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WSETABSManual

PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

REVISION1:October,2010

WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

ABOUTTHEMANUAL

Thismanualiswritteninsimpleandstraightlanguage.Themainfocuswasnottotellhowtomake
model,ratherhowtocheckthemodelandtounderstanditsvarioususefuloptionsformakinga
soundandstablestructuralerrorfreemodel.Thismanualisneitherdesignedforfreshusersnor
expertusersofETABS,ratheritistoclearsomedoubtsofthoseuserswhoarestillbeginnersof
ETABSbutknowwellitsinterface,butIhope,advanceusersofETABSwillalsofindnewthingsto
learnfromthismanual.Duetotimeconstraintsandknowledge,Imaynotbeabletoaddressthe
wholeissues.

Pleasesendmeyoursuggestionsforimprovement.Anyoneinterestedtosharehis/herknowledge
orwillingtocontributeeithertotallyanewsectionaboutETABSorwithinthissectionis
encouraged.AdvanceuserscanalsosubmittheircontentaboutadvanceanalysisoptionslikeP
DELTA,Dynamic,Earthquake/Wind,ResponseSpectrum,TimeHistoryanalysisetc.Youcanalso
suggestorsubmitanyexamplesandhandcalculations.

Forfurtherdetails:

MyStructuralForum: http://www.coolestbliss363.blogspot.com/

Email: coolestbliss@gmail.com

CIVILEAUserAccount:

http://forum.civilea.com/member.php?action=profile&uid=10336

MSWORDformattosubmitcontents:

http://www.4shared.com/file/sXAUywbG/Format.html

WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

DEDICATED

TO

MY

PARENTS,

TEACHERS,

FRIENDS,

&

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

TableofContents

ISTABILITYERRORS......................................................................................................................1

IICONFIGURATIONERRORS.........................................................................................................4

IIITIPS/TRICKS..............................................................................................................................12

WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss


ISTABILITYERRORS

1LASTANALYSISRUNLOG

Afterrunningyourmodel,pleasealways
checkyouranalysislogforglobalerrors.
Theseerrorsshouldbeofmagnitude10e10
orsmaller.Ifyoufindlargererrors,please
unlockyourmodelandcheckyourmodel.


Thereisalsoanoptiontoentertolerance
valueforthesecheckstobeperformed.By
defaultthevalueis0.001mor1mm.Youcan

goasfaras0.025mor25mm,ifyouare

havingrealtroubleinyourmodel.Line,point
andareachecksverifyforoverlapsandany
2CHECKMODEL areaorlinenotconnectedtopointsornodes.
Sometimesareaoverlapproblemariseswhen
AnotherveryimportanttoolinETABSfor
youmodelhascurves.Tosavetimeandto
modelcheckingisfoundunderAnalyzemenu
workwitheachcheckefficiently,youcan
andthatisCheckModeloption.These
checkyourmodelforeachcheckseparately.
checksare:

i Linechecks
ii Pointchecks
iii Areachecks
iv Loadingandmeshchecks


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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

AfterpressingOKbutton,ETABSwillstart problems,justunlockthemodel,provide
tocheckyourmodelandthenitwilldisplaya basesupportsandrerun.
windowsshowingyouthelistofalltheerrors.
Thisreportwillalsobesavedasatextfilein
yourmodelfolder.Ifthereisnoerror,youare
lucky,ETABSwilldisplayModelhasbeen
checked.NowarningMessages.Youshould
alwayscheckyourwholemodel,notjustthe

selectedobjects.


Animportanttiphereis;afterclosingthe
warningwindow,theBADELEMENTSwillbe
selectedbyETABSautomatically.Donot
clickanywhere,justgotoASSIGN
menu>GroupandassigntheseBAD

ELEMENTSagroupforselection.Nowwork
ontheseerrorsbyanymeanyouwant.After
youaredoneselectthesamegroupand
checkthemodelonlyfortheselectedgroup
selection.Inthiswayyouwillsavetimeon

modelcheckingoption.Ifyougetwarnings
again(whichwillofcoursebelessthan
previouswarningsunlessyoumadesome
blunder)assignthemagainthegroupandso
onuntilyouhavezerowarnings.Thencheck
ETABSdoesnotcheckthesupportsforyour
themodelaswholeforthefinaltime.
model.Ifforexampleyouhaveappliedthe
supportsforthebaseofmodelbuthavealso
drawnsomelinesinspacewithnosupports,
3SUPPORTYOURBASE Checkingthemodelwillnotreturnanyerrors,
ratheritwillsaytherearenoerrors(unless
Alwaysmakesure,yourmodelbasehas
youhaveothererrors,likeoverlappingetc.)
supports,pinned,fixedetc,otherwiseyour
modelisobviouslyunstable.Whenyourun
theanalysisandfindthatthewarningis
relatedtonegativestiffnessvaluesfoundin
model,basesupportcouldbeoneofthe

