to various devices. In addition, different services require different performance of
transmission channels. There are equipment faults, which are usually derived from
improper equipment interconnection. The interconnection problems include:
l Cable connection error.
l Equipment grounding error.
l Out-of-sync of clock between the transmission and switching networks
l Inconsistent definition of overhead byte in the SDH frame structure.

Equipment Problems
Equipment problems refer to the faults caused by the transmission equipment itself,
including equipment damage and inferior cooperation of PCBs. After running for a long
time, the PCBs are damaged due to aging factor, which ultimately result in damaged
equipment. The characteristics of equipment damage are: the equipment has been in
use for a long time and has been running normally before the fault occurs; and the fault
only occurs at some certain point/PCB, or the fault occurs because of external causes.

1.3.2 Principles of Fault Locating


Since the transmission equipment covers the sites which are located far away from each
other, it becomes critical to locate the fault to the specific site accurately. After finding the
faulty site, concentrate on its eradication/troubleshooting.
The general principles of fault locating are as follows:

1. Check the external factors first, which can be fiber cut, switching fault, or power failure,
and after that consider the transmission equipment faults.
2. Try to find out the faulty site first, and then locate the fault to the board.

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3. The fault of optical line board causes alarms of tributary boards. Therefore, consider
the line first and then consider the tributaries. While analyzing alarms, consider the
higher priority alarms first, and then analyze the lower priority alarms.

1.4 Common Methods of Fault Locating


1.4.1 Observation & Analysis Method
When the system gets faulty, alarm information will appear on the equipment and EMS.
Observing the status of alarm indicator on equipment will help to find the fault in time.
When a fault arises, EMS will record abundant alarm events and performance data.
Analyze the information, and combine it with the overhead byte in SDH frame structure
and the SDH alarm principle, to determinate fault type and fault location primarily.
While collecting the alarm information and performance information through EMS, make
sure to set the current running time of NEs synchronous to EMS time. Deviation of time
setting will result in incorrect or delayed collection of alarm and performance information
of NEs.

1.4.2 EMS Test Method


When the networking, service and fault information are complicated or when equipment
faces unidentifiable faults without reporting any clear alarm or performance information,
use the maintenance functions (such as bit error insertion, alarm insertion, and loopback)
provided by the EMS to test the faulty point and fault type.
The following content takes loopback operation as an example.

1. Before performing loopback operation, you need to determine the NE, board, path and
direction of loopback. The paths concurrently faulty are usually correlated to some
extent, so when selecting the loopback path, select one faulty NE, one faulty traffic
channel, and then perform the loopback operation in each direction of selected traffic
channel for analyzing.
2. When performing the loopback operation, break up the business process of the faulty
traffic channel, draw a service route map, set out the service source/sink, NEs that
the service passes through, paths and timeslots occupied, and then perform loopback
in each segment to locate the faulty NE. After locating the fault to the NE, perform
loopback at the line side and tributary side to locate the possible faulty board. Finally,
confirm the faulty board with other methods, and replace it.

The loopback operation does not require any in-depth analysis of alarms and performance.
It is a common and effective method for locating the fault point. However, it may affect the
services.

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1.4.3 Unplugging/Plugging Method


After locating fault to specific board, unplug the board and external interface connector.
Plug them back to check ill contacts or abnormal board status.

Caution!
Be sure to observe the specifications while unplugging/plugging the board to avoid board
damage or other problems caused by improper operations.

1.4.4 Replacement Method


Replacement method means replacing suspected a faulty piece of object with a normal
one, such as a segment of cable, a board or a device, to locate and troubleshoot the fault.
The replacement method is applicable to the following circumstances.
1. Check the problems of external transmission devices, such as the fiber, trunk cable,
switch, or power supply equipment.
For example, the 2 M interface of a tributary board raises the CV performance
threshold crossing or Loss of 2M signal alarm, and it may be the switch or trunk
fault; try replacing it with a normal path. If the alarm transfers after replacement, it
indicates that external trunk cable or switch may be faulty. If the fault persists even
after replacement, it may be a transmission fault.
2. Check the problem on board after locating the fault to a specific site.
For instance, if an alarm occurs because of faulty optical line board, the receiving fiber
and transmitting fiber may be connected inversely, and fault can be removed just by
correcting the fiber connection.
3. Resolve the power and grounding problems.
For example, if the input power and grounding of a device are suspected to be faulty,
you can use a new channel of input power and connecting terminal to locate and
remove the fault.
The replacement method is simple and demands less for maintenance staff. It is more
practical but demands availability of spare parts and accessories.

1.4.5 Configuration Data Analysis Method


Due to change of equipment configuration or improper operation of maintenance staff, the
equipment configuration data may be damaged or changed, which will result in faults.
In this case, after locating the fault of distant NE site, query the current configuration data
of equipment and EMS security log to analyze the fault.
By configuration data analysis method we can find and analyze causes of faults after
locating the faulty NE. However, this method takes relatively longer time and is more

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demanding. This method is applicable to the experienced maintenance staff who are
familiar with the equipment.

1.4.6 Reconfiguration Method


This method is used to locate fault by modifying the equipment configuration. It is
applicable to checking configuration error after locating fault to a specific site. The
modifiable configurations include timeslot, slot and board parameters.

