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Boiler FaultFinder Manual v2

The professional heating engineers complete "Boiler Fault Finder"


for boiler and central heating fault finding.

The boiler SOS "Boiler Fault Finder" results from years of


experience as a professional service and repair engineer,
demonstrating technical expertise within the industry. The
aim of its design is simple; to aid other competent gas
operatives within the field, accurately and safely, allowing
you to build a base on which to develop your own skills, at
your own pace. This technical, yet easy to follow "Boiler
Fault Finder" is an invaluable key component within your
everyday tool kit.

Copyright (c) 2014


Book name: BOILERFAULTFINDER (v2) Published 1st January 2014
Author: Ty Harnett
Web: http://www.boilerfaultfinder.com

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This book contains material protected under


Copyright Laws. Any unauthorized reprint or use of this material is
prohibited. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval
system without express written permission from the author.

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Notice to purchasers:

All individuals in the participation and contribution to this particular


"Boiler Fault Finder" will not accept whatsoever, any death, injury, loss
or damage, due to error, negligence or however resulted, from the use
of this "Boiler Fault Finder".

This "Boiler Fault Finder" is solely intended by way of a guide only and
is paramount, for all users to exercise skill and above all, safe
judgement at all times when making use of it.

By using this "Boiler Fault Finder", each and every user by doing so,
agrees to accept full responsibility for their own actions and therefore
agrees to indemnify and hold harmless all participants and
contributors of this particular "Boiler Fault Finder", from any and all
liabilities arising out of or in connection with such use. Any and all such
liability is disclaimed.

All purchasers must be Gas Safe Registered to work on boilers and be


competent to undertake all other work activities - This is a legal
requirement.

(For Website).. Manufacturers reserve the right to update and improve


their manuals as and when they see fit to do so, without any prior
notice. Manuals are correct and up to date at time of print, however,
all end users of this particular "Boiler Fault Finder" must use their own
judgement to check with the manufacturer if there is any doubt when
using the manuals for up to date guidance purposes. All manuals
contained within this "Boiler Fault Finder" are original copies in
electronic format and the copyright of them remains at all times with
the respective manufacturer. No copyrights have been violated
whatsoever in the making of this particular "Boiler Fault Finder".

This is a condition of use of this particular "Boiler Fault Finder".

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Contents
System Component Testing .................................................................................9
Pumps..............................................................................................................9
Reasons a pump will fail to start:.................................................................9
Burnt out motor windings ...........................................................................9
Rotor shaft seized ......................................................................................10
Worn out bearings .....................................................................................10
Fans ...............................................................................................................11
Reasons a fan will fail to start: ...................................................................11
Burnt Out Motor Windings ........................................................................11
Worn Out Bearings ....................................................................................11
Air Rotor Jammed ......................................................................................11
Fan Speed Control Resistor........................................................................12
Reasons a resistor will fail to start: ............................................................12
To test a fan speed resistor: ......................................................................12
Temperature Sensors / Thermistors ..............................................................13
Reasons to affect a thermistor: .................................................................13
Two types of thermistor: ...........................................................................13
Typical Sequence: ......................................................................................13
To Test a Thermistor:.................................................................................13
Graphs Representing resistance versus temperature ................................15
Potentiometers .............................................................................................16
To Test a Potentiometer (three pin connector): ........................................17
To Test a Potentiometer (two pin connector): ..........................................18
Alternative test (where manufacturers resistance readings are known -
example): ...................................................................................................18
Thermostats (liquid expansion / vapour pressure type/ Over heat cut out) .21

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Liquid expansion / vapour pressure...........................................................21
To test a Liquid expansion / vapour pressure type thermostat: ................21
To test a Liquid expansion / vapour pressure type thermostat .................22
To test an over heat cut out thermostat (when not at trip point): ............23
To test an over heat cut out thermostat (when at trip point reaching 90-98
degrees C): .................................................................................................23
Air pressure switches (operating @ approx. 0.5 4 m/bar pressures)..........25
To test a two wire air pressure switch (no demand): ................................26
To test a two wire air pressure switch (on a demand):..............................27
To test a three wire air pressure switch (no demand): ..............................27
To test a three wire air pressure switch (on a demand): ...........................28
Domestic hot water flow switches ................................................................30
To test a domestic hot water flow switch (on a demand): ........................30
Primary water flow switches .....................................................................30
To test a primary water flow switch (on a demand): .................................31
Domestic hot water and primary micro switches ..........................................32
To test a domestic hot water and primary micro switch (on a demand): ..32
Low water pressure switches ........................................................................33
To test a low water pressure switch (pressurised state): ..........................34
To test a low water pressure switch (unpressurised state): ......................34
Solenoids .......................................................................................................35
To test a solenoid: .....................................................................................36
Modureg adjustments (early production boilers) ..........................................37
Modureg adjustments (later production models) .........................................38
Actuators (motorised valves).........................................................................39
To test an actuator: (proving the room stat, cylinder stat and programmer
is working ok) ............................................................................................40
Synchronous motors (within zone valves) .....................................................41

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To test a synchronous motor: ....................................................................41
Y Plan (3 port mid-position valve)..................................................................42
S plan (HW zone valve and HTG zone valve) ..................................................44
Sequence of operation: .............................................................................45
A typical Y plan schematic: ........................................................................46
A typical S plan schematic: ........................................................................47
Motorised valve heads (diverter valves)........................................................49
To test a motorised valve head lead: .........................................................49
To test motorised valve head: ...................................................................50
Diverter valves ...............................................................................................51
To test a diverter valve ..............................................................................51
Room thermostats .........................................................................................53
To test a room thermostat ........................................................................53
Cylinder thermostats .....................................................................................55
Spark electrode(s)..........................................................................................57
To test spark electrode(s) ..........................................................................57
Sequence of boiler operation: ...........................................................................59
Central Heating Mode ...............................................................................59
Hot Water Mode .......................................................................................59
Electrical safety checks ......................................................................................61
Mains voltage test (dead test) .......................................................................61
Earth continuity test (dead test) ....................................................................62
Short circuit (dead test) .................................................................................65
Components to check (in this sequence): ..................................................65
Resistance to earth (dead test)......................................................................67
Mains voltage and polarity tests ...................................................................69
General fault finding..........................................................................................74

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Domestic hot water fault finding ...................................................................79
No domestic hot water ..............................................................................79
Domestic hot water too hot ......................................................................79
Domestic hot water not hot enough .........................................................80
Central heating fault finding ..........................................................................81
No Central Heating ....................................................................................81
Central Heating Too Hot ............................................................................81
Central Heating Not Hot Enough ...............................................................82
Top tips..............................................................................................................83
Safe use of multimeter functions ......................................................................87
Boiler servicing procedure the professionals approach .................................89
Maximising condensing operation ....................................................................92
Example: ....................................................................................................94
Programmer and time switch compatibility guide ............................................96
24 hour programmer compatibility guide .....................................................98
5/2 day programmer compatibility guide ....................................................100
7 day programmer compatibility guide .......................................................102
24 hour time switch compatibility guide .....................................................104
5/2 day time switch compatibility guide .....................................................106
7 day time switch compatibility guide .........................................................107
Programmer terminal comparisons .............................................................109
Time switch terminal comparisons ..........................................................112
Asbestos the hidden dangers! ......................................................................114
Boilers known to contain asbestos ..............................................................115
Notching and Drilling requirements in joists when 1 st fixing ...........................125
Requirements for notching traditional joists ...............................................126
Requirements for drilling holes through traditional joists ...........................127

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Engineering joists ........................................................................................128
Notching traditional joists .......................................................................129
Drilling holes through traditional joists ...................................................129
A Typical Service & Repair Engineers Toolkit ..................................................130
Hand tools ...................................................................................................130
Consumables ...............................................................................................131
Up to Date Pocket Reference Guides ..........................................................132
Forms / Labels .............................................................................................132

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System Component Testing


Pumps
Reasons a pump will fail to start:
No 240V supplying (L) & (N) terminals
Faulty capacitor
Rotor shaft seized or debris preventing impeller rotation
Burnt out motor windings
Worn out bearings

240 V LIVE TEST


Always check across red or brown and black or blue with multimeter set
on correct voltage scale.
(If no voltage is evident at pump terminals, check for demand via
programmer/timer, room thermostat or cylinder thermostat).

Burnt out motor windings


Electrically isolate boiler / system controls
Remove E N L wires from pump terminals
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across L N at
pump terminals:

less than 100 ohms = replace


No resistance/infinity = replace
Approx. 120 ohms 250 ohms = ok

Note:
A good indication when 3 amp fuses and or quick - blow glass type fuses
repeatedly fail is when the motor windings have burnt out.
When 240V is present at the pump terminals and the rotor shaft is free moving
(anti-clockwise), but still refusing to mechanically spin, then you know the
motor windings have burnt out. (This is due to the rotor shaft seizing at some
point and causing the pump motor windings to overheat).

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Rotor shaft seized


Electrically isolate boiler
Remove vent plug on pump head
Manually, turn rotor shaft (ant-clockwise) several times (Resistance
being felt and or not spinning or spinning but with resistance donates a
new pump head).

Worn out bearings


Electrically isolate boiler / system controls
Remove vent plug from pump head:

If water severely escapes, bearings are worn out (new pump needed)
If a small amount escapes, this is to be expected and is quite normal.

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Fans
Reasons a fan will fail to start:
No 240V supplying (L) & (N) terminals
Burnt out motor windings
Worn out bearings
Air rotor jammed (on fan casing)
impeller heavy with foreign matter accumulation
Faulty fan speed control resistor (if fitted)

Burnt Out Motor Windings


Electrically isolate boiler / system controls
Remove E N L wires from fan terminals
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across L N at fan
terminals:
less than 20 ohms = replace
No resistance/infinity = replace
(30 ohms 100 + ohms) = ok

240 V LIVE TEST


Set multimeter to correct voltage scale and check at fan motor terminal leads
Should 240V be present at leads but the fan impeller runs smoothly and freely
(without resistance) then the motor windings are burnt out

Worn Out Bearings


Electrically isolate boiler / system controls
Remove fan assembly
Carry out a visual assessment on the balance and smooth running of
the impellor.
Should the fan impellor be out of alignment and or noisy, replace with
new fan assembly.