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

Now,youhaveruntheanalysisandfound
thatitdisplayswarningsasshownhere:




Theseerrorsareaboutnegativestiffnessand
lossofaccuracy.Lossofaccuracyerroris willbeverynegligibleascomparedtothese
okay,butiftheno.ofdigitslostexceeds11, BADELEMENTSdeformation.Sothereis
ETABSstopstheanalysisprocess. somethingwrongwithyourmodel.PROVIDE
SUPPORTS.
Yourmodeldeformedshapewillalsobe
affected.Itwillonlyshowtheanimationof
theBADELEMENTS,becauseETABStriesto
givethedeformedanimationofallthemodel
elements.Nowifsomeelementisill
conditionedanddeforminglikeinfinitythen
obviouslyotherGOODELEMENTS
deformation(smallascomparedwithinfinity)

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

youmustcheckthisinETABShelpfile.For
IICONFIGURATION example,onlymomentscanbereleasedon
ERRORS bothends,allotheroptions(axialload,shear
andtorsion)canbeonlybereleasedatonly
1FRAMEOUTPUTSTATIONS oneend.Itwillnowallowyoutoreleaseon
boththeends.Trychangingshearforce2and
Frameoutputstationsisausefulcommand moment3.Selectthedesiredreleasesand
anditbasicallyallowsyoutoenterno.of pressOK,orselectNoreleasesoptionto
segmentsorspacingofsegmentsofaframe unselectall.Youwillsee2greendotsat
section(beam,columnetc)atwhichyouwant eitherendsofframeforwhichyouhave
theoutput(shear,moment,steeletc.).By releasedtheshear,momentsetc.
default,thereare3stations(start,midand
end)ofaframesection.Asyouincreasethe Thisoptionisgenerallyappliedtoa
no.ofsegmentsordecreasethespacingof secondarybeamrestingonanother(primary)
segments,therewillbeobviouslymoreand beam.Youcanreleasebothmomentsforthis
morecalculationsandyourmodelruntime beamonbothends.
willbeincreased.Forarefinedmodel,enter

maximumspacingtobe150mmor6.


2FRAMERELEASES

Framereleaseisaspecialtoolforreleasing
theframefortorsion,moment,shear,load
etc.Thereisalimitonthecombinationand

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

3ANALYSISOPTIONS largeerrorinmodelespeciallyinmember
design(concrete,steeletc.).Generallythe
Beforerunningyourmodel,youshould defaultvaluesareokay,butyouhaveto
ensurethatproperanalysisoptionsare changethevalueofmodulusofelasticityE
selectedtogetthemostoutofyourmodel. forconcretewhichisequalto57000fc(psi)
Twomostimportantoptionsare: or4700fc(MPa).Youmayneedtochange
i DynamicAnalysis theunitstolbinorNmmformaterial
ii PDeltaAnalysis propertiesasworkingintheseunitsiseasyin
thisdialoguebox.Poissonsratio0.2for
Ifyouarenotanalyzingyourmodelforthese concreteisok.Fornormalweightconcrete
options,unselectthem. 150pcfdensityisgenerallyused.Youcan
changethedataforyourownneeds.Ifyou

changethemass,weightwillbe
automaticallycalculatedandviceversa.
Shearmodulusiscalculatedautomatically
andcoefficientofthermalexpansiondefault
valueisokay.