Caution!
Before modifying the equipment configuration, back up the original configuration and keep
a detailed record of operations being performed for convenience of fault investigation and
data recovery.

Here is an example of applying the reconfiguration method:


1. A typical application of reconfiguration method is to resolve the pointer justification
problem. To locate the pointer justification problem, change the clock source
configuration and clock extraction direction.
2. If you suspect that a tributary board or some of its paths are faulty, configure the
timeslot to another path or another tributary board. If you suspect that a slot on the
motherboard is faulty, insert the board into another slot to locate/remove the fault.
3. During upgrading, expansion and reconstruction, if you suspect error in new
configuration data, deliver the previous configuration data for check up.

The reconfiguration method is complicated and demands more for maintenance staff.
Therefore, it is only used when the spares are short and need to recover the services
temporarily, or to tackle the pointer justification problem. It is not recommended in
ordinary circumstances.

1.4.7 Instrument Test Method


The instrument test method refers to quantitatively testing the working parameters of
equipment by means of instruments. It is mostly used for checking the external problems
of transmission devices and problems of connecting with other devices.

Here is an example of conducting the instrument test:


1. Use a multi-meter to test whether the supply voltage is too high or too low.
2. If the transmission device cannot be connected with other devices, and it is suspected
that the equipment grounding is improper, use a multi-meter to measure the voltage
between the transmitting signal ground, and the receiving signal ground. If the voltage
value is higher than 500 mV, you can conclude improper grounding of equipment.
3. If the transmission equipment cannot be interconnected with other equipment and it is
suspected that the interface signal is not compatible, use a signal analyzer to observe

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Chapter 1 Basic Ideas and Methods for Fault Locating

whether the frame signal is normal, whether the overhead bytes are normal, whether
any abnormal alarm occurs, so as to find out the cause of the fault.
This method features high accuracy, but it requires highly accurate instruments and
demands more for maintenance personnel.

1.4.8 Processing by Experiences


At some special occasions, due to instant abnormal power supply and strong external
electromagnetic interference, the equipment board gets into abnormal working status
resulting in service interruption, ECC communication interruption, but the equipment
configuration data stays completely normal. Practice tells us that in such cases, we can
troubleshoot and recover effectively in time by resetting board, restarting the equipment,
and by delivering the configuration data again.
The method demands thorough examination of the causes, and it is not recommended
unless in emergencies. While handling complex/tricky problems, the maintenance staff
should request technical support from nearest service center and try to eliminate the latent
risks.

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Typical Troubleshootings
Table of Contents
Service Interruption Fault ...........................................................................................2-1
Bit Error Fault .............................................................................................................2-5
MS Protection Switching Fault....................................................................................2-8
SNCP Protection Switching Fault .............................................................................2-10
Board 1:N Protection Switching Fault .......................................................................2-14
Clock Fault ...............................................................................................................2-17
EMS Monitoring Fault ...............................................................................................2-19
Equipment Interconnection Fault ..............................................................................2-24
Data Service Fault....................................................................................................2-28
Orderwire Fault ........................................................................................................2-30
Fan Fault..................................................................................................................2-32

2.1 Service Interruption Fault


2.1.1 Symptoms and Causes of Service Interruption Fault
Symptoms
l Service cannot get through, and alarms or performances are reported on EMS.
l Service cannot get through, but no alarm or performance is reported on EMS.
l Most tributary services are blocked.
l Individual tributary service is blocked.

Fault Causes
l External causes
Power supply failure
Fiber or cable failure
Grounding abnormal
l Configuration errors
Data configuration of NE and EMS is wrong.
l Improper operations
Due to improper operation, loopback is mistakenly set for optical/tributary path.
Due to improper operation, the configuration data is modified or deleted.

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An alarm is manually inserted.


l Equipment problems
The board fails or has poor performance.

2.1.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Service Interruption Fault


Figure 2-1 shows the troubleshooting flow of service interruption fault.

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Chapter 2 Typical Troubleshootings

Figure 2-1 Troubleshooting Flow of Service Interruption Fault

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2.1.3 Analysis and Handling of Service Interruption Fault


Eliminate external causes
1. Check the power supply for equipment. If the equipment is power-down, the
unmanageable NE will be gray on EMS, upstream/downstream NEs are corresponding
to reported LOS alarms on optical board, and a large area of 2 M services are blocked.
2. Check if the optical fiber connection is correct. Check the received optical power of
the optical line board, test whether the receiving/transmitting light is normal and adjust
the optical interface to see whether the alarm disappears. Eliminate faults in optical
circuit. Otherwise, EMS reports LOS alarms, and a large area of 2 M services are
blocked.
3. Check if dry joint, miss out weld or loose connection exists, which might lead to blocked
2 M services. Execute terminal-end loopback for 2 M tributary signals, and connect to
bit error tester. If loss of 2 M electrical signals alarm does not disappear, the causes
might be interface problems of 2 M interface board, disconnection of 2 M cables, or
coaxial connector problems of distribution frame. Replace 2 M interface or cable to
solve these problems.
4. Check the grounding of equipment, the main cause is that the DDF/ODF is not
grounded or the transmission equipment does not share ground with the switch,
which results in a significant voltage difference.
If the fault locates at 2 M interface board interconnected with third-party equipment,
the fault cause may lie in different ground voltage between the interconnected
equipment and the transmission equipment. In order to eliminate the influence of
voltage difference, following methods are applicable:
a. Check the ground grid and make consistent ground voltage between transmission
equipment and the interconnected equipment.
b. Ground the transmitting end of 2 M signal of the transmission equipment and
interconnected equipment, and do not ground the receiving end.
c. Connect a 0.1 u~0.5 u capacitor in series with interconnected 2 M signal cable.
For further information about grounding requirements, refer to Unitrans ZXMP S385
SDH Based Multi-Service Node Equipment Technical Manual.