Air Rotor Jammed


Due to the high temperatures and mechanical wearing, the air rotor can be
subject to going out of alignment, catching on the fan casing and jamming.

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Re alignment may be possible, however, it may also be loose and beyond
repair.

Fan Speed Control Resistor


The fan speed control resistor is able to withstand larger currents so as to
generate heat.

The resistors are enclosed within a metal casing with a heat sink connected to
it, which then connects to the boiler chassis to dissipate the heat quickly.
Because of the heat sink absorbing the high temperature rise, it prevents
damage to the enclosed resistor.

Reasons a resistor will fail to start:


Burnt out
Melted connections
Loose connections

To test a fan speed resistor:


Electrically isolate boiler / system controls
Remove leads from resistor
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across resistor
connections:

Test Outcome
No resistance/infinity faulty
Resistance reading (may vary) ok

A bad connection will increase resistance and as a result may drop the fan
speed performance, which in turn, may affect the air pressure switch resulting
in no combustion.

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Temperature Sensors / Thermistors


Reasons to affect a thermistor:
Scale / magnetite deposits affecting heat transfer / sensitivity
System water ingress (causing open circuit / infinity)
Loss in manufacturers calibration
Damaged terminals / connections

Two types of thermistor:


NTC (Negative temperature co-efficient)
PTC (Positive temperature co-efficient)

NTC Thermistor
Shows a decrease of electrical resistance when the system water increases in
temperature and shows an increase of electrical resistance when the system
water decreases in temperature.

PTC Thermistor
Shows an increase of electrical resistance when the system water increases in
temperature and shows a decrease of electrical resistance when the system
water decreases in temperature.

Typical Sequence:
As the system water increases in temperature, the resistance of the NTC
thermistor, decreases, and the potentiometer at the p.c.b then varies the
voltage to the modureg on the gas valve, which in turn, modulates the burner
accordingly, to match the demand for the heat load.

To Test a Thermistor:
Electrically isolate boiler / system controls
Ascertain system water temperature (near to thermistor) by using a
thermal laser or clamp on thermal sensor
Remove thermistor wires (at the p.c.b end) to prevent stray resistances
from the p.c.b itself
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings

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Note: (PTC thermistors only: the black lead from the multimeter must go on the
metal casing of the sensor and the red lead from the multimeter must go on the
terminal of the sensor. Resistance readings must be cross referenced to that of
the manufacturer specification, to prove correct manufacturer calibration.

Test Outcome
Closed circuit of less than 1 ohm faulty
No resistance/infinity faulty

An example of NTC resistance values:

Temperature (degrees C) Resistance (ohms)


0 35400
10 22500
20 14700
25 12000
30 9835
40 6712
50 4672
60 3311
70 2388
80 1749
90 1300
100 980
110 749

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Graphs Representing resistance versus temperature


NTC thermistor

PTC thermistor

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Potentiometers
Potentiometers (potential dividers) are a variable resistor which, depending on
the function it is used for, can be adjusted either by the end user (electronic
thermostat knob on front fascia numbered 1-6 providing the set point, which
could be between 54 degrees C and 82 degrees C), or by the engineer for
onsite technical adjustments (within the inner face of the printed circuit board
to adjust fan speeds, gas pressures / range rating, maximum operational
temperatures, service mode and time delay periods).
Potentiometers work by introducing a voltage across a fixed top and bottom
connection on a metallic plate or coil of wire. A third connection, called the
wiper connection, is positioned between the top and bottom connections and
attached to a rotating shaft.

The wiper rotates along the length of the plate or coil. If the wiper is positioned
close to the top connection, almost all of the supply voltage is available at this
connection. As the rotating shaft is turned, the voltage supplied to the wiper is
moved from the top connection.

A small measured direct current (DC) is passed from the printed circuit board
into the potentiometers top connection. This current travels along the metallic
plate or wire coil and returns to the printed circuit board via the bottom
connection. The wiper connection voltage is governed by its position in relation
to the top and bottom connection.
The values of the top and wiper connections are then compared by the printed
circuit board. The difference between these two voltages is then interpreted by
the printed circuit board and used to determine the required temperature.

When a potentiometer is used to control the primary or secondary water


temperatures, it will dictate the parameters in which the boiler will work. As
the temperature being measured approaches the potentiometers set point, the
gas rate / gas pressure will adjust to maintain the correct temperature. The
potentiometer will normally work in conjunction with a thermistor, p.c.b and
gas valve modureg or fan speed control.

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When potentiometers fail, the information it sends to the printed circuit board
may indicate no demand for heat or gives a demand for the boiler to be raised
to maximum temperature.

Rotating the potentiometers control dial will not change the information to the
printed circuit board, symptoms such as no heating, boiler shutting down at
low temperatures or overheating are signs of failure.

To Test a Potentiometer (three pin connector):


Note: Manufacturers resistance readings will vary and must be checked for
correct operation

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Remove potentiometer wires (at the p.c.b end) to prevent stray
resistances from the p.c.b itself (Some potentiometers are built into
the p.c.b and are sealed units, so not possible)
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings
Turn potentiometer to fully OFF position
Connect multimeter leads to bottom connection and to wiper (middle)
connection on three pin connector of potentiometer 1 ohm = ok

Test Outcome
Switch to ON position but no more ok
further 1 ohm
Slowly turn potentiometer to FULL ON ok
position where the resistance reading
decreases proportionally to 0 ohms
No variation when rotated faulty

Connect multimeter leads to top connection and to wiper (middle)


connection on three pin connector of potentiometer

Test Outcome
Turn potentiometer to fully OFF ok
position 0 ohms
Slowly turn potentiometer to FULL ON ok
position where the resistance reading

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Test Outcome
increases proportionally to 1 ohm
Off position again should read 0 ohms ok

To Test a Potentiometer (two pin connector):

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Remove potentiometer wires (at the p.c.b end) to prevent stray
resistances from the p.c.b itself
(Some potentiometers are built into the p.c.b and are sealed units, so
not possible)
Set multimeter on continuity buzzer mode
Turn potentiometer to fully OFF position
Connect both multimeter leads to both connections on potentiometer

Test Outcome
Turn potentiometer to ON position ok
continuity
No continuity faulty

Alternative test
(where manufacturers resistance readings are known -
example):

Potentiometer off (fully ant-clockwise)


Connections to test resistance (K Ohms)
Top / bottom 9.6
Top / wiper 0
Bottom / wiper 9.6

Potentiometer on (fully clockwise)


Connections to test resistance (K Ohms)
Top / bottom 9.6
Top / wiper 9.6
Bottom / wiper 0

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If the readings are comparable with the manufacturers readings, the


potentiometer can be assumed as working. A non-functioning potentiometer
will normally give no variation between connections when the shaft is rotated.

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Thermostats
(liquid expansion / vapour pressure type/
Over heat cut out)
Liquid expansion / vapour pressure
Reasons to affect a liquid / vapour expansion type thermostat:

Contact points worn out, burnt out or pitted


Loss in manufacturers calibration
Phial incorrectly located into pocket

The unit consists of a remote phial (located within or very near to heat
exchanger) and a capillary tube that joins it to the bellows chamber. Within the
phial is a volatile fluid having a rapid expansion rate.

As the phial heats up, the fluid expands, in some cases changing to a vapour,
and passes through the small capillary tube to fill the bellows.

The bellows in turn, increases in size to take up this expansion and in so doing,
breaks the electrical circuit and extinguishes the pilot and / or main burner.

On cooling, the volatile fluid contracts and is forced back by the pressure of a
spring acting on the bellows, through the capillary tube to the phial and
remaking the electrical circuit once more to relight the pilot and / or main
burner.

To test a Liquid expansion / vapour pressure type thermostat:

Liquid expansion / vapour pressure type thermostat (thermostat calling)

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Remove E N L wires from thermostat terminals
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across L N at
thermostat terminals:

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Test Outcome
Closed circuit of less than 1 ohm ok
No resistance/infinity faulty
Continuity ok

Liquid expansion / vapour pressure type thermostat (thermostat satisfied)

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Remove E N L wires from thermostat terminals
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across L N at
thermostat terminals:

Test Outcome
Closed circuit of less than 1 ohm faulty
No resistance/infinity ok
No continuity ok

To test a Liquid expansion / vapour pressure type thermostat

240 V LIVE TEST

Boiler thermostat on maximum setting (thermostat calling)


Set multimeter to correct voltage scale and check for 240V AC between
NC and N (neutral)

Zero voltage = faulty

Turn boiler thermostat to O min setting (satisfied)


Set multimeter to correct voltage scale and check for 0V AC between
NC and N (neutral)

240V AC = faulty

The control thermostat may rest in a Normally Open (NO) position of this type.
On some control thermostats, the manufacturer may need to be consulted in
order to identify the relevant terminal connections for correct operation.

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Over heat cut out thermostat (Set @ approx. 90 98 degrees C)

Reasons to activate an over heat cut out thermostat:

Scale / magnetite deposits causing excessive heat build up


Loss of system water
Loss in manufacturers calibration
Faulty pump or pump speed too low
Too much air within system water
Faulty expansion vessel (loss in air charge or split diaphragm)
Faulty gas pressures / solenoid stuck in on position

These thermally activated control devices may interrupt the electricity supply
to a gas solenoid valve extinguishing the pilot and/or main burner, signalled by
the printed circuit board. The overheat cut out thermostat must be manually
reset to prevent further boiler cycling whilst a fault may be present (overheat
lockout).

