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End of Year Final Exam Study Guide

Name________________________
AKS 11 Examine the scientific view of the nature of
matter.
Key vocabulary: matter, atom, proton, neutron, electron, nucleus, molecule, element, compound,
mixture, solution, pure substance, solid, liquid, gas, plasma.

AKS 11a Distinguish between atoms and molecules.

Essential Question What is an atom?

Essential Question What is a molecule?

Essential Question - What are the differences between atoms and molecules?

AKS 11b Describe the difference between pure substances (elements and
compounds) and mixtures.

Essential Question - What is a pure substance?

Essential Question What is an element?

Essential Question What is a compound?

Essential Question What is a mixture?

Essential Question What is the difference between a pure substance and mixtures?

AKS 11c Describe the movement of particles in solids, liquids, gases and plasma
states.

Essential Question How do the particles move in solids, liquids, gases and plasmas?

PRACTICE

1._____ Look at the diagram below; which would represent an element?

2._____ In the same diagram which would represent a mixture? 4.______Which of these are pure
substances?

3._____ Which would represent a compound? 5. What is


the difference between an atom and molecule?

6.What is the difference between a pure substance and


a mixture?

7. Describe the difference in motion of the particles


between solids, liquids, gases and plasmas.
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
AKS 11 Examine the scientific view of the nature of
matter.
Key Vocabulary: Physical property, chemical property, Density, Change of state, Melting point,
Boiling point, Physical change, Chemical change, reactivity, Combustibility, Vaporization, Law of
Conservation of Matter.

AKS 11d Distinguish between physical (density, melting point, boiling point) and
chemical (reactivity, combustibility) properties of matter

Essential Question What is matter?

Essential Question - What is a physical property? Give examples.

Essential Question What is a chemical property? Give examples.

AKS 11e Distinguish between physical and chemical changes (development of a gas,
formation of a precipitate, color change).

Essential Question What are some examples of a physical change?

Essential Question What are some examples of a chemical change?

Essential Question What are some indicators of a chemical change?

AKS 11f Identify and demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Matter.

Essential Question What is the Law of Conservation of Matter?

Essential Question How can the Law of Conservation of Matter be demonstrated?

PRACTICE

_____1. Which diagram illustrates the Law of Conservation of Matter?

A. + B. + C. +
D.

Identify the following as a physical or chemical property.

_____density _____flammability _____liquid at room temp. _____freezes at 20 degrees Celsius

_____reacts with acid _____does not react with water _____malleable


_____ductile

Identify the following as a physical or chemical change.

_____melting _____rusting _____exposure to oxygen is causing a color change _____vaporizing

_____tearing a piece of paper _____burning a piece of paper _____a solid is formed from
mixing two liquids
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
What is the density of an object that has a mass of 50g and a volume of 15mL? d =m/v

An irregular shaped object is dropped into a graduated cylinder that has 45mL of water in it. If
the volume rises to 53mL and the object has a mass of 10g what is the density of the irregular
shaped object?
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
AKS 12 Investigate the arrangement of the Periodic Table
Key Vocabulary: metal, nonmetal, metalloid, period, group, family, atomic mass, atomic number.

AKS 12a Use the Periodic Table to gather information about an element.

Essential Question How are the elements of the Periodic Table arranged?

Essential Question How is the Periodic Table organized?

Essential Question What does the atomic numbers and atomic masses tell you?

Essential Question What does the location of an element tell you about its properties
(periods, groups)?

AKS 12b Classify the elements as metals, nonmetals and metalloids using the periodic table.

Essential Question Where are the metals, nonmetals and metalloids located on the
Periodic Table?

AKS 12c Use the Periodic Table to explain the similarities and differences between elements.

Essential Question What are characteristics of metals, nonmetals and metalloids? Give
examples.

AKS 12d Identify common chemical symbols and formulas.

Essential Question - What are some common chemical formulas?

Essential Question How are chemical symbols written?

PRACTICE Identify the parts of the atom in this diagram. _____electron


B _____proton
A
_____neutron _____nucleus What element is this?
___________________

What is the landmark on the Periodic Table that separates


C the metals from the nonmetals?

How many protons, electrons and neutrons are in an atom of


potassium?

P__________ E___________ N___________


D
Identify the following elements as metals, nonmetals or
metalloids.

Identify these elements: ___________________H ___________________Cu ____________________C

_________________Mg ____________________S ____________________N


___________________Kr
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
Identify these common chemical compounds: __________________NaCl _____________________H 2O

____________________C6H12O6 _______________________HCl _____________________H2SO4


End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
AKS 13 Examine the various forms of energy and
transformations of energy.
Key vocabulary: energy transformation/conversion, potential energy, kinetic energy, heat
(thermal), chemical energy, nuclear energy, light energy, electrical energy, mechanical energy,
sound energy, conduction, convection, radiation, temperature, thermal expansion, Law of
Conservation of Energy.

AKS 13a Explain that energy is conserved according the Law of Conservation of
Energy.

Essential Question What is the Law of Conservation of Energy?

AKS 13b Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy.