Check configuration data for NE


1. Check if slot configuration is correct. Wrong configuration might lead to blocking
for one or several 2 M services. Then execute downloading commands on EMS to
download the correct slot configuration data to tributary board. If there is still no signal
on tributary board, reset the tributary board. Alarms will disappear if there is not any
other hardware problem.
2. Check if loopback exists between sites with blocked services. If loopback exists
between optical line boards, all the 2 M services passing through this board are
blocked. If some irregular 2 M service is blocked, check if corresponding 2 M tributary
signals are loopback.

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Chapter 2 Typical Troubleshootings

3. Check if alarms are manually inserted, which leads to service blocking.

Check equipment hardware


1. Observe the running status of equipment indicators, and analyze equipment faults. If
both red light and green light of a board go out, and other boards are normal, it can be
concluded that the board is faulty. Replace the board.
2. Select tributary transmitting/receiving interface in faulty channel to connect with bit
error tester. Execute hop-by-hop loopback from near-end to opposite-end, to locate
faulty board.

2.2 Bit Error Fault


2.2.1 Symptoms and Causes of Bit Error Fault
Symptoms
l B1/B2 performance events exist on EMS.
l No B1/B2 performance events exist on EMS and only B3 performance events exist
on EMS.
l No B1/B2/B3 performance events exist on EMS and only V5 performance events exist
on EMS.
l No B1/B2/B3/V5 performance events exist on EMS and only CV performance events
exist on EMS.

Fault Causes
l External causes
Optical power is too high or too low.
The equipment is grounded improperly.
Dry joint, miss out weld or loose connection exists in service cables.
There is a strong interference source nearby.
The equipment works in a high temperature environment without proper heat
dissipation.

l Equipment problems
The CSA/CSE/CSF board, line board or tributary board fails, or its performance
degrades.

The clock synchronization performance is inferior.

2.2.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Bit Error Fault


Figure 2-2 shows the troubleshooting flow of bit error fault.

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Figure 2-2 Troubleshooting Flow of Bit Error Fault

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Chapter 2 Typical Troubleshootings

2.2.3 Analysis and Handling of Bit Error Fault


Related overhead bytes include B1, B2, B3, and V5 bytes. Their priorities ranking in a
descending order are B1 B2 B3 V5.
For the performance events reported by EMS, the higher-level performance events should
be handled first. Go on to handle the lower level performance events if they are still
reported after handling the higher-level performance events.In normal cases, ensure the
performance value collected at any board by EMS is zero whenever the service is running.
Adopting test method to local the source of bit error by hop-by-hop loopback from near
end to opposite end.

Eliminate external causes


1. Check whether the received/transmitted optical power falls in the index range. Both
the too high or too low optical power might lead to abnormality of optical module in
receiving optical signals, and also cause B1/B2 bit error at the same time. When the
transmitting optical power of opposite-end optical line board is normal, if local-end
received optical power is lower than the receiver sensitivity, check if the fiber
performance is degraded or fiber connector is not clean; if received optical power is
higher than the overload power, check if optical interface types do not match with
transmission distance.
2. Check the equipment grounding. Check the grounding of equipment in the equipment
room, especially whether the DDF/ODF have been properly grounded, or whether
the transmission equipment and the switching equipment share the same common
ground. If there are interconnection devices, check whether these two devices share
the same common ground.For the grounding requirements, refer to the Unitrans ZXMP
S385 SDH Based Multi-Service Node Equipment Technical Manual..
3. Check whether dry joint, miss out weld or loose connection exists in service cables,
which will lead to V5 bit error or CV performance. Solve the problem by replacing DDF
and interface of equipment interface board, or replacing cables.
4. Check whether any electromagnetic interference source, such as thunder and
lightning, high voltage transmission line, power supply and other electric facilities,
exists near the equipment.
5. Check whether the equipment temperature is within the normal range. Dirty
equipment room, blocked air filters or faulty fans may result in too high/low equipment
temperature. For the requirements of environment temperature, refer to the Unitrans
ZXMP S385 SDH Based Multi-Service Node Equipment Technical Manual.