To test an over heat cut out thermostat (when not at trip point):

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Remove wires from thermostat terminals
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across
thermostat terminals:

Test Outcome
Continuity across ok
terminals
No continuity faulty
across terminals

To test an over heat cut out thermostat (when at trip point


reaching 90-98 degrees C):

Electrically isolate boiler /system controls


Remove wires from thermostat terminals

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Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across
thermostat terminals:

Test Outcome
Continuity across ok
terminals
No continuity faulty
across terminals

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Air pressure switches


(operating @ approx. 0.5 4 m/bar
pressures)
Reasons an air pressure switch will fail to start:

Loose electrical connections


Kinked or split rubber hoses / loose hose connections
Condensation within rubber hoses
Blocked venturi / melted venturi within fan assembly
Reversed rubber hose connections
Internal rubber diaphragm perished / damaged
Poorly installed flue seals
Flue way blocked
Faulty fan assembly (slow running)
Incorrect flue lengths
Incorrect or no restrictor rings in flue assembly
Inadequately sealed combustion chamber (poor casing seals)
Faulty electrical micro switch assembly

The pressure differential created by the fan is transmitted via the pressure
hoses and creates a difference in pressure on top and bottom of the
diaphragm, this in turn, pushes the diaphragm and an attached pin and lever.

When the diaphragm has fully reached its proved air flow position, the pin and
lever operate a micro switch, sending a signal to the printed circuit board to
commence ignition sequence (by either a 2 or 3 wire configuration).

When the fan has stopped, a force (usually a spring or gravity) returns the
diaphragm to its rest/no air flow position.

2 wire configuration:
C Common
NC Normally closed

3 Wire configurations:

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C Common
NC Normally closed
NO Normally open

C Common:
Printed circuit board signal (voltage) to the air pressure switch

Normally open (NO):


Air pressure switch returns signal (voltage) to printed circuit board, once the
fan is operating and a proved air flow is established.

Normally Closed (NC):


Rest mode / no air flow and the return from the NC terminal must be proved at
the printed circuit board before next ignition sequence takes place.

When the fan operates effectively and air is proved at the air pressure switch,
the micro switch moves to the proved air flow position NO terminal.

Some air pressure switches are marked with +ve or 1 and ve or 2.


(1 being positive and 2 being negative).

Some air pressure switches are marked with L and H.


(L being negative and H being positive).

To test a two wire air pressure switch (no demand):

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Disconnect both wires from the switch terminals
Ensure both wires are resting safely and not touching any other
component or earth - a well insulated heat mat is good for this
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across switch
terminals
(black test lead to C and red test lead to NC)

Open circuit (infinity) across both terminals = ok (switch in rest / no air flow
position)

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To test a two wire air pressure switch (on a demand):

240 V LIVE TEST


Ensure both wires are still resting safely and not touching any other
component or earth
Restore power and create a demand for heat
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across switch
terminals (black test lead to C and red test lead to NC)
With fan running (at high speed) check continuity/resistance readings
across both switch terminals.

Note: Some appliances will give you very little time to check a proved air flow
ensure the fan is at high speed for this check.

Test Outcome
Continuity ok (switch in proved air flow position)
Closed circuit of less than 1 ohm ok (switch in proved air flow position)

Should an open circuit (infinity) reading be present, it does not prove a fault
with the switch itself, but could be fan, venturi, blockages, hose problems etc
needs - further investigation.

Electrically isolate boiler - Replace both wires back onto their respective
terminals - Restore power once more

To test a three wire air pressure switch (no demand):


Electrically isolate boiler / system controls
Disconnect all three wires from the switch terminals (note positions
and colours respectively)
Ensure all three wires are resting safely and not touching any other
component or earth (a well insulated heat mat is good for this)
Join safely both the C and NC wires together (two spade connectors
joined together are good for this)
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across switch
terminals (black test lead to C and red test lead to NC)
Closed circuit of less than 1 ohm = ok (switch in rest / no air flow
position)

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Continuity = ok (switch in rest / no air flow position.

To test a three wire air pressure switch (on a demand):

240 V LIVE TEST


Ensure all wires are still resting safely and not touching any other
component or earth
With the C and NC wires still touching (simulating rest / no air flow
position), the fan should run at its normal high speed
Restore power and create a demand for heat
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across switch
terminals (black test lead to C and red test lead to NO)
With fan running (at high speed) check continuity/resistance readings
across both switch terminals.

Note: Some appliances will give you very little time to check a proved air flow
ensure the fan is at high speed for this check.

Test Outcome
Continuity ok (switch in proved air flow position)
Closed circuit of less than 1 ohm ok (switch in proved air flow position)

Should an open circuit (infinity) reading be present, it does not prove a fault
with the switch itself, but could be fan, venturi, blockages, hose problems etc
(needs further investigation). Electrically isolate boiler replace both wires back
onto their respective terminals and restore power once more.

Where an air pressure switch is not present, purposely designed thermistors are
used to measure the differential temperatures of the flue/air ducts, which are
then transmitted to the printed circuit board for correct operation.

Some boilers use a low DC voltage, whereas others use a 240 V AC voltage.
(Remember - the input will appear as an output, unless a fault is present).
Some air pressure switches use a push (positive) pressure on the diaphragm to
make the micro switch, whereas others will use a pull (negative) pressure on
the diaphragm to make the micro switch. The operation depends on the
position of the return force (spring or gravity) when the fan is at rest.

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A continuity check of the wiring harness at the printed circuit board end will
ascertain correct operation of switch and the integrity of wires also, where it is
difficult to gain access.

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Domestic hot water flow switches


Reasons a domestic hot water flow switch will fail to operate:

Switch contact faulty


Internal paddle / turbine / wheel not free moving
(stiff/seized/reversed water flow)
Punctured / perished rubber diaphragm
Blocked pressure differential sensing pipes (scale deposits)
Damaged / loose wiring harness
Seized bearing plate spindle / out of alignment

A demand for domestic hot water will either activate a turbine arrangement, a
paddle / wheel arrangement or a rubber diaphragm arrangement, all of which
communicating to a micro switch assembly, transmitting a signal to the printed
circuit board for correct operation.

To test a domestic hot water flow switch (on a demand):

Pressure differential type:


Visually assess whether bearing plate spindle is rising through gland nut,
activating the micro switch assembly above. (No spindle movement may be
due to a perished rubber diaphragm and/or seized bearing plate spindle and/or
blocked pressure differential sensing pipes. Where pressure differential sensing
pipes exist, it may save time to check for any scale deposits present, prior to
stripping down the flow switch assembly to assess the spindle and/or
diaphragm).

Inline paddle/turbine/wheel type:


A continuity check of the wiring harness at the printed circuit board end will
ascertain correct operation of integral switch and the integrity of wires also.

Primary water flow switches


Reasons a primary water flow switch will fail to start:

Punctured / perished rubber diaphragm


Seized bearing plate spindle / out of alignment

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Damaged / loose wiring harness
Switch contact faulty

A demand for central heating will activate the pump and a rubber diaphragm /
spindle arrangement communicates to a micro switch assembly above,
transmitting a signal to the printed circuit board for correct operation.

To test a primary water flow switch (on a demand):

Pressure differential type:


Visually assess whether bearing plate spindle is rising through gland nut,
activating the micro switch assembly above.
(No spindle movement may be due to a perished rubber diaphragm and/or
seized bearing plate spindle).

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Domestic hot water and primary micro


switches
Reasons a domestic hot water and primary micro switch will fail to
start:

Switch contact faulty


Damaged / loose wiring harness

To test a domestic hot water and primary micro switch (on a


demand):

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Set multimeter to continuity buzzer scale
A continuity check of the wiring harness at the printed circuit board
end will ascertain correct operation of switch and the integrity of wires
also.
No continuity present will be a complete new assembly (micro switch
with wiring harness).

Test Outcome
Continuity between C and NC ok
Continuity between C and NO faulty

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Low water pressure switches


Reasons a low water pressure switch will fail to start:

Damaged / loose wiring harness


Switch contact faulty
Blocked hole (sludge deposits)
Calibration of switch faulty
Air trapped within switch

The low water pressure switch receives 230V AC from the printed circuit board
via the (C) and upon adequate system pressure being applied (0.5 bar and
above typically) the switch will then return 230V AC back to the printed circuit
board via the (NO).

The switch when new or when there is inadequate system pressure applied,
will rest in the (NC) position, and only upon there being adequate system
pressure again, will it switch over to the (NO) position.

Not all boilers incorporate these switches to detect a low water system
pressure, but instead rely just on the high limit thermostat to protect the main
heat exchanger.

Some switches are only a two wire connection only (there is not a NC
connection).

On some pressure switches, the manufacturer may need to be consulted in


order to identify the relevant terminal connections for correct operation.

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To test a low water pressure switch (pressurised state):

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Remove wires from terminals
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across pressure
switch terminals:

Test Outcome
Measuring between C and NC - No ok
resistance/infinity
Measuring between C and NC closed faulty
circuit of less than 1 ohm

Test Outcome
Continuity between C and NO ok
Continuity between C and NC faulty

To test a low water pressure switch (unpressurised state):

Electrically isolate boiler


Remove wires from terminals
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings, across pressure
switch terminals:

Test Outcome
Measuring between C and NC - closed ok
circuit of less than 1 ohm
Measuring between C and NC - No faulty
resistance/infinity

Test Outcome
Continuity between C and NC ok
Continuity between C and NO faulty

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Solenoids
Reasons a solenoid will fail to operate:

Burnt out coil


Poor terminal connection
Loose mountings
Armature sticking (Foreign matter accumulation jamming the
armature)
Faulty printed circuit board

These electromagnetic devices are utilised to control the on/off/flow of gas


through modureg gas valves. These are energised by either AC or DC current
(often colour coded to indicate 24V blue and 230V black or red).