Essential Question What is potential energy?

Essential Question What is kinetic energy?

Essential Question - What is the relationship between potential and kinetic energy in a
mechanical system?

AKS 13c Compare and contrast the different forms of energy and their
characteristics.

Essential Question - What are the characteristics of the different forms of energy?

AKS 13d Explain how heat is transferred through matter by conduction, convection
and radiation.

Essential Question How is heat transferred through matter by conduction, convection


and radiation?

AKS 13e Explain how heat causes matter to expand and contract.

Essential Question How does heat cause matter to expand and contract?

AKS 13f Explain the difference between heat and temperature.

Essential Question What is the difference between heat and temperature?

PRACTICE

Look at the energy roller coaster diagram below. Where does the car have the greatest potential
energy?______

Where does the car have the greatest kinetic energy? Where does the car have
approximately equal PE and KE?

What force will keep the car from reaching the original height W_____________
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
If the KE at point Z is 250,000J and the total mechanical energy of this system was 330,000J what
is the PE at point Z?

Bridges have special gaps built in every few hundred feet. What is the purpose of these gaps?

Identify the form of energy _________formed from a vibrating electrically charged particle.
________formed from an object vibrating

___________formed from moving electrons (electric charges)


End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
AKS 17 - Investigate the properties of waves
Key Vocabulary absorption, amplitude, diffraction, electromagnetic, frequency, lens,
mechanical, pitch, reflection, refractions, wavelength, wave, medium, spectrum, convex,
concave, Doppler effect, volume, compression, rarefaction

AKS 17a - Explain how waves transfer energy.

Essential Question - How do waves transfer energy?

AKS 17b - Identify the structure, movement, and properties of electromagnetic and
mechanical waves.

Essential Question What is the difference between mechanical and electromagnetic


waves?

AKS 17c - Describe how the behavior of light and sound waves is affected by mediums
such as air, water and/or solids.

Essential Question How do different media affect the movement of light and sound
waves?

AKS 17 d Analyze the relationship between wavelength, frequency and speed.

Essential Question How do you determine the velocity of a wave? V = f

PRACTICE

_____1. Which of the following is the only wave that does not need a medium in which to travel?

A. Sound B. Seismic C. Light D. Water

Rank the following media from fastest to slowest for a light wave to travel through (1 is fastest, 4
is slowest)

_____gas _____solid _____liquid _____empty space (vacuum)

Rank the following media from fastest to slowest for a sound wave to travel through (1 is fastest,
4 is slowest)

_____liquid _____gas _____empty space (vacuum) _____solid

What is a medium?

Light wave are what type of wave?

Sound waves are what type of wave?

What is the velocity (speed) of a wave that has a wavelength of 3m and a frequency of 12Hz?

Label the parts of the transverse and longitudinal waves.


A
C
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
A

C
B

AKS 18 Examine and explain how the behavior of light


waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction,
diffraction and absorption.
AKS 19 Explore the wave nature of sound.
Key Vocabulary absorption, amplitude, diffraction, electromagnetic, frequency, lens,
mechanical, pitch, reflection, refractions, wavelength, wave, medium, spectrum, convex,
concave, Doppler effect, volume, compression, rarefaction

AKS 18a - Explain how refraction is used to separate light into the colors of the
spectrum.

Essential Question What is refraction?

Essential Question - How does refraction of visible light produce the colors of the
spectrum (rainbow)?

AKS 18b Investigate and discuss how light interacts with mirrors (reflection) and
lenses (refraction) to produce images.

Essential Question How do mirrors reflect light?

Essential Question How do lenses work?

AKS 18c1 Explain how light responds to reflection, refraction, diffraction, and
absorption.

Essential Question - What is reflection?

Essential Question - What is reflection?

Essential Question How is light diffracted?

Essential Question - How can absorption of light be described (opaque, transparent,


translucent)?

Essential Question What is scattering?

AKS 18c2 Explain how wavelengths of light are absorbed and/or reflected in order
for the human eye to see color.
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
Essential Question How do we see colors?

AKS 19a - Describe sound as a form of energy produced by vibrations.

Essential Question What is a vibration?

Essential Question How does the energy from a vibration produce sound?

AKS 19b Diagram the parts of the wave and explain how the parts are affected by
changes in amplitude and frequency.

AKS 19c Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences (Doppler effect,
pitch, volume)

Essential Question What does the frequency of a sound have to do with pitch?

Essential Question What does the amplitude of a sound wave have to do with volume?
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
AKS 16 - Examine the factors that determine gravity and
the effects that gravity has on all matter in the universe.
Key Vocabulary Force, Mass, Weight, Gravity, Law of Universal Gravitation

AKS 16a Explain that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object in
the Universe.

ASK 16b Distinguish between mass and weight.

AKS 16c Model, illustrate, and explain that the strength (magnitude) of the force of
gravity depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them.

AKS 16d Explain why an object In the Universe can never be truly weightless.

Essential Question What tis the difference between mass and weight?

Essential Question How is the strength of gravity affected by the mass of objects and the
distance between them?

