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ASSIGNMENT 2 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING (GROUP TALHA

AND HUZEF)
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1 Alligator crack
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Alligator cracks (Crocodile splitting) is normally called chicken wire splitting as it resembles
chicken wire work. The splitting begins as fine hair breaks, which in the early stages are
difficult to see, as the carriageway does not lose its shape until water enters the splits. The
splits then begin to end up plainly more self-evident.

Measure: The length of wheel path in metres in the inspection length that is exhibiting
alligator (fatigue) cracking. An entry is required.

Repair: When crack filling either prior to sealing or as a single treatment is specified, the
Contractor shall after preparation of the surface in terms of clause 5.5.2, fill the cracks with
one of the following materials, or an approved alternative material.
(a) Cracks not wider than 5 mm : An asphaltic binder
(b) Cracks wider than 5 mm but not wider than 20 mm
An asphaltic binder with filler (slurry). A waterproofing seal coat shall be applied following
crack sealing.
(c) Cracks wider than 20 mm
A fine premix material. A light tackcoat shall be applied to the sides of the cracks to be filled,
and a waterproofing seal coat shall be applied following crack sealing.
(d) Polymer modified proprietary materials Such materials shall be applied strictly in
accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. These may be used for all cracks over 5 mm
in width. In asphaltic concrete, polymer modified material 100 mm wide shall be applied over
all cracks as a stress-absorbing bandage.

Response: The response time to carry out work in Clause 1 of this specification shall be as
scheduled by the Engineer in the Contract documents. All work scheduled by the Contractor
shall be in terms of Transit New Zealand State Highway Route Positions and shall list priority
work for particular road groups.

TNZ C6: 1995 SP/SC6:95XXXX SPECIFICATION FOR REPAIR OF SURFACE DEFECTS Page 4 of 7
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2 & 3 Potholes

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A pot-hole is where surface attrition has
occurred over an area exceeding 70 mm in
diameter but not exceeding 1m in area and
the base course aggregate is exposed, or 2
where the defect exceeds 50 mm in depth in
structural asphaltic concrete.
Measure: A pothole shall also be where
surface attrition has occurred over an area
exceeding 70 mm diameter and the underlying
pavement is exposed. (This does not include
scabbing and stripping on a chip seal).
Repair: Firstly the area should prepared for
repair. Since the pothole shown in the image is less than 100mm (84.6mm) which was
measured using a measuring tape, the method of repair is to ensure bond with the
surrounding pavement material, a light tack-coat of emulsion shall be applied to all surfaces
in contact with premix material. The pothole shall be filled with premix material. Backfill
material shall be thoroughly compacted so that a uniformly dense and stable repair is
produced which does not move under the action of ordinary road traffic.
Response: The Contractor shall record pothole numbers and their location. Where an
individual pothole exceeds 1m in area the Contractor shall repair the pothole and immediately
2 report its location to the Engineer.

TNZ C3: 1993 SP/SC3:93XXXX SPECIFICATION FOR THE REPAIR OF POTHOLES IN BITUMINOUS
SURFACED ROADS Page 3 of 4 Pages

Shoving
Shoving occurs when material is displaced to form a bulge or heave alongside a depressed
area as shown in the diagrams and photos. The length in meters is recorded. Where other
faults occur within the area affected by shoving, they are ignored for rating purposes. E.G. if
both alligator cracking and potholes appear within a shoved area, only the shoving is
recorded. Normally occurs on the edge of a road and due to instability of the base layer
causing displacement of the layer from traffic loads. Probably caused by poor compaction of
the layers.
Methodology of Measurement: The length of wheel path in meters in the inspection length
that is exhibiting shoving. An entry is required.
Repair: localized dugout of the weak base layer and reinstate with new material. Drainage
may also be an issue.
Response: Should be repaired as soon as possible.

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REFLECTION
A condition survey is the process of collecting data to determine the structural integrity,
distresses, skid resistance and overall riding quality of the pavement.
Collecting data