As voltage is applied to the coil, the armature is drawn into the solenoid valve
body, allowing gas to flow through the main gas valve which is proportional to
the current applied.

The modulation (varying current) increases or decreases gas flow/rate to


match the heat load placed on the boiler. The temperature of the thermistor
indirectly controls the amount of current the potentiometer sends to the
solenoid.

Typically, the pilot solenoid and main solenoids are 230V AC and the
modulating solenoid approx. 24V DC, but manufacturer instructions/data must
always be checked.

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To test a solenoid:

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Inspect terminal connections
Ascertain correct solenoid voltage (manufacturer instructions)
Turn on power supply to boiler

240 V LIVE TEST


Set multimeter to correct voltage scale and check at connections
(AC or DC)
Incorrect reading maybe faulty printed circuit board needs further
investigating
Correct voltage but not operating - electrically isolate boiler
Set multimeter to Ohms scale and measure coil resistance:

Test Outcome
No resistance/infinity faulty
Less than 1 Ohm faulty
Modureg coil resistance 45 +Ohms ok
approx*

*(This will vary depending on manufacturer and type of solenoid. Some modern
two stage safety solenoids may be 165 + ohms)

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Modureg adjustments
(early production boilers)
Maximum adjustment:

Electrically isolate supply


Remove the modulator solenoid coil by releasing the spring clip and
pull away from the brass spindle
Turn the small black minimum rate adjusting screw fully clockwise
Loosen the locking nut which secures the spindle to the gas valve
Turn on power supply to boiler
Call for a demand via fully opening a hot tap
Rotate the brass spindle clockwise to increase the pressure to
maximum setting (if needed)
Tighten locking nut

Minimum adjustment:

With the burner still running at maximum setting


Slowly unscrew the small black minimum rate adjusting screw at the
end of the spindle until the correct pressure is attained
Electrically isolate supply
Refit the modulator solenoid coil with spring clip onto brass spindle
Turn on power supply to boiler

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Modureg adjustments
(later production models)
On moduregs where the minimum and maximum adjustment nuts are
enclosed behind a plastic cover, always check with manufacturer instructions
first before making any adjustments.

For most boilers, the large nut is for maximum pressure and the small nut is for
minimum pressure, however, there are some boilers which are arranged
opposite to this (large nut is minimum and small nut is maximum).

In order to adjust the maximum pressure, call for a demand via fully opening a
hot tap and turn the large nut clockwise to increase whilst at the same time,
holding the minimum screw still.

In order to adjust minimum pressure, remove one of the wires from the
modureg coil terminals (this automatically drops the pressure down to low
rate) and turn the small screw clockwise to increase (the large nut will not
freely move so no need to hold during this adjustment).

On modern gas/air ratio valves, the manufacturers instructions must always be


followed when adjusting them. In order to achieve the correct CO / CO2 ratio
at time of service or periodic inspection, the appliance must be forced into
service mode where the gas adjustments are then made via the offset
adjuster (minimum rate) and throttle adjuster (maximum rate).

Note: Whenever a gas valve of this type is replaced or adjusted, a calibrated


electronic combustion gas analyser MUST be used to ensure correct operation.
Finally, an inlet pressure check at the gas valve, working pressure at the metre
and a tightness test should be carried out on completion of commissioning.

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Actuators (motorised valves)


Reasons an actuator will fail to operate:

Burnt out synchronous motor windings


Valves spindle seized /sludge contamination
Auxiliary switch (end switch) burnt out
Gearing worn out
Loose mountings
Poor terminal connection

These devices are energised or de energised to control the on/off of pump and
boiler (calling from the cylinder thermostat or room thermostat).

Two port valves are either in the open or closed position via the internal ball
(shoe or paddle).

3 port diverter valves (hot water priority valves) control one circuit only; not
both, (hot water or heating). Once the hot water cylinder thermostat is
satisfied, the central heating port will open.

3 port mid-position valves control both circuits at the same time or


independently from one another, (depending on demands). When these valves
are de energised at rest it defaults in hot water position (port B for hot water
will always be open).

This is why blocker valves (an additional two port zone valve) must be
installed after port B on a mid position valve when installed on an unvented
hot water cylinder system, to prevent the stored water from overheating / over
pressurising.

Should the synchronous motor burn out, it is possible to replace the motor,
however, if the end switch fails, a complete actuator must be replaced.
The manual override lever should only be used for draining and refilling
purposes and not as a solution to heat the hot water and/or central heating, in
case of the actuator failing.

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Should the manual override lever fail to move or too much resistance is felt,
the valve and actuator should be replaced and investigate the condition of
system water (magnetite maybe present).

Warning:

Some very old actuator heads require the system to be drained first, before
separating from the brass valve body.

Experience has shown that actuator covers not having a raised pip (reversed
dimple) on top of the cover, are the type which will leak if separated from the
brass body, prior to draining.

To test an actuator: (proving the room stat, cylinder stat and


programmer is working ok)

Manually override lever to open position and call for a demand via room or
cylinder thermostat (with timer or programmer calling).

Should boiler / pump not respond, the auxiliary switch may be faulty (new
actuator needed)

Manually override lever to open position and call for a demand via room or
cylinder thermostat (with timer or programmer calling).

Should boiler / pump respond, the syncron motor will be faulty (new motor
needed)

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Synchronous motors (within zone valves)


These small motors are powered by 240V AC to rotate a spring loaded gearing
arrangement, which in turn, rotates the spindle to open / close the valve.

The motor windings can overheat and break, which is a common fault when
motorised valves fail to operate.

To test a synchronous motor:

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Cut both factory fitted wires exiting the syncron motor (but near to the
already factory fitted crimp connections).
Set multimeter on ohms scale and measure resistance readings
through the windings:

Test Outcome
Approx. 2.4K ohms ok (resistance will vary depending on
manufacturer)
No resistance / Infinity faulty

Purposely designed insulated wire crimps are easily obtained and must be used
to reconnect the broken wires safely.

When replacing faulty syncron motors, the two factory fitted wires do vary in
colour (orange, blue and white), however, this will not matter as long as it fits
onto the actuator head, designed for this purpose.

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Y Plan (3 port mid-position valve)


Suspect the mid-position valve as being faulty if the valve does not operate
after the following checks (in order):

Heating mode:

Electrically isolate mains supply and remove fuse - always check a 3


amp fuse is fitted
Remove junction box cover
Ensure there is no 240V present at L and N terminals in junction box
Disconnect the grey wire from the valve (this connects to HW off on
the time controller and may also connect to terminal 2 on cylinder stat
which may be the satisfied terminal)
Disconnect also, the white wire from the valve (this may connect to
terminal 3 on the room stat which may be the calling terminal)
Connect both the grey and white wires to the permanent live terminal
in junction box (this should force the valve to a HW off but CH on
position, once connected to mains supply)
Switch on mains supply valve motor should now move to fully open
the heating (port A)
Once fully open, it should stay in this position as long as power is
applied to the white and grey wires
When (port A) is fully open, the orange wire becomes live to start the
pump and boiler
Always check (port A) outlet has a temperature rise and is
progressively getting warmer

Hot water mode:


Electrically isolate mains supply and remove fuse - always check a 3
amp fuse is fitted
Once the valve has been de-energised, the HW (port B) will rest in
open position and close the HTG (port A)
Remove the grey and white wires from the permanent live connection
(from before) and temporarily make safe (not connected to terminal
block at all or touching one another)

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Remove cylinder stat wire only from terminal 6 (common) - This should
connect to HW ON on the time controller
Then connect the wire to permanent live (this should force the valve to
a HW on but CH off position once connected to mains supply)
Switch on fused spur, cylinder stat must be calling for heat pump and
boiler should start
Always check (port B) outlet has a temperature rise and is progressively
getting warmer

Hot water and heating mode together:


Electrically isolate mains supply and remove fuse - always check a 3
amp fuse is fitted
Replace cylinder stat wire back to terminal 6 (common)
Keep grey wire made safe but connect white wire temporarily back to
permanent live
Switch on fused spur, motor should now move to mid-position and
stop
Cylinder stat must be calling for heat and both ports (A and B) are now
open, boiler and pump should start
Always check (port A and B) outlets have a temperature rise and are
progressively getting warmer
Electrically isolate mains supply, reconnect white and grey wires back
to their respective terminals in the junction box. In some cases, there
may not appear to be any numbers on the terminals within the
junction box. In these situations, trace back the respective wire from
the cylinder stat.

If this functional check proves to be correct, the problem is not the motorised
valve, but elsewhere in the circuit possibly cylinder stat or room stat.

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S plan (HW zone valve and HTG zone


valve)
Suspect the zone valve as being faulty if the valve does not operate after the
following checks:

Electrically isolate mains supply and remove fuse - always check a 3


amp fuse is fitted
Remove junction box cover
Ensure there is no 240V present at L and N terminals in junction box
Remove metal cover from motorised valve head

Turn electrical mains supply back on be aware of 240 V!

If the motor fails to rotate with live applied to the brown wire and neutral
applied to the blue wire (brown wire connects to T3 on room stat calling, and
the blue wire connects to T2 on room stat satisfied) then the motor has failed
to operate

Note: When the valve stops, the valve remains fully open as long as live is
applied to the brown wire - The valve closes under spring return when live is
removed from the brown wire - The valve may also be faulty if:

The orange wire only becomes live after the valve has fully opened (grey wire
must also be live)

(Orange connects to L on the pump and boiler only and grey wire connects to L
terminal on time controller and L terminal on fused spur).

If the boiler and pump continues to run when the cylinder stat and or room
stat is satisfied when the time controller is in the OFF position.

