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Scientific Research

Duhok Polytechnic University

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering Department

Report Of

fluid of mechanic

(3)

Name of Experiment

Archimedes principle and buoyancy force

Date : 22/ 11 /2016

Year : 2015-2016

ARCHIMEDE'S PRINCIPLE OF FLOTATION

city-state of Syracuse, Sicily, up to the time that it was

conquered by the Romans, a conquest that led to his

death. Of his works that survive, the second of his two

books of On Floating Bodies is considered his most

mature work, commonly described as a tour de force.

More than 2000 years ago,

Archimedes noticed that objects seem to weigh less

when they were placed in water. This effect produced by

liquid or gas causes objects to float. When an object is

placed in water, the water exerts an upward force or the

up thrust

upon the object. This up thrust is the force produced by

water in reaction to the force of the weight of the object

that is introduced in water. This

up thrust or the upward force is termed as Buoyancy

. Water puts pressure from all sides of the object to

support its weight. However, the water pressure is

highest at its deepest end

upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed

in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to

the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and it acts

in the upward direction at the center of mass of the

displaced fluid. Archimedes' principle is a law of

physics fundamental to fluid mechanics. It was

formulated by Archimedes of Syracuse

Object: the objective of this lab is to measure the

buoyant force

On a number of object

EQUIPMENTS:

1. Graduated cylinder.

2. Digital balance.

3. Vernier.

4. Ruler.

5. String.

6. Extra masses.

7. Beakers.

8. Jar.

THEORY:

The density, (pronounced "rho"), of an object is the

ratio of its mass to its volume

m

= V

density, this property can be used to identify an element

or compound. The density of water is 1 g/ cm3 which is

the same as 1 x 103 kg/m3. The ratio of the density of

any solid or liquid or to that of water is called its specific

gravity (S). Since it is the ratio of two densities, specific

gravity has no units and is independent of the system of

measurement.

When you are swimming in a pool or in the ocean you

seem to weigh less. This is because the water exerts a

buoyant force on you. The apparent loss of weight that

you feel when you are submerged in the water is equal to

the buoyant force exerted you by the water. Salt water is

denser than fresh water and exerts more force; your

apparent weight is less in salt water than in fresh water.

In some extremely salty bodies of water like the Salton

Sea or the Dead Sea it is almost impossible to sink.

In other words, if you weigh an object in air and then

weigh it while it is submerged in a liquid, its weight in the

liquid, called its "apparent weight" will be the smaller of

the two. This is because the liquid exerts a larger buoyant

force on the object than air does. One way to understand

buoyant forces is to consider an element of volume, V,

somewhere in a container of liquid. This element is in

equilibrium, that is, it is neither rising nor falling in the

container. This means that the weight of the liquid, which

acts downward, is exactly balanced by an upward force

provided by the liquid below it. This upward force is the

buoyant force. If the volume of liquid, V, is replaced by

an object of the same volume, the object will feel the

same force. The magnitude of the buoyant force,

therefore, is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid

Fb =mg = .g . V

Where is the density of the liquid, V is the volume of

the submerged part of the object, and g is the

acceleration due to gravity. The force is directed upward.

This is called Archimedes' principle. He is said to have

discovered this principle while he was taking a bath.

If the object's weight is less than the weight of the

displaced liquid, it will float. It may also be able to

support additional weight. The amount of weight a

floating object can support is the difference between the

object's weight and the weight of the liquid that the

object would displace if it were totally submerged. An

object that floats will have negative apparent weight

when it is totally submerged.

fluid.

Procedure:

Part 1:

1. Find the mass of each jar and Find the mass of the

block piece and the jar with water.

2. Set a beaker of water on the platform attached to the

balance. Tie a piece of string to a rubber band. You will

use this to make a sling that you can use to lower the

cylinders into the water so that they are completely

submerged, but not touching the bottom. Be sure the pan

is still hanging from the arm of the balance and tie the

other end of the string to the hook that the pan hangs

Mass of Mass of Total Fb = total

beaker piece mass mass x g

1 122g 220g 342g 3.35 N

from. Make sure that the string does not touch the sides

of the beaker. Find the mass of piece in water.

3. now find the buoyancy force from the equation :

Buoyancy force (Fb ) = Weight of substance in air (W s.air)

Weight of substance in liquid (WS.Liquid).

Part 2: (use beaker to increase the displaced

volume of water)

1. Put one piece of masses in jar and notice how it will

sink to the bottom of jar.

2. Put the same mass in a specific beaker and notice how

it submerged partially in the jar.

3. now increase the masses in beakers until last point

before beaker sink in jar. Record that mass in your result,

then Find the mass of beaker with mass of piece and

record it. Multiplying this mass with gravity acceleration

will represent the bouncy force Fb on the beaker.

4. Use Archimedes principle to check your result.

Use the Vernier caliper to measure the height and the

diameter of one Beaker to find the volume. Multiplying

the volume with density of water will produce the

maximum mass which beaker can hold.

Read

Calculation

High of beaker = 7.7 cm

Wide of beaker = 3.7 cm

Depth of beaker = 3.1 cm

Volume of beaker = high wide depth

V = 7.73.73.1

V= 90.7 cm3

Fb= V

= 9810 90.7

= 0.889 N

pieces in pieces in weight=F Displacem displacem

air water b ent ent

Water Water

225 g 135 g 90 g 90.7 10- 0.889 N

6

cm3

V= /4 d2 h

= /4 (6.95)28.9

=0.000337m3

beaker volume

Discussion:

19.3 kg) and a 1000 cm3 aluminum brick ( = 2.7

g/cm3, so mass = 2.7 kg) are immersed in water.

Which brick experiences the greater buoyant force?

Justify your answer.

less than the weight of object so buoyancy force will not

be able to make the object float and it will sink, so less

buoyancy for heavier objects. because that the density of

gold more than the density of aluminum is mean the

aluminum has a buoyancy force higher than gold

a river or swimming pool?

5/ The density of the sea water is more than the

density of river water. Thus upward thrust is

larger. When a body is submerged in sea water

the weight of the sea water is displaced is equal

to the weight of the river water. A larger body is

to be submerged in it. Hence it is easier to swim

in a sea water than a river water

7.88 g/cm3) float in water?

than water) or tough plastics (usually denser than

water). You would imagine that a boat made of dense

stuff would sink, but the boat floats primarily because

of its shape. Boats stay afloat with heavy loads

because they're hollow; they aren't solid hunks of wood

or metal. This means that the boat experiences a

really strong "buoyant force," upward, against the pull

of gravity which is downward. You can see this for

yourself if you put a plastic bowl upright in a pot of

water or a bathtub. If you set the bowl in the water, it

will float, but if you fill the bowl with water, it may sink

to the bottom (depending on if the plastic is denser

than the water or not).

A/ Hot air balloons fly when the air inside the hot

air balloon is less dense than the air surrounding

it. Hot air is less dense than cool air; the heated

air causes the balloon to rise simply because it is

lighter than an equal volume of cold air.

Buoyancy is an upward force that the air exerts,

and it helps hot-air balloons and blimps stay in

the air.

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