5FRAMESECTIONS&REINFORCEMENT

DATA

Makesureallyourbeamsectionsaredefined
asbeamsandallyourcolumnsectionsas
columns.Verifythematerialproperty
assignedtoeachsectionandcheckthe
sectiondimensions.Youwillnotgenerallyuse

thePROPERTYMODIFIERSatthisstage.
Basedonthesectiondimensions,youcan
checkthesectionalgeometricpropertieslike
momentofinertiaetc.byclickingSection

Propertiesbutton.Forcolumnsections,

makesurethatReinforcementtobe
4MATERIALPROPERTIES designedisselectedfordesignpurposes.
Selectthebarwhichismostlikelytobeused
Propertiesofthematerialsusedinthemodel duringconstruction.Ifyouareunsureofthe
shouldbecheckedcarefully,becauseallthe layoutofreinforcementinyourcolumn,try
sectionsbelongtoamaterialandanyerrorin symmetricpattern.Forbeams,concrete
materialassignmentscanproduceavery covertorebarcenteristhedistancefrom

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

concretefacetocentroidofsteel
reinforcement.Youshoulduseatleasttwo
layersofsteelreinforcementtocalculatethis.
Forexamplethickness(1.5cover)(3/8
stirrupdia.)(0.75#6bar)(0.5x1forclear
spacingb/w2layersof#6)=thickness
3.125.Axis3isthemajoraxisandAxis2is

theminoraxisofthesection.

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

6FRAMEPROPERTYMODIFIERS

Aftercheckingtheabovementionedchecks,
youcannowcheckindividualmember
checks.Mostimportantofwhichisframe
propertymodifiers.Thesevaluesareusedto
modifytheframesectionpropertiessuchas
stiffness,torsion,momentofinertiaetc.Why
weneedtoputthesevalues?Thereare2

answerstothisquestion.First,thecommon
caseisthataccordingtoACI31808Section
9.5Controlofdeflections,youneedto
computestiffnessofmembersfor
calculationsofeffectivemomentofinertia.

Thesecalculationsarerequiredforimmediate
deflectionsofmembers.Tosimplifythe
processACIallowstheuseofsuchfactors.
Secondreasonisforslendernessanalysis,
whichisgenerallynotthecaseformany

generaltypestructures.Anyhow,following
aresometheframepropertymodifierswhich
areapplicableforbothmentionedreasons,
safely.Youshouldapplythesefactorsafter
completingyourentiremodelandifyou

deleteasectionandredraw,donotforgetto
assignagainthesemodifiers.Themost
commonandeasypracticeistoselectallyour
beams,applybeammodifiersthenselectall
thecolumns,applycolumnmodifiersandso

onforeachtype,beforerunningyourmodel.

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

Type J I3 I2 8SpecialSeismicLoadEffects

Beams 0.35 0.35 0.35 IfyouarefollowingAmericancodesi.e.UBC,


IBC,ACIetc.youwillneedtodefinethis
Columns 1.0 0.70 0.70 optionfortheloadcombinationstobeused
Walls inmemberdesigns,otherwiseselectdonot
includespecialseismicloadeffects.
Uncracked

(Lowrise) 0.70

Cracked

(Highrise/retaining) 0.35

FlatSlabs 0.25

LinkBeams 0.75

TransferBeams 0.5

IfyouputI3=0.35forbeam,ETABSwill
calculateIeff=0.35xIgusedindeflection
calculationaccordingtochapter9ofACI.It
willnotcalculateIcrorMcr.Itwilljustusethis
factorforIeff.

7PROPERTIESOFINDIVIDUALFRAME
SECTIONS

Youcancheckthedetailsaboutaparticular
beamorcolumnoranyelementbyright
clickingonitwhenmodelisunlocked.Ifyou
rightclickonamemberwhenanalysishad
beenrunandthemodelislocked,itwillshow
thedetailsofanalysis.Tocheckthemain

propertiesinlockedmodel,firstselectun
deformedshapeandthenrightclick.Verify
allyourloading,supportconditions,frame
modifierfactors,lengthsetc.Unfortunately,
youcannotchangeanythinghere,unlike

REVITSTRUCTURESwhichisdynamicand
parametric.

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

9MassSource

ForthecalculationofseismicdeadweightW
whichisgenerallyequalto100%deadload
plussomeportionofliveload.Alltheseloads
areunfactored.Forexample,accordingto

UBC97,thisWis100%D+25%Lfor
warehouses.Therearethreeoptionsformass
sourceinETABS.Generallysecondoptionis

usedwhichsaysFromloadsbecauseyou
normallyputalltheloading(dead,liveetc)in
ETABSmanuallyandtheselfweightis
automaticallyincludedinoneofyourdead
loadcasewithmultiplier1,sothisoptionis

mostsuitable,butifyouaredoingadvance
analysisyoucandefinethemassesandselect
thefirstorthirdoptionsaccordingly.Other
optionsshouldbedefault.Forresidentialand
lightbuildingsliveloadcanbeusedaslowas

15%.