If using a 28m/m V4043H1106 zone valve on either hot water or heating


circuits (S plan configuration only), the white wire is not needed and must be
made electrically safe (cut back tight to black fly lead no power will be on this
wire).

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Sequence of operation:
(2 port valve Honeywell V4043H)

There are five wires to the valve: brown (live to syncron motor), orange
(switched live to supply power to pump and boiler), grey (permanent live to
the micro switch), blue (neutral to syncron motor) and green/yellow (earth).

When there is a call for heat (via room stat or cylinder stat), power is sent
down the brown wire which starts the motor. When the valve is open, a micro
switch is made via a cam and power is then sent to the boiler and pump via the
orange wire (switched live).

Power is constantly provided to the motor via the brown wire, keeping the
valve open, as long as there is a call for heat. Once the call for heat is satisfied,
power comes off the brown, causing the motor to be de-energised.

A spring then returns the valve to the closed position, closing the micro switch
and disconnecting power to the orange wire, switching off the hot water or
heating zone respectively.

Note: If using a 28m/m V4043H1106 zone valve on either hot water or heating
circuits (S plan configuration only), the white wire is not needed and must be
made electrically safe (cut back tight to black fly lead no power will be on this
wire).

(3 port mid-position valve Honeywell V4073A)

There are five wires to the valve: white (from room thermostat calling for
demand), orange (from cylinder thermostat calling for demand and switched
live to supply power to pump and boiler), grey (from cylinder thermostat
satisfied and H/W OFF of programmer blue (neutral to syncron motor) and
green/yellow (earth).

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A typical Y plan schematic:

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A typical S plan schematic:

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Programmer - Be aware of 240 V!

Always check the wiring, all the links are in place and that 240V on L and N is
present on the back plate before suspecting a faulty programmer.

The programmer is faulty if:

If Live does not appear on HTG ON terminal when HTG only is selected
(continuous or timed) Y plan and S plan (refer to diagrams)
Live does not appear on HW OFF terminal when HW is off on
programmer
Y plan (refer to diagram)
Live does not appear on HW ON terminal when HW only is selected
(continuous or timed) Y plan and S plan (refer to diagrams)

Note: When a single channel time switch is on and calling for a demand but the
motorised valve is not moving on the lever to switch on the boiler, then try
linking the C (common) and ON (calling) connections together on programmer
back plate. (Always isolate electrical power supply and remove fuse prior to
this).

Should the zone valve motor across, then the programmer switching contacts
are faulty.

Should the zone valve remain the same, then further investigation is needed
(syncron motor windings maybe burnt out or a seized valve spindle).

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Motorised valve heads


(diverter valves)
Reasons a motorised valve head will fail to start:

Motorised valve head lead faulty


Burnt out motor windings
Motor axle/spindle seized
Faulty printed circuit board

These devices are energised or de energised (via the printed circuit board) to
operate a motorised axle/spindle. The movement of the motorised spindle
communicates with the diverter valve via a bobbin assembly, controlling the
path of heated primary water, either to the secondary plate exchanger or to
the central heating circuit.

To test a motorised valve head lead:

240 V LIVE TEST

Lead:
Set multimeter to correct voltage scale and check at connections

Test Result
Central heating on: 240Vac between connections 1 and 2
25Vac-35Vac between connections 2
and 3
Hot water on: 240Vac between connections 2 and 3
25Vac-35Vac between 1 and 2

Incorrect voltages maybe faulty printed circuit board or lead needs further
investigating. Correct voltages but motor axle not moving replace motorised
valve head

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To test motorised valve head:


Set multimeter to Ohms scale and measure coil resistance:
0 Ohms between connections 1 and 3
9.6 K Ohms between connections 1 and 2 (resistance may vary)
9.6 K Ohms between connections 1 and 3 (resistance may vary)

Motor axle retracts on hot water or hot water pre-heat facility ok


Motor axle visible on heating ok

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Diverter valves
Reasons a diverter valve will fail to move

Wax capsule faulty


Bobbin assembly faulty
Faulty motorised valve head
Seized push rod
contaminated system water / blockages (magnetite)
faulty pump
faulty primary flow switch and / or microswitch
faulty printed circuit board

These devices, depending on the demand, controls the path of heated primary
water either to the secondary heat exchanger (plate exchanger) or through to
the central heating circuit.

Diverter valves normally rest in central heating mode so it can dump excess
heat on the central heating circuit.

To test a diverter valve

240 V LIVE TEST

Central heating on:


Check for correct voltage at end of wiring harness on motorised valve head
(printed circuit board end ensure correct colour wires are tested)

Hot water on:


Check for correct voltage at end of wiring harness on motorised valve head
(printed circuit board end ensure correct colour wires are tested)

Note: Should correct voltages be present at respective connections, but still not
functioning correctly on a hot water or central heating demand, then the
diverter valve may need replacing.

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Common faults

On a central heating demand with the boiler firing but reaching up to


temperature rapidly and shutting down with the pump running on, the diverter
valve will be stuck in the hot water mode and needs replacing.

On a hot water demand with the hot water temperature remaining cold but a
temperature rise through the central heating flow pipe, the diverter valve will
be stuck in the central heating mode.

On a hot water demand with the hot water temperature remaining warm not
hot, with a temperature rise through the central heating flow pipe, the diverter
valve will be letting by.

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Room thermostats
Reasons a room thermostat will fail to start

Poor terminal connections


Switch contact faulty
Faulty timer/programmer

When the timer/programmer is on, it sends a signal to the room thermostat


(this should then be live on the common terminal of the room thermostat). The
room thermostat upon calling for heat will either turn on the boiler or energise
a motorised valve.
Should the common terminal read no voltage, the timer/programmer must be
further investigated.

To test a room thermostat

240 V LIVE TEST

Set multimeter to correct voltage scale and check at connections


(Checking for voltage on the terminals when at maximum and
minimum dial settings, will ascertain the common wire, as it remains
live during both these settings).
Turning the timer/programmer off with no voltage reading at the traced
common terminal, will prove and complete this test.

Should only one pair of wires be live when at maximum and minimum settings,
then the room thermostat is faulty.

A method to test the room thermostat where (1=Common / 2=satisfied /


3=calling):

Remove the wire from terminal 3 in room stat (calling)


Ensure terminal 1 (common) is live
Turn room stat to maximum setting so it is calling

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Terminal 3 should now be live if not, room stat is faulty
Note: The Common, demand and satisfied terminals do vary on room
thermostats, depending on make and model, where some will be terminal 3 for
C, terminal 1 for demand and terminal 2 for satisfied.

Others however, will be terminal 1 for C, terminal 3 for demand and terminal 2
for satisfied. (Generally there will be a small switching diagram inside the outer
casing of room thermostats for guidance purposes).

Common terminal:
The live in terminal from the central heating on terminal of the
programmer in most cases.

Demand terminal:
This contact will be made to the common when the thermostat is calling or
demanding heat.

Satisfied terminal:
This contact will be made to the common when the thermostat has reached
the required temperature or is satisfied.

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Cylinder thermostats
Reasons a cylinder thermostat will fail to start

Poor terminal connections


Switch contact faulty
Faulty timer/programmer

When the timer/programmer is on, it sends a signal to the cylinder thermostat


(this should then be live on the common terminal of the cylinder thermostat).

The cylinder thermostat upon calling for heat turns on the boiler and/or
energises a motorised valve.

Should the common terminal read no voltage, the timer/programmer must be


further investigated.

Common terminal:
The live in terminal from the hot water on terminal of the programmer in
most cases.

Demand terminal:
This contact will be made to the common when the thermostat is calling or
demanding heat.

Satisfied terminal:
This contact will be made to the common when the thermostat has reached
the required temperature or is satisfied.

To test a cylinder thermostat

240 V LIVE TEST

Set multimeter to correct voltage scale and check at connections

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(Checking for voltage on the terminals when at maximum and
minimum dial settings, will ascertain the common wire, as it remains
live during both these settings).
Turning the timer/programmer off with no voltage reading at the
traced common terminal, will prove and complete this test.
Should only one pair of wires be live when at maximum and minimum
settings, then the cylinder thermostat is faulty.

Closed position (calling for heat) = 240V between common terminal (3) and
calling terminal (1).
Stat is faulty if terminal (1) does not become live when calling
Open position (satisfied) = 240V between common terminal (3) and satisfied
terminal (2).
Stat is faulty if terminal (2) does not become live when satisfied
Some models maybe marked C, NC and NO where NC is calling and NO is
satisfied.
Other models may be pre-wired where red is C, black is calling (NC) and yellow
is satisfied (NO).
Note: The Common, demand and satisfied terminals do vary on some cylinder
thermostats, depending on make and model, where some will be terminal 3 for
C, terminal 1 for demand and terminal 2 for satisfied.

Others however, will be terminal 1 for C, terminal 3 for demand and terminal 2
for satisfied. (Generally there will be a small switching diagram inside the outer
casing of room thermostats for guidance purposes).

Terminals 3 (C) and 2 (NO) make on temperature rise.


Terminals 3 (C) and 1 (NC) make on temperature falling.

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Spark electrode(s)
Reasons spark electrode(s) will fail to start

Cracked ceramic insulation (causing leakage)


Poor terminal connections
Incorrect spark gap between electrode(s) or between electrode and
burner/target
Electrode tip damaged / corroded / eroded
Damaged ignition leads
Burnt out / failing spark generator

On some boilers, it may be difficult to visually see the ignition electrode(s) to


ascertain if they are sparking correctly or even at all.

Where this may be the case, always check the spark generator first for correct
voltage readings (if possible, as not all boilers have remote spark generators,
instead they are permanently fixed on the main p.c.b., where a new board will
be required in this instance).