Eliminate equipment causes


1. Check bit errors of line board. If bit errors occur on all the line boards at a site, it
can be concluded that cross-connection clock board at this site is faulty. Replace the
cross-connection clock board. If bit errors only occur on an individual line board, the
line board or the opposite line board might be faulty.
2. If no B1/B2 performance event is reported after performing self-loop of local-end optical
line board, it means the local-end optical line board is normal. Similarly, if no B1/B2

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performance event is reported after performing self-loop of the opposite optical board,
it means the opposite optical board is normal.
3. Cross-connection clock board faulty or E3/T3 tributary board faulty will lead to poor
performance in higher-order channel. At the same time, B3 performance events exist
on EMS. Locate faulty board by switching cross-connection clock board or replacing
tributary board.
4. Cross-connection clock board faulty or E1/T1 tributary board faulty will lead to poor
performance in lower-order channel. At the same time, V5 performance events exist
on EMS. Locate whether the local-end tributary board is faulty or the opposite-end
tributary board is faulty, by switching cross-connection clock board, modifying slot to
tributary of adjacent NE, or executing loopback for tributary channel.
5. Check current timing source, and check if clock is in the normal status of locking.
The degradation of clock synchronization performance will cause that line boards
connecting with local site and adjacent site report B1/B2 bit error. Tributary services
at local site will cause that tributary boards at local site and tributary boards at
downstream site passing through local site report channel bit errors.

2.3 MS Protection Switching Fault


2.3.1 Symptoms and Causes of MS Protection Switching Fault
Symptoms
l The system cannot normally perform the protection switching when some faults occur,
and services are interrupted.
l The switching status of individual site is abnormal after switching, MSP ring switching
fails, and services are interrupted.
l The switching status of each board is normal after switching, but services are
interrupted.

Fault Causes
l External causes
Optical fiber connection is faulty.
l Configuration errors
MS parameter configuration is faulty.
Protection switching protocol is not enabled.
l Improper operations
Protection switching protocol is manually stopped.
Forced switching or lock-out status is configured.
MS-AIS alarm is manually inserted.
l Board faults

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Line board is faulty.


Cross-connection clock board is faulty.

2.3.2 Troubleshooting Flow of MS Protection Switching Fault


Figure 2-3 shows the troubleshooting flow of MS protection switching fault.

Figure 2-3 Troubleshooting Flow of MS Protection Switching Fault

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2.3.3 Analysis and Handling of MS Protection Switching Fault


Eliminate external causes
Check fiber connections in the whole network, and make sure that they are correct.

Check configuration data for NE


1. Check MS parameter configuration. Check if protection type configuration for MS
protection group is correct, check if NE sequence in the protection group is correct,
check if configuration for APS ID is correct, check if the connection between NE ports
is correct, check if APS byte adopted in MS ring is consistent.
2. Check if APS protocol of each NE is enabled, and if the protocol status of is normal.

Check improper operations


1. Check if the status of forced switching or lock-out is configured. If so, protection
switching might not be triggered.
2. Check if MS-AIS alarm is inserted manually. If so, switching might not be implemented
normally.

Check equipment hardware


If the protection switching protocol is normally enabled, but the protection switching fails,
and services are interrupted, it can be concluded that cross-connection board is faulty
or line board is faulty. Locate the faults by switching or replacing cross-connection clock
board.

2.4 SNCP Protection Switching Fault


2.4.1 Symptoms and Causes of SNCP Protection Switching Fault
Symptoms
SNCP services cannot be implemented for normal protection switching, and services are
interrupted.

Fault Causes
l External causes
Optical fiber connection is faulty.
l Configuration errors
Configurations for SNC (I) and SNC (N) are faulty.
Configurations for SNCP services at source site or sink site are faulty.
Configurations for SNCP services passing through corresponding sites are faulty.

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l Board faults
Electrical tributary board is faulty.
Cross-connection clock board is faulty.
Line board is faulty.

2.4.2 Troubleshooting Flow of SNCP Protection Switching Fault


Figure 2-4 shows the troubleshooting flow of SNCP protection switching fault.

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Figure 2-4 Troubleshooting Flow of SNCP Protection Switching Fault

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2.4.3 Analysis and Handling of SNCP Protection Switching Fault


Eliminate external causes
SNCP adopts the protection mechanism of "concurrent transmission and selective
reception". Normally, if services are received via working channel, the incorrect connection
of pass-through NE in the protection channel will not affect services.
When the working channel for receiving services is faulty, and SNCP protection switching
occurs, services select protection channel. At this moment, the incorrect connection of
pass-through NE in the protection channel will affect services. Hence, ensure the correct
optical connection in the whole network.

Check configuration data for NE


1. Check if the configurations for switching conditions are incorrect.
The conditions for SNCP switching include:
a. Inherent monitored subnetwork connection: SNC (I)
If SSF alarms are detected at receiving end, services will be forced to execute
switching.
SSF signals are induced by LOP and AIS.
SNC (I) is the switching condition for SNC by default.
b. Signal degrade (SD)
SD will not lead to channel switching by default. Set SD as the switching
condition, services will be forced to execute switching when SD alarms are
detected in channel.
c. Non-intrusive monitored subnetwork connection: SNC (N)
If TSF or TSD alarm is detected at receiving end, services will be forced to execute
switching.
TSF is induced by SSF, UNEQ or TIM alarm, while TSD is induced by SD alarm.
By fault, UNEQ, TIM or SD alarm will not lead to channel switching.
2. Check the configurations for SNCP services at source site or sink site, which need to
be configured as bidirectional services from tributary to working channel and protection
channel.
3. Check the configurations for SNCP services at relevant pass-through site. Normally,
configure bidirectional pass-through services for site in the ring network, configure bi-
directional pass-through services between working channel and protection channel in
the cross-connection site of ring network and chain network.