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
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10StaticLoadCases

Heredefineasmanyloadcasesforyour
modelasyouneede.g.deadloads,liveloads,
windloads,seismicloads,thermalloadsetc.
Tobesimpledefineonlyonedeadloadwith
selfweightmultiplier1(includingfinishes,
dead,wallsetc)andoneliveload.

11SWAYFRAMES

Beforerunningthefinalanalysisofconcrete
framefordesigninginETABS,alwayscheck

thewholemodel(CTRL+A)orAlloptionin
selectbox,andclickonview/reviseoverwrites
inconcreteframedesignoptionandthen
checktheboxElementTypeandselectthe
swaytypeofyourstructure.Rememberifyou

deleteasectionandredraw,alwaysrepeat
thisstep.

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
coolestbliss

2IMPORTMODEL
IIITIPS/TRICKS
Wewillcoveronlyoneoptionshere:
1SAVINGPROJECT
1 ETABS.e2kTextFile
AlwayssaveETABSfileinaseparatefolder
becauseETABScreatestoomanyanalysis 1ETABS.e2kTextFile
filesonceyouruntheanalysisofyourmodel.
Thisoptionisusefulwhenyouwanttoimport
ItsunlikeREVITwhereeachandevery
newerversionmodelintoolderversionof
informationisstoredinonlyonefile.Two
ETABS,letssayversion9.7modelinto
mostimportantfileshaveextensions:
version9.5ETABS.Todothis,firstopenthe
1 EDB(Mainmodelfile) $ETfileinnotepad.Infourthlineyouwillsee;
2 $ET(Textfile,canbeopenedby PROGRAMETABSVERSION9.7.0,just
notepad) changetheversiontoyourcurrentETABS
version,saveandclose.Nowimportthisfile
Ifyouwanttosendyourmodelforreviewto intoETABS.Importantcautionhere;donot
anybodyoverinternetoremailorbyany trytoalterthecontentsofthisfile,itcontains
mean,onlyEDBfileissufficient.Oncethe allthemodelinformationintextformat.For
reviewerrunsthemodelonhiscomputer example,youhad10mspanofbeamin
sameanalysisfileswillbegeneratedonhis originalunitsofKNmandyouchangethe
ownmachine. unitsinthistextfile(7thline)toKNmm,
yourbeamspanwillbenow10mminsteadof
IfyousavedyourmodelasETABSversion9.7
10minyourmodelafterimporting.Thistrick
andthereviewerhasversion9.5,thenthe
canbeusefultoscaleyourmodelinsome
reviewerwillnotbeabletoopenyourproject.
cases.
Inthiscase$ETextensionfilewillbeuseful
forhim,sothathecanimportthetextfile
dataintoETABS,soitsrecommendedtosend
boththefiles.SeesectionImportModel.

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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
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3OPENGLVIEW

Thisoptionisveryuseful,ifyouhaveahuge
modelandwanttoviewitsextrudedview,
becauseitwillbetooslowtorotateafully
extrudedmodelinETABSmodelingwindows,
insteadapplytheappropriateviewsettings
andclickonthisoption,itwillallowyouto
rotateandmovethemodelfreely.Youcan

evenrecordtheanimationorcapturethe
imagesandcontrolthelightingetc.






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WSETABSManual
PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
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4DIMENSIONS

Youcandrawthedimensionlinesfrom
DRAWmenu.Afterdrawingthedimensions,
didyoueverworryaboutwhereyour
dimensionsgoafterzoomingin/zoomingout
yourview?Thisisbecausethedimension
linesoptionisnotcheckedinviewsettings.
Onceyouenablethisoption,allyourhidden

drawndimensionswillbeavailableonscreen.
Justchangetheunitsandmovemousewheel
up/down,yourdimensionswillbeupdated
also.

5MEASUREANGLEorAREA

WanttomeasureareaorangleinETABSlike
inAUTOCAD,yesyoucandothat.

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WSETABSManual
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Drawinthissequence:START,CENTER,END

Nowlookatthestatusline.