To test spark electrode(s)

240 V LIVE TEST

Electrically isolate boiler / system controls


Isolate gas supply beneath boiler
Carefully remove spark electrodes from burner assembly
With the gas left off, turn on electrical supply
Ensure the electrode tips are pointed away from the burner area but
the electrode base (near to lead connection) is touching the outer
burner area to ensure adequate earthing
Call for a hot water or central heating demand:

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Sparking occurs

May be faulty gas valve (needs further investigating)

No sparking occurs

Incorrect gap at electrode tips (commonly 3mm-5mm)


Faulty spark generator (measure AC voltage across connections will
vary depending on manufacturer but should be in the region of 170 V
AC or above)
Faulty electrode leads (check continuity)
Faulty electrodes (check continuity)

Note: If the gasket between the electrode base and the burner assembly
appears to be worn / damaged when removing the electrodes for
inspection, then both the gas supply and the electrical power supply must
be isolated to prevent use this would be AN IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS
SITUATION as products of combustion may enter the room.

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Sequence of boiler operation:


Central Heating Mode

Boiler in standby mode


Demand called for via room thermostat/timer
Pump runs activating primary flow switch then micro switch above
from NO to NC
Diverter valve remains in at rest position (central heating port open
only)
Printed circuit board sends voltage to fan
Fan runs ok
Air pressure switch activates from C and NC position over to C and NO
position (Sending signal back to Printed circuit board)
Overheat cut out thermostat is checked for closed circuit (continuous
circuit) Primary thermistor is also checked for correct thermal
resistance
Spark generator and ignition electrode(s) ok
Gas valve energised and ignites ok (low rate)
Flame detection electrode ok (sparking finishes ionisation proved)
Gas valve ramps up to range rated set pressure (Controlled via the
thermistor and potentiometer at p.c.b)
Boiler control thermostat or room thermostat is satisfied or the timer
shuts down boiler
Fan and pump over run continue to dissipate residual heat (over run
time will vary)
Boiler returns to standby mode

Hot Water Mode

Boiler in standby mode


Demand called for activating hot water flow switch then micro switch
above from NO to NC (paddle, turbine, wheel or pressure differential
type)

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Pump runs-activating primary flow switch then micro switch above
from No to NC
Diverter valves internal hydraulics moves over from rest position
(central heating port open) to domestic hot water position (port to
secondary plate exchanger open only)

Note: not all models incorporate a diverter valve and plate to plate
heat exchanger, but instead utilise a twin pass main heat exchanger

Printed circuit board sends voltage to fan


Fan runs ok
Air pressure switch activates from C and NC position over to C and NO
position (sending signal back to Printed circuit board)
C/H and H/W overheat cut out thermostats are checked for closed
circuit (continuous circuit), primary and secondary thermistors are also
checked for correct thermal resistance,
Spark generator and ignition electrode(s) ok
Gas valve energised and ignites ok (ignition rate)
Flame detection electrode ok (sparking finishes ionisation proved)
Gas valve modulates according to the water flow rate/ desired
temperature setting (controlled via the thermistor and potentiometer
at p.c.b)
Boiler shuts down when hot water demand is satisfied
Fan and pump over run continue to dissipate residual heat (over run
time will vary)
Boiler returns to standby mode

Please note: The above sequence of operation for both hot water and central
heating are not identical for every boiler out there, however, the sequence of
events will not progress any further forward, if there are no feedback signals or if
they are incorrect.

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Electrical safety checks


Whether you are fault finding, servicing or commissioning an installation, these
five preliminary electrical checks are paramount to establish if the appliance is
safe to work on.

Mains voltage test (dead test)


This test isolates the power supply serving the boiler, so as safe, further testing
can be continued, without the risk from stray electrical currents causing a
shock.

Electrically isolate power supply at fused spur switch and remove fuse
(Always ensure the boiler is fused at 3 amps on completion of work)
Set multimeter to correct voltage scale (above 240V AC) and check L
and N at the boiler terminal block

This should read zero volts, the boiler is now safe to work on.

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Mains voltage test: (dead test) Boiler FaultFinder Manual v2

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Earth continuity test (dead test)
This test will ascertain whether the earth continuity between the earth supply
to the boiler and the internal component earth connections and the metal
casing of the boiler are earthed correctly.

Electrically isolate power supply at fused spur switch and


remove fuse. (Always ensure the boiler is fused at 3 amps on
completion of work)
Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings
First put black lead from multimeter to the retaining screws of
the fused socket connection and then the red lead from the
multi meter to the boiler casing.

The resistance reading must be no more than 1 ohm and whenever the
resistance reading proves to be more than 1 ohm, there is a fault present and
must be traced and rectified before proceeding any further. Check all the earth
wires for continuity and check all connections are secure.

Warning Poor earth continuity or no earth continuity at all will create a


dangerous situation, as any metal parts that should be earthed may become
live and a short circuit may cause an electric shock

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Earth continuity test: (dead test) Boiler FaultFinder Manual v2

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Short circuit (dead test)
This test will ascertain the integrity of the internal resistance of the boiler and
should read no resistance/infinity between L and N on the 3 amp fused plug
top pins.

Set multimeter on ohms scale for resistance readings


First put black lead from multi meter to N pin on the boiler terminal
strip and secondly put the red lead from the multi meter to the L pin
on the boiler terminal strip

Should the resistance reading move, there is a dead short and a fault is
present. Where the boiler supply is connected to a fused double pole switch, it
should be isolated at the ring main supply end, to eliminate any possible,
further faults present on the circuit. (This is why a 3 pin plug is a much better
option as a double pole spur can cause further problems).

There are six internal boiler components to check and the L and N connections
for each component must be removed individually and then the L and N at the
3 pin plug top or at the boiler terminal block must be measured again.

Components to check (in this sequence):

Pump
Fan
Gas valve
Diverter valve
Circuit board
Internal wiring loom (visual observation only)

Should the internal resistance measure infinity/no resistance when the


component is disconnected, then the faulty component has been traced.
Should the resistance reading maintain moving when the component is
disconnected, the dead short is elsewhere (further investigation needed in the
above sequence).

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Short Circuit (dead test)

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Resistance to earth (dead test)


This test confirms the integrity (resistance) of the insulation between L and E
on the boiler terminal strip or plug top pins (Black lead firstly to E pin and red
lead secondly to L pin). Where the boiler supply is connected to a fused double
pole switch, it should be isolated at the ring main supply end, to eliminate any
possible, further faults present on the circuit (This is why a 3 pin plug is a much
better option as a double pole spur can cause further problems).

With the boiler switches, time switches and thermostats on and the
multimeter set on ohms scale, the resistance reading between L and E should
read no other than O L ( infinity ) and if so, there is a fault .

A detailed continuity check is required to trace the faulty component before


proceeding any further.

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Resistance to earth: (dead test) Boiler FaultFinder Manual v2

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Mains voltage and polarity tests


This test will ascertain the correct polarity between L and N although, some
boilers will operate unaffected by reversed polarity.

Connect boiler to power supply via 3 pin plug top or inserting 3 amp
fuse into switch
Ensure boiler is on but with all controls off, so there is no demand
Set multimeter to correct voltage scale on V AC
Firstly put the black lead from multi meter to the E terminal block on
the boiler and secondly the red lead from multi meter to the N
terminal block on the boiler this should read 0V AC, but up to 15V AC
is ok

Note: Should a reading be greater than 15V AC, this indicates a fault is present
within the house wiring, but the polarity at the fused switch should first be
checked, prior to calling an (NICEIC) approved electrician.

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240 V TEST

Connect boiler to power supply via 3 pin plug top or inserting 3 amp
fuse into switch
Ensure boiler is on but with all controls off, so there is no demand
Set multimeter to correct voltage scale on V AC
Firstly put the black lead from multi meter to the E terminal block on
the boiler then secondly the red lead from multi meter to the L
terminal block on the boiler - this should read approx. 240V AC

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240 V TEST

Ensure boiler is on but with all controls off, so there is no demand


Set multimeter to correct voltage scale on V AC
Firstly put the black lead from multi meter to the N terminal block on
the boiler then secondly the red lead from the multi meter to the L
terminal block on the boiler this should also read approx. 240V AC

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Mains voltage and polarity test continued Boiler FaultFinder Manual v2

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General fault finding


Noisy heat exchanger (kettling and/or banging)

Magnetite / rust blockages in chemical cleanse system


waterways
Pump head failing (not at full capacity) replace pump head
Boiler control thermostat faulty replace thermostat
(causing overheat stat to trip)

Noisy pump

Trapped air vent system and pump


Impellor out of alignment replace pump head

Noisy fan

Worn bearings replace fan


Jammed air rotor lubricate rotor
impeller heavy with foreign matter clean / service fan
accumulation

Explosive ignition

pilot assembly not positioned reposition assembly


correctly
faulty gas valve (over gassing) check burner pressures
faulty gas valve (sticking armature) replace solenoid / gas valve
partially blocked burner clean / service burner
faulty ignition electrodes inspect gap(s)/condition

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Pressure relief valve opening / pressure gauge continuously climbing

undersized expansion vessel upgrade vessel size


valve faulty or seat contaminated with replace valve
sludge
plate to plate heat exchanger faulty replace plate exchanger
(fractured)
filling loop faulty / passing pressure replace / cap off
expansion vessel diaphragm has replace vessel
perished
expansion vessel has lost air charge re charge vessel
Pump head failing (not at full capacity) replace pump head
Boiler control thermostat faulty replace thermostat
(causing overheat stat to trip)
faulty gas valve (over gassing) check burner pressures

Noisy solenoid

loose mounting check mounting


return spring loose replace solenoid
faulty solenoid replace solenoid

Noisy hot water flow switches

faulty mechanism (loose internal replace switch


paddle or wheel)

Burner not igniting

faulty thermocouple check connections / replace


thermocouple
faulty gas valve (sticking armature) replace solenoid / gas valve
faulty ignition electrodes / leads inspect gap(s) / condition
faulty printed circuit board replace circuit board
blocked injector check injector
gas at meter or boiler off check isolation valves