Check equipment hardware


SNCP protection is implemented by adopting tributary board, cross-connection board and
line board. Analyze EMS alarm data and performance data to locate board faults.

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2.5 Board 1:N Protection Switching Fault


2.5.1 Symptoms and Causes of Board 1:N Protection Switching
Fault
Symptoms
The system cannot normally perform board 1:N protection switching, and services are
interrupted.

Fault Causes
l Configuration errors
Hardware configuration is faulty.
EMS data configuration is faulty.
l Hardware fault
Working board in 1:N protection group is faulty.
Protection board in 1:N protection group is faulty.
Cross-connection clock board is faulty.
Bridge board is faulty.

Interface board is faulty.

2.5.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Board 1:N Protection Switching Fault


Figure 2-5 shows the troubleshooting flow of board 1:N protection switching fault.

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Figure 2-5 Troubleshooting Flow of Board 1:N Protection Switching Fault

2.5.3 Analysis and Handling of Board 1:N Protection Switching


Fault
Check equipment configurations
1. Check equipment hardware configuration, and eliminate configuration errors.
a. ZXMP S385 supports 2 M/1.5 M tributary protection. The master/extension
subrack provides one group of 1:N (N9) tributary protection. Make sure that

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the configured board type supports 1:N protection first, and then check if the
configurations for hardware slots are correct.
The slots for 2 M/1.5 M tributary board are slot 1 to slot 5 and slot 12 to slot
16. Select any board to protect tributary board with the same rate in the same
protection group.
b. ZXMP S385 supports 34 M/45 M/FE (electrical) service board protection, and
single subrack provides two groups of 1:N (N4) board protection. Make sure
that the configured board type supports 1:N protection first, and then check if the
configurations for hardware slots are correct.

Slot 1 to slot 5 on 34 M/45 M/FE (electrical) service board are used as a protection
group, in which the board in slot 1 protects the board with the same rate in slot
2 to slot 5. Slot 12 to slot 16 are used as another protection group, in which the
board in slot 16 protects the board with the same rate in slot 12 to slot 15.
c. ZXMP S385 supports 155 M (electrical) service board protection. The master
subrack provides two groups of 1:N (N4) board protection, while the extension
subrack provides two groups of 1:N (N3) board protection. Make sure that
the configured board type supports 1:N protection first, and then check if the
configurations for hardware slots are correct.

Slot 1 to slot 5 on 155 M (electrical) service board are used as a protection group,
in which the board in slot 1 protects the board with the same rate in slot 2 to slot
5. Slot 12 to slot 16 are used as another protection group, in which the board in
slot 16 protects the board with the same rate in slot 12 to slot 15.
2. Check if software configuration on EMS is correct
Check if the selection of working board and protection board in EMS is correct, and
check if the configurations for protection group property are correct. If one protection
board protects multiple working boards, further check if the settings for protection
priority are correct.

Check equipment hardware


1. Check if the working board is faulty, which can not normally report the board faults,
and trigger switching conditions.
2. If the protection group normally detects switching condition, but the protection
switching fails, check protection board, bridge board, cross-connection clock board
and interface board in order to judge if equipment board is faulty.

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2.6 Clock Fault


2.6.1 Symptoms and Causes of Clock Fault
Symptoms
l EMS reports loss of timing input/output alarm.
l EMS reports pointer justification performance or justification threshold crossing alarm.
l Crystal oscillator is degraded.
l Phase-locked loop is out of lock.

Fault Causes
l External causes
The optical fiber is inversely connected.
The external clock is of poor quality, or the cable of external clock is degraded.

Equipment temperature is too high.


l Configuration errors
Unreasonable planning for clock tracking.
Wrong clock source configuration, such as two clock sources co-exist in a subnet.
Wrong setting of the clock source priority.
Mutual extraction of clock.

Wrong information configuration for external clock source.


l Equipment problems
Optical line board fault, and inferior line clock.
CSA/CSE/CSF board fault, and inferior working clock allocated to the boards.

2.6.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Clock Fault


Figure 2-6 shows the troubleshooting flow of clock fault.

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Figure 2-6 Troubleshooting Flow of Clock Fault

2.6.3 Analysis and Handling of Clock Fault


Eliminate external causes
1. Check if the connection of optical fiber is correct. Incorrect connection will lead to AU
pointer justification.
2. Check if equipment temperature is too high, which will lead to pointer justification.
If the equipment temperature is too high or too low, eliminate the possible reasons
caused by equipment room environment, equipment dust-proof net blocking, and fan

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fault. For the requirements of environment temperature, refer to Unitrans ZXMP S385
SDH Based Multi-Service Node Equipment Technical Manual.
3. Check external clock input. The deterioration of external clock will lead to pointer
justification or loss of timing input alarm. Locate faults by replacing one channel of
input external clock or clock input cable.