6FASTZOOM

Zoomingin/outwithmousewheelisquite
slowinETABS.Gotodimension/tolerances
settingsandchangetheautozoomstepvalue
to100.

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7USERCOMMENTS

ReceivedanETABSmodeltoreviewand
interestedwhichtimeofthedayuserworked
onthemodelandwherehestoreditinhis
computer?Iftheuserdidntclearthelog
beforesendingityou,youwillbeabletosee
allthisdata.Otherwiseusercanputhisown
commentshereforyou.

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9SUMMARYREPORT

Youcanviewthesummaryreportofyour
modelafteranalysiswhichincludesimportant
datalikeseismiccalculationsetc.intext
format.

8SET3DVIEW

Sometimes,oncomplexmodels,orwhere
columns,strutsoranyothermemberis
inclined,theseinclinedmemberswillnot
shownonplanviews.Toworkonthemyou
mustworkon3Dview,buttheoriginal3D
viewmaynotprovideappropriateview/work
planforworkingonthesetypeofmembers.
Forthisreason,weuseSET3Dviewoption.
Withtheseoptions,theviewisstill3Dbutyou
canorienttheviewtofront,top,backview

etc.Forexamplepressxybuttonandenter
zeroinplanvalueandseewhatitshows.








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10ENERGYDIAGRAM

Withthehelpofenergy/virtualworkdiagram,
wecaneasilycheckwhichmemberneeds
morecrosssection/strength/stiffnessetc
afterrunningtheanalysis.CheckETABShelp
formoreinformation.

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11DISPLAYDESIGNINFO bars.Youmayneedtoincrease/decrease
somereinforcementvaluestobringsome
Afterdesigingforconcretestructure, columnsintospecificreinforcementgroups.
reinforcementvalueswillappearonthe ThisalldependsuponEngineersexperience
members.ETABSgivesyoutheoptionsto andjudgement.Sometimes,ETABS
viewmanyreinforcementresults,e.g.shear reinforcementmayyieldsomeweiredvalues,
reinfrocement,longitudnalreinforcement whichanexperiencedEngineerwilladjust
etc.Alwaysselectyourdesiredunitstoview accordingly.
theresultse.g.inormmforbarareas.For
columns/beamsyoucancheckthe Youdonotneedtounlockthemodelfor
reinforcement%agevaluesalso.Generally changingyoursection.Youcandefineload
thisoptionisusedforcolumns.Thisvalue combos,changesectionsandrerunthe
mustnotexceedby3%,otherwiseincrease designofconcreteprocessonly.Afteryou
thecolumncrosssection.Forgeneralpurpose havereachedthefinalsizesandapproximate
(upto3storeyconstruction)use%agevalue reinforcementvaluesbyhittrialmethod,
from1%to2%only.Alwayscheckfor unlockthemodelandrerunforthefinal
maximumno.ofsteelbars.Forexample,in time.Youwillnoticesomechanges.
generalconstruction,youwanttouse#6bars
(0.44inarea)andyouwantthatinnocase, Displaydesigninfoafteranalysisanddesign
no.ofbarsbelessthan8whichyields(8*0.44
=3.52area).Sointhiscaseyoursteelvalues
fromETABSmustnotexceed3.52,otherwise
increasecolumnsizeortakeothermeasures

(changeyourmindaboutdiaofbarsetc.)For
shearreinforcement,ETABSgivesvalueof
Av/s,forexampleitgivesyouavalueofshear
reinforcementforcolumn=0.024.Itmeans
youcanuse#3bars0.11*2/s=0.0024which

yieldsspacingofapprox.9inches.Soprovide
#3stirrupsat9spacingforthatspecific
column.

Thisprocessisalsoverytimeconsuming,you
cannothavedifferentreinforcementplanfor
eachcolumnandbeam,butyouwillhaveto

checktheETABSreinforcementvaluesfor
eachcolumnandbeamtoseehowmany
minimumno.ofgroupshavingsame
reinforcementcanbegenerated.Forexample
youmaybeabletoget3typesofgroupsfor

yourcolumnshavingsamesize,samestirrups
@samespacing,andsameno.oflongitudnal

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PartI:ModelChecking,Tips&Tricks
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Changethedesignsection

Ifyourightclickonanymemberafterdesign
process,ETABSwillshowyoudifferent
combinationsusedforthatspecificmember.
Eachcombinationwillhaveresultsatthe
locationsyouspecified(FRAMESTATIONS).
Bydefault,itwillalsohighlightforyouthe
combinationwithmaximumareaofsteel

(combinationproducingworstresults).You
canseethedesignsummary,sheardetails,
flexuredetailsetc.