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Radiators warm up when hot tap opens / central heating flow pipe very
hot with radiators hardly getting temperature rise

faulty diverter valve (faulty wax replace valve


capsule or bobbin assembly)

Radiators warm up when no hot tap is open and the timer is in the off
position (timer working correctly)

domestic hot water micro switch replace dhw micro switch


stuck in NC position

Fan running but no ignition at electrodes

air pressure switch hoses loose check ports and firmly fix
split / kinked hoses remove kink / replace hose
water in hoses (condensation) dry hoses / replace hoses
reversed pressure connections (hoses correctly connect hoses
wrong way around)
split/punctured air pressure switch replace air pressure switch
diaphragm
damaged combustion chamber seals replace entire seal
cracked pilot window or damaged seal replace glass / seal
faulty air pressure micro switch replace air pressure switch
flue / airway ducts blocked at terminal clear restrictions/blockages
faulty fan (not at full capacity) check/ lubricate bearings
clear debris build up
blocked / melted venturi
replace fan assembly
ignition electrodes cracked check / replace electrodes
ignition wiring harness damaged / loose check wiring / connections
faulty spark generator on p.c.b. replace p.c.b.
ignition electrodes gap too far apart check gap (as per manufacturers
instructions)

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Boiler shuts down and goes to lockout

faulty pump (not at full capacity) replace pump head


faulty fan (not at full capacity) check / lubricate bearings
clear debris build up
replace fan assembly
blocked condensate pipe work/trap clear blockage / ice plug or Increase
pipe work fall
faulty ionisation electrode check gap/wiring /damages
blocked heat exchanger (blocked with replace or cleanse system
sludge)
blocked primary filter on plate clean debris from filter
exchanger
faulty thermistor (losing calibration) check / replace
faulty overheat cut out stat (losing check / replace
calibration)
faulty gas valve (faulty modureg / replace gas valve
solenoid)
blocked bypass pipe/ no bypass adjust / install bypass
faulty air pressure switch (stuck in NO replace air pressure switch
position)
faulty low water pressure switch
(losing calibration)
excess air trapped within heat Check / replace air vent
exchanger

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Domestic hot water fault finding


When the hot water is ok but the central heating is not, this eliminates all
operating sequence possible faults such as the fan, air pressure switch, pump,
ignition sequence, ignition detection, gas valve and domestic hot water
thermistor.

Therefore, the fault can only be at the diverter valve, micro switch, flow switch,
central heating thermistor, high limit cut out thermostat, printed circuit board
and external controls (room thermostat and timer).

No domestic hot water


split diaphragm on flow switch (pin not moving)
blocked pressure differential pipes (scale deposits)
faulty micro switch (burnt out contacts)
faulty motorised valve head (burnt out windings)
diverter valve (diverter may be stuck in central heating mode, spindle
seized, dhw micro switch stuck in NO position)
programmer (faulty switching contacts)
loose connection / faulty cylinder thermostat
faulty zone valve (seized, burnt motor, end switch)
faulty mid-position valve (seized at port B)
severely blocked plate exchanger (scale and sludge)
faulty printed circuit board (hot water side)
faulty thermistor (open circuit / infinity)
faulty high limit cut out thermostat (open circuit / infinity)
faulty pump (not at full capacity)

Domestic hot water too hot


cylinder thermostat set too high or out of calibration
cylinder thermostat stuck in closed (calling) position
cylinder thermostat is loose
faulty thermistor and high limit cut out
burner pressure too high
faulty gas valve

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Domestic hot water not hot enough


blocked primary and/or secondary heat exchanger (scale and sludge)
flow restrictor not fitted (as recommended by manufacturer)
cold mains pressure/flow rate too high
faulty diverter valve (diverter may be letting by through central heating
port)
faulty thermistor or scaled
burner pressure too low
undersized gas installation pipe work
faulty gas valve
cylinder thermostat out of calibration
faulty pump (not at full capacity, dissipating the heat)
hot water inlet strainer (if fitted) blocked
blocked primary filter on plate exchanger (not applicable to all boilers)
(Should the temperature differential between the flow and return
thermistor be too great, the boiler will modulate down and even cut
out. A classic example is when the hot water temperature fluctuates!

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Central heating fault finding


When the central heating is ok but the hot water is not, this eliminates all
operating sequence possible faults such as the fan, air pressure switch, pump,
ignition sequence, ignition detection, gas valve and central heating thermistor.

Therefore, the fault can only be at the diverter valve, micro switch, flow switch,
domestic hot water thermistor, high limit cut-out thermostat, domestic hot
water heat exchanger and printed circuit board.

No Central Heating
split diaphragm on flow switch (pin not moving)
faulty micro switch (burnt out contacts)
faulty motorised valve head (burnt out windings)
diverter valve (faulty wax capsule or bobbin assembly)
faulty programmer (faulty switching contacts)
faulty room thermostat stuck in the open (satisfied) position
faulty zone valve (seized, burnt motor, end switch)
faulty mid-position valve (seized at port A)
severely blocked heat exchanger (scale and sludge)
faulty printed circuit board (central heating side)
faulty thermistor (open circuit / infinity)
faulty high limit cut out thermostat (open circuit / infinity)
faulty pump (not at full capacity)

Central Heating Too Hot


room thermostat set too high or out of calibration
room thermostat stuck in closed (calling) position
faulty thermistor and high limit cut out
burner pressure too high
faulty gas valve

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Central Heating Not Hot Enough


blocked heat exchanger (scale and sludge)
blocked radiators / pipe work (scale and sludge)
return manifold filter blocked (debris)
faulty diverter valve
faulty thermistor or dirty
burner pressure too low
faulty gas valve
room thermostat out of calibration
range rating potentiometer set too low for heat load
dip switches on printed circuit board not at maximum temperature
faulty pump

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Top tips
It sometimes pays to test the air pressure hoses with (LDF) Leak
detection fluid, when encountering ignition problems. (Hoses maybe
split or have loose connections).

Where the air pressure switch is difficult to access (which is most


common), test at the end of the wiring harness (at the p.c.b. end),
which will also test the integrity of the C, NC and NO wiring also.

When the automatic air vent on the boiler shows signs of severe
leakage through the threaded bleed cap, it is not always a fault with
the air vent itself, despite the fact of sludge being present within the
system water.

Check the pressure charge at the expansion vessel, as the air vent is a
much weaker component than most under pressure and releases the
build up which the vessel should be taking up, but cant due to a loss in
air.

Always isolate boiler at flow and return valves and depressurise via the
pump vent cap (using an absorbent towel or similar), never the
pressure relief valve as this may encounter debris on the seat and then
drip constantly. Better still, utilise the drain off valve connected to the
hydraulic block (where fitted). Pre-charge vessel as shown on data
badge (typically between 0.5 1.0 bar) and re-pressurise boiler via
filling loop.

Open isolation valves (these may start to leak) and monitor pressure
gauge and air vent.

Should water maintain leaking from air vent, then a direct replacement
in necessary, however, should the pressure gauge remain under 2.5 bar
(when hot) with no leaks, then the air vent is ok.

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Always run a hot water demand when a central heating fault exists, as
this will then eliminate several components from being defective. (Fan,
pump, flame detection electrodes, gas valve, thermistors and hot
water side of p.c.b. all being ok).

Faults can only then rest with (diverter valve being seized/sticking,
faulty primary flow switch and/or micro switch, faulty primary
thermistor or p.c.b). The same process applies for a hot water fault!

When an internal expansion vessel is beyond repair (the diaphragm has


perished as water is entering the pre charge section and the pressure
gauge climbs up to 3 bar and discharges water via blow off pipe), install
a remote vessel on the return pipe as close to the boiler as possible.

Remember it may be the case that the existing vessel is not


adequately sized due to the customer extending the size of their
heating system over the years!

Always oversize the remotely fitted vessel if not sure and purge the
system water from the abrasive particulates (iron oxide), by way of
flushing with good quality chemical cleanser and inhibitor. (Heavy
corrosion build up may have been the reason why the rubber
diaphragm perished).

Always photograph and manually log / record the boiler gas council
(GC) number and serial number when working on boilers which needs
attention to parts - if possible. (Manufacturers have the right to change
their internal component design at time of mass production, without
you even knowing).

This will be hassle when the wrong part turns up, leaving you the
embarrassment, but more importantly, your customer without a
working boiler for longer periods not good for promoting your
professional and reliable services.

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NEVER PRE-EMPT THE PART NUMBER IN THE SHORTS PARTS LIST
SECTION OF THE INSTALLATION & SERVICING MANUAL WILL BE
CORRECT!

During winter months (especially frosty conditions), should the boiler


ignite but remain sparking and then the burner goes out almost
suddenly, the condensation pipe maybe blocked from an ice plug
forming. (The ionisation / flame detection electrode maybe linked to
the condense trap via a linked wire which when exposed to water, will
short out the connection and behave like the electrode is not sensing
the presence of a flame hence the repetitive ignition pattern).

When sparking occurs but no ignition takes place (flow switches, air
pressure switch, thermistors, fan, diverter valve, high limit cut out stat
and pump all being ok). The fault can only then rest with the gas
valve or p.c.b).

When replacing dry pocket thermistors or high limit cut out


thermostats, always use heat conductive paste between the
interconnecting surfaces to ensure good thermal conductivity.

When boiler is not functioning on either hot water or central heating


but the power is shown to be on, always check to see if the manual
overheat cut out stat has been activated (open circuit).

These can be seen on top of boiler casing, below the boiler casing or
within the boiler clamped onto pipes, where the button will be raised
and you will be able to press down to reset (closed circuit).

Do not ignore this problem further investigation needed


(see boiler shuts down within fault finding section).