Check clock configurations


1. Check clock planning in the whole network to avoid too long clock tracking path.
2. Check configuration for clock source to avoid that two clock sources are
simultaneously locked in the same sub-network.
3. Check priority of clock source. If it is configured incorrectly, tracking each other after
clock protection switching will lead to pointer justification.
4. Check if SSM clock protection is enabled correctly. If not, protection switching cannot
be implemented when the clock quality degrades, which will lead to pointer justifica-
tion.
5. Check if clock is configured as a loop, which will lead to mutual extraction of clock.
6. Check the configurations for external clock source, and ensure SA byte of external
clock. Check if the configurations for external clock are mismatched with external clock
type.

Check equipment hardware


Switch cross-connection clock board via EMS, check the locking status for
cross-connection clock board, and judge if cross-connection clock board is faulty.

1. If clock is locked and AU PJC disappears after switching, replace the master
cross-connection clock board.
2. If clock still cannot be locked with the appearance of AU PJC after switching, change
the optical extraction direction of clock.
3. If AU PJC disappears, it means that optical line board is faulty.

2.7 EMS Monitoring Fault


2.7.1 Symptoms and Causes of EMS Monitoring Fault
Symptoms
l No NE in a system can be successfully pinged through the EMS.
l The NEs in a system can be successfully pinged through the EMS but they cannot be
monitored by the EMS.
l Only part of NEs in the network can be normally managed by the EMS.

Fault Causes
l External causes

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Power supply faults, such as equipment power failure or too low power supply
voltage.
Fiber faults, such as fiber performance deterioration or too high loss.
Network cable faults
DCN network faults
l Configuration errors
Planning for EMS IP, route IP address and NE address are wrong.
No enough sub-Manager in EMS
l Equipment faults
Network adapter faults
Optical line board faults, CSA/CSE/CSF board faults, or NCP board faults
ECC path blocking

2.7.2 Troubleshooting Flow of EMS Monitoring Fault


Figure 2-7 shows the troubleshooting flow of EMS monitoring fault.

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Figure 2-7 Troubleshooting Flow of EMS Monitoring Fault

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2.7.3 Analysis and Handling of EMS Monitoring Fault


Eliminate external causes
1. Check the power supply of equipment. If the power supply fails, the icon of
corresponding NE in the EMS turns gray and the EMS cannot manage the NE any
longer.
2. Check optical connection of the network. Make sure that optical connection between
NEs is normal without any circuit problems. Otherwise, EMS only manages part of the
NEs in the network.
3. Check if network cables are normal, and if cable type (straight-through cable or
crossover cable) is correct.
4. If EMS directly connects with DCN network, check whether DCN network is faulty by
monitoring DCN status.

Check configuration data


1. Check whether the NE data comply with EMS data, and if the version is integrated.
a. Set the all the bits of the DIP switch of NCP to ON, setting the NCP to be in
DOWNLOAD status. Execute the telnet 192.192.192.11 command, and check
whether the NE IP and server IP comply with the EMS database configurations.
b. Check whether the NCP version of NEs comply with EMS version. If not, upload
the application program of NCP board supporting EMS.
2. Check EMS configuration data
a. Check whether the computer network configuration is correct. The EMS can ping
through itself, it indicates that the network adaptor is correctly installed and the
network configuration takes effect. The EMS cannot ping through NCP; it indicates
that the EMS computer, the NE IP address and the subnet mask may be in different
network section.
b. For an NE in the IP protocol stack version, EMS and the NE belong to same
network segment. However, the user does not set IP address of the access NE as
default gateway or do not set a route. It will cause that EMS is not able to manage
accessing NE, or other NEs except for the accessing NE.
c. Check if there are redundant IP routes in the EMS, which cause EMS is not able
to manage accessing NE, or other NEs except for the accessing NE.

d. Check whether all the sub-managers have been started.

e. Check whether the NEs is beyond the management capability of the


sub-Managers. For ZXMP S385, it is recommended that the maximum number
of NEs under the management of each sub-manager should not exceed 50. If
the number exceeds this value, start another sub-manager.

f. Check whether a gateway NE is set to isolate the internal network from the DCN
network. If so, check whether the gateway NE is properly set.

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g. When EMS runs on the UNIX platform, check whether the system parameters of
maxfiles and nfiles are correct.

Note:
These two parameters are core parameters in the HP-UX operating system. When
installing EMS on the UNIX platform, adjust the core parameters of system, and
rebuild HP-UX kernel.
maxfiles refers to the restriction of file quantity to be opened by one process.
nfiles refers to the maximum file quantity to be opened anytime. If this value is not
modified, maxfiles cannot be modified successfully.

3. Check configuration data for NE


a. Check whether all the NEs are online. The offline NEs cannot be managed by the
EMS.
b. Check whether the same NE ID exists. If yes, redistribute the IDs for NEs.
c. In actual networking, try not to divide any area or use the backbone area under any
circumstances. When there are too many NEs on a network (for example, over
64), the NEs are generally divided into different areas. When the number of NEs
exceeds 128, they must be divided into different areas. In this case, if the network
segment division is wrong, the EMS may be unable to monitor all the NEs.
d. Check whether all the NEs distributed in different areas are directly connected with
the boundary NEs in backbone area.
e. Confirm whether the total number of NEs directly connected with the boundary
NEs, either in the backbone area or in non-backbone area, exceeds 128. If this
value is exceeded, the normal management becomes impossible. In addition, it
is recommended that each border NE is to be directly connected with the one in
non-backbone area.
f. Since the ECCs cannot directly work with each other in non-backbone area, and
can only work via backbone area, so check for the failure of NE in the ECC path
between the backbone area and the boundary.
g. Try to reduce border NEs. Sometimes, dividing NEs into too many areas may
complicate inter-area relationships.

