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Department of Electronic Engineering

Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

KNL 1262
Analog and Digital Electronic Applications
Fundamental of Digital Logic I
Laboratory 7
Transistor Characteristics

Name : Rene Brooke Fredrick


Matric : 59139
No
Lecturer : Dr. Muhammad Kashif Farooq
Program WK19 (PKET)
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LAB EXPERIMENT #7

Transistor Characteristics
OBJECTIVES:
To study and understand the DC Operating point & DC Load Line of BJT
EQUIPMENTS:
1 Breadboard
2 Transistor: BC337
3 Digital Multimeter (DMM)
4 Power Supply
5 Resistors: 1.5k, 470k
THEORY:

The transistor in Figure 5.1 is biased with Vcc and V BB to obtain certain values of IB, IC, IE
and VCE. The dc load line intersects VCE at VCE(off) & intersects the IC at IC(sat). After biasing the
circuit to a point near Q point. The Q point is known the quiescent point, the dc bias point, or
simple the operating point.

BC337

Figure 5.1

FORMULAE:-
IB = (VBB-VBE)/RB IC = *IB
IE = (+1)*IB VBE 0.7 V
VCE = VCC - ICRC VCB = VCE - VBE
= IC/IB

The load line shown in the Figure 1 shows that Vin = 0 and when Vin = 0, only dc remains in the
circuit. This IB, VBE operating point is called the quiescent point (Q-point) is noted with IBQ ,
VBEQ. As Vin varies through its cycle, base current varies from iBmax to iB min. The base-emitter
voltage varies also, from VBEmax to VBE min.
The load line analysis for output side is shown in Figure 2. The collector-emitter operating point
is given by the intersection of the load line and the appropriate base current curve. When Vin = 0,
IB = IBQ, and the quiescent point is ICQ, VCEQ. At Vin max , IB = IB max , and the operating
point is IC max, VCE min. At Vin min, IB = IB min, and the operating point is IC min , VCE max .
If the total change in VCE is greater than total change in Vin, we have an amplifier

PROCEDURE:
1 The circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 5.1.
2 The is measured by using the Digital Multimeter.
3 The power supply voltage is set to 15V and is applied to the circuit.
4 The reading of the observation is recorded in Table 5.1.
5 The DC load line (IC versus VCE) is plotted and the Q point is marked.
RESULT:
Table 5. 1: Observation Table

S. PARAMETER SIMULATION CALCULATE MEASURED


No. S D
1 VBE 0.64V 0.7V 0.66V
2 VCE 0.12V 0.05V 0.13V
3 VCB -0.52V -0.65V -0.52V
4 IC 9.92mA 9.97mA 10.18mA
5 IB 30.55uA 30.4uA 31uA
6 IE 9.92mA 10mA 10.2mA
7 325 328 465

Calculation:-

= IC/IB IC = *IB VBE 0.7 V


= 10.18m/31u = (328)(30.4u) VCE = VCC - ICRC
= 328 = 9.97mA = 15 (9.97m)(1.5k)
IB = (VBB-VBE)/RB IE = (+1)*IB = 0.05V
= (15-0.7)/470k = (328+1)(30.4u) VCB = VCE - VBE
= 30.4uA = 10mA = 0.05-0.7
= -0.65V

For Graph:
VCEQ = (0.13) ICQ = 1/2(15/1.5K)
= 0.065V = 5mA

DISCUSSION:

The experiment is set up and conducted. The 2N3904 transistor is replaced with a BC337
transistor. The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is an extremely common electronic device to all
forms of electronic circuits. It can be used for several useful applications such as an amplifier, a
switch, a buffer, an oscillator, a nonlinear circuit so forth. The unique characteristics of the BJT
originate from an interaction between these two junctions. The operating mode of a BJT depends
on how its junctions are biased. The BJT is biased to operate in the active mode in applications
where itis used as an amplifier. In the cut-off and saturation modes, the BJT behaves like an open
and closed switch, respectively. Most BJTs in digital circuits (logic gates, memory) operate in
these two modes. The reverse active mode is rarely used and is listed here for reference. In a
typical transistor circuit, the transistor is connected to an input circuit and an output circuit or
load. (Additional components are often necessary to bias the BJT) One of the terminals of the
BJT (E, B or C) is connected to both the input and the output circuit. The configuration of a BJT
in a circuit is named after this common terminal. Thus, we speak of common-emitter, common-
base and common-collector configurations. The purpose of biasing is to establish a stable
operating point (Q-point). Based on the experiment, by using the formula given the calculated
value for VBE, VCE, VCB, IC, IB, IE and is 0.7V, 0.05V, -0.65V, 9.97mA, 30.4uA, 10mA and 328
respectively. The value of calculated = IC (MEASURED) /IB (MEASURED) where the values used is from
the measured value. The measured value of VBE, VCE, VCB, IC, IB, IE and by using a Digital
Multimeter is 0.66V, 0.13V, -0.52V, 10.18mA, 31uA, 10.2mA and 465 respectively. The value of
VCB is negative because the current flows in reverse direction. The graph of IC vs VCE is plotted.
From the graph, we can see that it decreases linearly with the value of IC(SAT) and VCE(SAT). The
values are in the saturation region. The q-point is established first by finding the value of VCEQ
and ICQ. Using the measured value, we obtained the value for the Q point which is 0.065V for the
VCEQ and 5mA for the ICEQ. The value Q-point does not go into saturation or cutoff when an AC
signal is applied. The safety precautions to be taken are as follows. The electrical and electronic
components must be prepared in good condition. The value of the parts such as resistor, voltage
source and others in the circuit should be double checked before start the probe so that all parts
have the values that are correct. We should not depend fully on the voltage value given by the
generator. Instead, we should double check the value with the multimeter to get a more accurate
voltage reading.

CONCLUSION:

After conducting the experiment, we could study and understand the DC Operating point
& DC Load Line of BJT. The purpose of biasing is to establish a stable operating point (Q-
point). The Q-point is the best point for operation of a transistor for a given collector current. The
dc load line helps to establish the Q-point for a given collector current. The linear region of a
transistor is the region of operation within saturation and cutoff.