Essential Question Why can an object never be truly weightless?

1 If you recorded your mass and weight here on Earth and then traveled to the moon and had
access to a balance and scale what would you expect to happen to your mass and weight when
you checked it again on the moon?

2. Assume the objects below all 3. Assume the objects below are at
have the same mass. Rank them in the same distance. Rank them in
order of strongest to weakest order of strongest to weakest
gravitational force, the number one gravitational force, the number one
being the strongest, and four being being the strongest, and four being
the weakest. the weakest.

_____
_____

_____

_____
_____

_____
_____

4. This is drawing on the left represents the space shuttle orbiting the
Earth. Draw two arrows that represent the two forces that contribute
to its orbit. Draw a third arrow that represents the resultant motion of
the space shuttle around the planet. Use this diagram to explain why
the occupants of the space shuttle are not truly weightless.
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
AKS 14 - Investigate the relationship between force, mass,
and the motion of objects.
Key Vocabulary Newtons 1st Law, Newtons 2nd Law, Newtons 3rd Law, Inertia, Friction

AKS 14a Determine the relationship between force mass and the motion of objects.

AKS 14b Demonstrate and explain the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on
an object in terms of gravity, inertia and friction (use Newtons Laws as they pertain
to every day experiences).

Essential Question How do the mass and the force applied to an object affect the motion
of the object?

Essential Question What is the difference between balanced and unbalanced forces?

Essential Question What is Newtons 1st Law In terms of force, mass and inertia?

Essential Question What is Newtons 2nd Law in terms of force, mass and inertia?

Essential Question What is Newtons 3rd Law in terms of forces?

Essential Question What are some real-world examples of each of Newtons Laws?

1. Assuming no friction which lf the following two objects would be more difficult to start
moving? Why?

10k 30
kg

2. On the box below draw the arrows and forces that would cause a resultant force of 2N to
the right to accelerate the box. (Assume no friction)

3. On the box below draw the arrows and forces that would cause a net force of 0 to act on
the box and cause no acceleration. (Assume no friction)

4. Below are two boxes; one is accelerating at 5m/s 2 east, the other is accelerating at 7m/s 2
west. If they were both shoved with the same force which is more massive? ________
(Assume no friction)

5m/s2 east 7
m/s2 west A B
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________

Chapter 17- Introduction to Electricity Study Guide

1. State the law of electric charges and 13. Identify the four factors that
give some examples to illustrate it. determine the resistance of an
object.
2. What is electric force?
14. Explain how electric power is
3. Explain three ways an object can related to electrical energy.
become charged. Give an example
for each.
15. How does an electric power
4. Identify the difference between company calculate electrical energy
conductors and insulators. from electric power?

5. Give examples of static electricity


and electric discharge. 16. Explain how current, voltage,
and resistance are related by Ohms
6. When you use an electroscope, you law.
touch a charged object to a metal rod
that is held in place by a rubber
stopper. Why is it important to touch 17. Name and describe three
the object to the metal rod and not to essential parts of a circuit.
the stopper?
18. Compare series circuit with
7. Explain how a cell produces an
parallel circuit.
electric current.

8. What is the difference between a dry 19. Draw a picture of the circuit
cell and a wet cell? a) Connect a 6V battery and two
flashbulbs in a series circuit.
9. Describe how the potential difference b) Connect a 6V battery and two
is related to electric current. flashbulbs in a parallel circuit.
10. How do the currents produced 20. Explain how fuses and circuit
by a 1.5V flashlight cell and a 12V car breakers protect a home against
battery compare? short circuits and circuit overloads.
11. Describe how photo cells and
thermocouples produce electrical
energy.

12. Describe electric current. What


is the difference between AC and DC?
End of Year Final Exam Study Guide
Name________________________
Magnets & Magnetism
Chapter 18

Word Bank: Not all words will be used


Atoms poles north & east east & west north & south
West & south attract repel permanent stronger
magnet domains temporary weaker two
One ferromagnet electromagnet magnetic force

1. A magnet that is produced by an electric current

2. The parts of a magnet where the magnetic effects are the strongest.

3. The two ends of a magnet are called _______ & ________.

4. The force of repulsion or attraction between the poles of magnets.

5. Opposite poles _____________

6. Dropping a magnet can jostle the ________ out of alignment, causing the magnet to lose its magnetic
properties.

7. Magnetic field lines around a magnet are closest at the poles showing that the closer the magnetic field lines
are, the ___________ the magnetic field is.

8. Whether or not a material is magnetic depends on the ______ in the material.

9. Like poles ____________

10. When you hold a magnet close to an unmagnetized object, the _______________ in the object align to
create a temporary magnet.

11. When you cut a magnet in half, you end up with how many magnets, each with their own north pole &
south pole?

12. Any material that attracts iron or materials containing iron.

13. A magnet that is difficult to magnetize but retains its magnetic properties well

14. Magnet made from iron, nickel or cobalt

15. A magnet that is easy to create but loses its magnetism easily

Bonus: The ancient _______________ are generally credited with discovering how to make a compass out
of a piece of lodestone floating in water.