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Note:
For the definition of NE address and the principle of route division, refer to Unitrans
ZXMP S385 SDH Based Multi-Service Node Equipment Maintenance Manual (Volume
I) Routine Maintenance

Check equipment faults


1. Check whether network adapter is faulty. If yes, EMS is unable to connect with NCP
board.
2. Check whether optical line board or cross-connection clock board is faulty. If yes, ECC
channel between NEs fails.
3. Check whether the NCP board is faulty. If yes, EMS is unable to manage the accessing
NEs.
4. Check whether ECC channel is blocking.

2.8 Equipment Interconnection Fault


2.8.1 Symptoms and Causes of Equipment Interconnection Fault
Symptoms
l ZXMP S385 interconnects with other manufacturers SDH equipment, and services
are interrupted.
l ZXMP S385 interconnects with other manufacturers SDH equipment, and the clocks
are not synchronized.

Fault Causes
l External causes
Incorrect connection of fiber or cable.
Abnormal receiving/transmitting optical power

Faulty cables
The equipment is interconnected with other manufacturers equipment, and the
equipment of one side is improperly grounded, or the devices of both sides do
not share common ground.
l Configuration errors

Inconsistent of sequence in the multiplexing process of signal mapping.

The clocks are not synchronized.

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Inconsistent definition of overhead bytes in the SDH frame structures of different


manufacturers.
Wrong configuration or improper operation.

2.8.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Equipment Interconnection Fault


Figure 2-8 shows the troubleshooting flow of equipment interconnection fault.

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Figure 2-8 Troubleshooting Flow of Equipment Interconnection Fault

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2.8.3 Analysis and Handling of Equipment Interconnection Fault


Eliminate external causes
1. Check whether the physical connections between the equipment are correct.
2. Check the receiving/transmitting optical power of interconnection equipment. Check
if receiving optical power is lower than receiver sensitivity caused by too high fiber
loss or unclean connector, and check if receiving optical power is higher than overload
threshold because of mismatched optical interface types.
3. Avoid open solder point/cold joint of cable and ill cable contact.
4. Check the grounding and ground-sharing status of the devices at both sides.
Grounding problem is usually caused by two interconnected devices not sharing
ground properly, and the grounding resistance fails to reach the required index, or the
DDF/ODF is not grounded properly.
The equipment room usually adopts joint grounding. For the sites that do not adopt
joint grounding, conduct the test carefully during hardware installation to ensure that
the equipment at both sides share common ground. Check the grounding status of
the shielding layer of the coaxial port.

Check configuration data for NE


1. Check timeslot arrangement sequence corresponding to tributary channels in the
mapping structure of VC-4. The numbering sequences of 3-7-3 structure from
different manufacturers might be different, which will lead to service interruption.
2. Check clock synchronization of the whole network
The switches and GSM equipment of some manufacturers impose high requirements
on the network-wide clock synchronization performance. Through the SDH
transmission network, if the clock of module office is not synchronized with the clock
of mother office, it may result in trunk slip, dial-up access service interruption or even
frequent call interruption. First, check whether the transmission devices are faulty. If
the transmission devices are normal, check whether the network-wide clock planning
is rational. If not rational, adjust the network-wide clock synchronization scheme to
synchronize all clocks in the whole network.
3. Check the consistency of definition of overhead bytes in the SDH frame structures
of the interconnected devices. J1 and C2 bye mismatch alarms in ZTE transmission
equipment will not lead to service interruption, while those in other manufacturers might
lead to service interruption. Hence, make sure that the overhead byte definitions in
interconnection equipment are inconsistent.
4. Check if configurations for service slots are wrong.
5. Check if loopback is set manually.

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2.9 Data Service Fault


2.9.1 Symptoms and Causes of Data Service Fault
Symptoms
l Data services are blocked in ZTE transmission equipment networking.
l Data services are blocked when interconnecting with equipment from other
manufacturers.
l Data service packets lose.
l Data service bandwidth is inconsistent with the setting value.

Fault Causes
l External causes
Faults at transmitting side, such as transmission services are blocked.
Cable faults, such as wrong network cable connection, wrong usage of crossover
network cable and straight-through network cable.
Interface alarms exist in data board.
l Data service configuration errors
Wrong configuration for user end property.
Wrong configuration for board operation mode.

Wrong VLAN configuration.


Wrong configuration for VCG port property.
Mismatched configuration for port interconnecting with equipment from other
manufactures.
l Equipment faults
Faults of the data board

2.9.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Data Service Fault


Figure 2-9 shows the troubleshooting flow of data service fault.

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Figure 2-9 Troubleshooting Flow of Data Service Fault

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2.9.3 Analysis and Handling of Data Service Fault


Eliminate external causes
1. Check if transmission services are faulty. If so, handle the transmission service alarms
first.
2. Check if the construction and usage of crossover network cable and straight-through
network cable are correct.
3. Check if interface alarms occur in data board. If so, check if interface or fiber is faulty.
For data board with optical interface, check if receiving optical power at port is normal.