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Longitudnalreinforcementvaluesfor
columns


12DISPLACEMENT&DRIFTS

Afteranalysis,youcanrightclickonany
node,jointtoviewitsdisplacementvalues.
ForthelateraldriftsclickLateralDrifts
button.

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Thelasttwocolumnsactuallydonotgivethe 13STOREYRESPONSE
directvaluesofDRIFTX&DRIFTYasshown,
ratherthesearethevaluesforDRIFT Thisisveryusefulandquickoptionand
X/StoreyHeightandDRIFTY/StoreyHeight, displaystheresultsingraphicalformat,unlike
becausewehavetocheckaccordingtoUBC standardtablesform.
thelimitfordriftwhichisequalto0.0020or
0.0025xstoreyheightdependingontime
period(SeeUBC).Simplifyingthis,weget,

Maxdriftallowed=UBCValue(0.0025or
0.0020)xstoreyheight

Rearranging;

Storeydriftratio=Actualdrift/storeyheight

Sothisstoreydriftratioshouldnotexceed

0.0025or0.0020accordingtoUBC.InETABS
itgivesvaluesofstoreydriftrationotthe
actualdrift,soyoucaneasilyseeifETABS
valueisexceeding0.0025or0.0020valueof
UBCornot?.Alwaysremembertohave

appropriateunits,beforecheckingthese
results.

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Youcanalsocheckthedetailedresultsin
tableformat.

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Now,aBUGhere! ShowingWRONGVALUESwithlotof
NEGATIVESIGNSinbothwindows.
Aftercheckingtheresultsintableformatas
above,againselectanynode/jointandright
clickonitfordisplacementvaluesasyoudid
before.Youwillnoticestrangevaluesforthe
samenode.(worried!).Thisisabug,
wheneveryouusetablesandagainselectthe
nodeitwillgiveyoustrangevalues.Just
refreshyourmodelbyzoomingin/outwith

yourmouseforasecondortwoandthen
rightclickonthenode/joint.Itwillgiveyou
nowthecorrectvalues.



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14LOCALAXIS

Whiledefiningstructuralframesectionsand
viewingtheiranalysisresults,itisimportant
toknowtheaxesofthemembers.Pleasealso
seeETABShelpaboutthistopic.Forline
sections:

The3axisinETABSisXaxis.

The2axisinETABSisYaxis.

The1axisisalongthememberlength.

Forareasections,thezaxisalwaysdependon
thepathyouchosetodrawthearea(clock
wiseoranticlockwise).Itsrecommendedto

keepthispointinmindwhileworkingwith
areaobjectstodrawalltheareasinone
orientationsthatisallclockwiseoranti
clockwise,becauseallareaswillhavesamez
directioneitherintothescreenorcomingout

ofthescreen(dependingontheorientation).
Itwillalsohelpinmanualmeshing(sameaxes
foreachsmallfinitearea).


15MERGINGPOINTS

Ifyouarerepeatedlyreceivingerrorsabout
points,linesandareastoocloseor
overlapping,youcanmergepointswithin

sometolerance(ashighas50mm).

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16VIEWOPTIONS

Thereareno.ofoptionsavailableinETABSto
makeyourmodellookwhatyouwant.You
canhavebeamsectionnames,dimensions
etc.Youcanfilltheareasandextrudethe
viewtohavebetterlooking3Dview.When
extrudingorusingthefillobjectoption,also
usethesectionoptioninsteadofmaterial

optionatleft.Thiswillshowthecolorsof
differentsectionsusedinthemodel,andwill
beeasytoseewherewhatsectionis
changing.Youcanchangethecolorsfrom
framesections,slabsectionsproperties.

Openingthesamemodelfileatanother
computermaygivedifferentcolors.Themost
importantoptionisattheleftbottomcorner,
ApplytoAllWindows.

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16STATUSBAR

Alwayskeepaneyeoverthestatusbarto
checkwhichelementisselected.

17RESETMENU

Ifyouhaveanyproblemwithmenu,oryou
havedisabledorhavehiddensomemenu,
resetthemenutosolvetheproblemin
Optionsmenu>Resettoolbars.

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