Check data service configurations


1. Check property configurations for user port. Correctly configure the rate and duplex
mode of the port, which should be consistent in both sides of the port. And correctly
configure restriction for output rate of user port.
2. Check the property configuration for VCG port, such as port capacity, packing mode,
and LCAS settings.
3. Check if configuration for VLAN is correct.
4. Check if configuration for VLAN process mode at port is correct.

Check equipment hardware


Judge if data board is faulty by checking alarm and performance data on EMS, solve board
faults by resetting board and replacing board.

2.10 Orderwire Fault


2.10.1 Symptoms and Causes of Orderwire Fault
Symptoms
l Orderwire telephone fails to make an orderwire call with no dialing tone heard.
l Orderwire telephone fails to make a group orderwire call.
l There are lots of noises during an orderwire call.
l There are lots of howls during a group orderwire call.

Fault Causes
l External causes
The main power is off, or the optical line is interrupted.
The orderwire telephone is faulty.
l Improper operations
The configuration of OW board or optical line board is wrong.
l Equipment problems

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The OW board or the optical line board is faulty.

2.10.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Orderwire Fault


Figure 2-10 shows the troubleshooting flow of orderwire fault.

Figure 2-10 Troubleshooting Flow of Orderwire Fault

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2.10.3 Analysis and Handling of Orderwire Fault


Eliminate external causes
1. Check whether the optical line raises any alarm. Resolve the optical line alarm first, if
any. Because the optical line fault will lead to orderwire fault.
2. Check if the fibers at the sites are connected as the data configuration.
3. Check whether the orderwire phone sets are faulty. If so, replace the phone sets.

Check orderwire configurations


1. Check whether the group call is set in the EMS software.
2. Check whether the orderwire is looped, which will cause the howl/echo in-group call.
If so, set the loopback site as control point.
3. Check if the orderwire protection bytes in the interconnected optical direction are set
correctly. The orderwire protection bytes of all the interconnected optical interfaces
must be identical.

Check equipment hardware


Check the OW board, optical line board, and observe indicators and EMS alarms. Check
if board is faulty by unplugging/plugging or replacing the board.

2.11 Fan Fault


2.11.1 Symptoms and Causes of Fan Fault
Symptoms
l Indicator on the front panel of fan box is abnormal. The red indicator is solid on.
l EMS reports alarms of fan faults.

Fault Causes
l External causes

Fan cable failure, or ill contact between the fan box and motherboard.
l Equipment problems

Fault of NCP board or fan control board (FAN)

2.11.2 Troubleshooting Flow of Fan Fault


Figure 2-11 shows the troubleshooting flow of fan fault.

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Chapter 2 Typical Troubleshootings

Figure 2-11 Troubleshooting Flow of Fan Fault

2.11.3 Analysis and Handling of Fan Fault


Eliminate external causes
1. Check whether the fan is running normally.
2. Check the cable and the connection between interfaces.
3. Check whether the fan box is completely inserted into the fan plug-in box.

Check equipment hardware


1. Check if there are fan alarms on the EMS. If so, replace the fan box.
2. Check whether the indicators on the panel of fan plug-in box are normal. In normal
case, the green indicator is constantly on, and the red indicator is constantly off. If the
red indicator is constantly on, it indicates that the fan running is blocked. Replace the
fan.
3. If the fan is running properly but fan alarms are reported on the EMS, check whether
the alarms are wrongly reported by resetting or replacing the NCP board.

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Figures
Figure 1-1 Troubleshooting Procedure ...................................................................... 1-1
Figure 2-1 Troubleshooting Flow of Service Interruption Fault................................... 2-3
Figure 2-2 Troubleshooting Flow of Bit Error Fault .................................................... 2-6
Figure 2-3 Troubleshooting Flow of MS Protection Switching Fault ........................... 2-9
Figure 2-4 Troubleshooting Flow of SNCP Protection Switching Fault..................... 2-12
Figure 2-5 Troubleshooting Flow of Board 1:N Protection Switching Fault............... 2-15
Figure 2-6 Troubleshooting Flow of Clock Fault ...................................................... 2-18
Figure 2-7 Troubleshooting Flow of EMS Monitoring Fault ...................................... 2-21
Figure 2-8 Troubleshooting Flow of Equipment Interconnection Fault ..................... 2-26
Figure 2-9 Troubleshooting Flow of Data Service Fault ........................................... 2-29
Figure 2-10 Troubleshooting Flow of Orderwire Fault.............................................. 2-31
Figure 2-11 Troubleshooting Flow of Fan Fault ....................................................... 2-33

I
Figures

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Glossary
AIS
- Alarm Indication Signal
APS
- Automatic Protection Switching
DCN
- Data Communications Network
DDF
- Digital Distribution Frame
ECC
- Embedded Control Channel
FE
- Fast Ethernet
LOP
- Loss Of Pointer
MSP
- Multiplex Section Protection

ODF
- Optical Distribution Frame

SD
- Signal Degrade
SNC
- Sub-Network Connection
SNCP
- Sub-Network Connection Protection
SSF
- Server Signal Failure
TIM
- Trace Identifier Mismatch
TSF
- Trail Signal Fail

UNEQ
- UN-Equipped

III