When encountering stiff moving fan impellors / seized rotors, WD 40 is


not a permanent solution to the problem, and it must be pointed out
that WD 40 is designed to degrease (clean) and not lubricate.

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When measuring in low voltage DC with multimeter on components
such as modureg gas valves and multi speed fans, but with no steady
reading present, then the transformer on the printed circuit board may
be faulty.

When boiler is intermittently firing up and extinguishing with the


radiators getting hot, (with no hot tap running or the central heating
timer activated), it maybe the domestic hot water tap micro switch is
stuck in the NC position and not necessarily a faulty diverter valve.

When the diverter valve is in its rest position, it leaves the central
heating port open, and when the domestic hot water micro switch is
stuck in the NC position (calling for a demand), the boiler thinks a hot
water draw off has occurred, but due to the pressure differential flow
switch (attached on top of the diverter valve) not actually moving the
spindle / diverter assembly within, the boiler fires up and heats the
radiator circuit due to the open port in its rest position.

Should there be continuity between C and NC (with no hot water


demand), then the micro switch needs replacing.

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Safe use of multimeter functions


AC (Alternate current) will show a wavy line with dots diagonally
opposite or ACV.
DC (Direct current) will show a straight line with dots below or DCV.
(measures a steady reading).
Typical ranges for digital multimeters are:
DC Voltage: 200mV, 2000mV, 20V, 200V, 600V
AC Voltage: 200V, 600V
DC Current:200A, 2000 A, 20mA, 10mA
OHMS scale will show an uppercase omega symbol of . (Resistant of
movement).
Resistance: 200, 2000, 20K, 200K
Continuity buzzer will show the symbol of .
(buzz = closed circuit / continuous circuit / zero resistance)
(no buzz = open circuit / no continuous circuit / infinity / OL).

Black test lead always goes into COM terminal on multimeter (first).
Red test lead always goes into V or ACV or V~ terminal on multimeter
(second).

Always select voltage range above 240 as less than this will read off the scale
when measuring for mains voltage and never rotate the dial while the meter is
connected to a circuit you may rotate it through a current range, short
circuiting the probes and damaging either the meter or the circuit.

When measuring across L and N parts of a circuit (motor windings), a reading of


zero resistance indicates a fault (short circuit).

The resistance readings in motor windings will vary (pumps, fans, solenoids,
transformers).

When measuring closed switches (micro switches, overheat cut out stats) a
reading of zero resistance (closed circuit / continuity) = ok.
When measuring open switches (micro switches, overheat cut out stats) a
reading of infinity / OL (open circuit / no continuity) = ok.
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When measuring in volts AC the black test lead must first be connected to E or
N connections and then secondly the red test lead be connected to the L
connection, which then completes the circuit.

All electrical test equipment used should be suitable for the electrical tests
being carried out and any leads / probes to be inspected before use to ensure
it is safe.

Respect the circuitry you are working on - If you touch exposed metal, or cause
a short circuit, or connect to high voltage, you may expose yourself to a serious
hazard.

Although more expensive, an auto ranging multimeter is far easier as it


automatically adjusts its range to give a meaningful reading. Some of the
ranges typically displayed on a multimeter will rarely be used, if at all by gas
engineers.

The main ranges typically used are AC, DC and continuity keep it simple rule!

The gas operative should ensure they have sufficient knowledge of the test
equipment capabilities and functions so as to be able to conduct electrical
testing in a safe manner.

WHERE ANY DOUBT EXISTS


ALWAYS FOLLOW MANUFACTURERS SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS.

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Boiler servicing procedure


the professionals approach
Always introduce yourself politely and have your ID card on show, this
will only reassure your customer that you are a registered member of
Gas Safe and this is always a professional attitude to practice. First
impressions always count to a new customer!

Ascertain from customer any problems (if any) they may be


experiencing.

Carry out a visual risk assessment of the gas installation pipe work, gas
meter / box and any sealing, other appliances, system controls and any
ventilation provisions needed.

Carryout gas tests (let by, tightness and governor operating


pressure).

Inform the customer of any findings and immediately address any


findings which may constitute a danger to life or property in
accordance with the current industry standards.

Electrically isolate appliance and turn programmer / timer to on, room


thermostat to maximum setting and boiler thermostat to maximum
setting.

Electrical safety checks (earth continuity, resistance to earth, short


circuit and mains voltage polarity).

Before commencing to strip down appliance, ensure very briefly, both


hot water and heating is functioning correctly.

Electrically isolate the appliance and remove fuse.

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Remove burner and clean off any oxidation / debris accumulation using
a soft brush, can of compressed air and hoover.

Inspect condition of combustion seals (they MUST be in good


condition).

Inspect heat exchanger connections for signs of any leakage and brush
clean the waterways using correct grade heat exchanger brush and
hoover.

Inspect fan assembly and clean off any dirt / debris accumulation using
a soft brush, can of compressed air and hoover. (The fan may need to
be removed when there is heavy accumulation present, as it can
imbalance the impellor always handle with care!).

Carry out a visual assessment of the integrity of flue pipe, connections


and termination. (Flues concealed within boxing in need access points)!

Replace components previously removed for inspecting / cleaning and


test. Some boilers may need the condense trap removed for cleaning.

Undertake necessary flue flow continuity test / spillage test (open flue
appliance only).

Check all combustion case seals, especially on a positive fan assembly,


using a tapered match. (Any leakage due to worn seals, the appliance
MUST not be further used and the immediately dangerous procedure
applied. THEY ARE STILL OUT THERE!

Open all trv`s to maximum setting (if fitted).

Check minimum and maximum gas setting pressures (if possible) and
inlet working pressure.

Check co/co2 readings with electronic combustion gas analyser.

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(modern boilers will need to be forced into service mode for this
procedure follow manufacturers instructions).

Monitor the system water pressure gauge to ascertain if the correct


vessel pre-charge is ok or if there is a faulty diaphragm.

Visually inspect all internal parts for any signs of leakage.

Vent system to remove any trapped hydrogen gas / air build up.
(Hydrogen gas is a by product of electrolytic corrosion FLAMMABLE!).

Attach service sticker to appliance showing next due service date and
contact details (remember, the property may change hands but if not,
it will be another satisfied customer).

Ensure property has been left clean and tidy and as you found it.

Finally, discuss with the customer any possible energy efficient system
improvements you think they could benefit from, by adding onto their
existing system. Always look at it as your responsibility to raise their
awareness in these matters as it can only maintain a positive and
professional relationship, which should lead to more work.

Common improvements / upgrades are


new trv`s, power flush system, new room thermostat, new timer /
programmer, insulated copper cylinder, cylinder thermostat, insulated pipe
work.

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Maximising condensing operation


There is now a requirement in the Domestic Building Services Compliance
Guide that states that where condensing boilers are installed, the system
should be designed to operate at lower temperatures to give a return water
temperature less than 55 degrees C to maximise condensing
operation.

Background:
When natural gas burns, it produces considerable quantities of water and this
is vaporised in the combustion process (converted to steam). This process
absorbs quite a lot of energy (heat), in fact, approximately 14% of the heat
produced by burning the gas is required to boil off the water this heat is
commonly known as latent heat, as it causes a change of state from liquid to
gas (steam).

Question:
So why do we need to get the return water temperature less than 55 degrees C
in order to maximise condensing operation?

Answer:
The design of a condensing boiler enables a lot of this latent heat to be
recovered by condensing the steam in the flue gases back to water
(condensate), but this can only be achieved by getting the return water
temperature down to 54 degrees C the dew point of gases.

At this temperature, the water vapour in the flue gases will start to condense
onto the heat exchanger and give up its latent heat. This heat, plus the sensible
heat recovered through cooling the flue gases, can amount to around 12% of
the heat that would have otherwise been lost.

Reducing the return water temperature still further will recover even more
latent heat.

Whilst commissioning your boiler replacement, you may have heard the boiler
condensing through the plastic pipe leading to the drain within only minutes of
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operation, as the return water temperature is well below 55 degrees C on


start-up from cold.

As the flow temperature gradually increases and approaches the boiler


thermostat set point approximately 82 degrees C, the burner will commence
modulating down to low flame as it begins to match the heat load upon it,
which may also switch off if a light heat load is put upon it. At this point, the
return water temperature is likely to be approximately 70 degrees C and
possibly higher.

Limiting the return water temperature to around 55 degrees C means we must


limit the flow water temperature to approximately 66 degrees C.

With underfloor heating, where lower flow water temperatures can be used at
the manifolds, weather compensation controller settings can be changed so
that the maximum water temperature is 66 degrees C when the outside
temperature is say - 2 degrees C. Changes in the external temperature alter
the temperature of the flow, lowering it if the outside temperature rises and
increases it if it drops.

The constant monitoring of the external climate means the boiler is able to
operate efficiently at the minimum required temperature and condense for
longer. With outside weather compensation controls, there is always a
provision for running at maximum boiler flow temperature for domestic hot
water heating, and this should be on a priority basis.

The optimum efficiency level that many newly installed condensing boilers can
achieve is not being fully recognised. Domestic heating accounts for around
14% of the UK`s CO2 emissions, the installation of intelligent weather
compensation controls could help to reduce it by almost a quarter.

When installing radiators within new or refurbished properties which are


insulated to current high standards, you can do exactly the same thing, but you
need to oversize the radiators so that they will give the required heat output.

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Identify the difference between room temperature required and the mean
radiator water temperature, which determines the rate at which heat from the
water can be transferred to the room. This determines the value of the Delta T
factor which is used to adjust the rated output of the radiator from the
manufacturers catalogue rating.

Once calculated, multiply the manufacturers stated radiator output by the


corresponding Delta T factor to show the actual performance of the radiator in
those specific conditions.

Flow water temperature 66 degrees C


Return water temperature 55 degrees C
System temperature drop 11 degrees C
Mean water temperature 60 degrees C (Flow temp. System temp.
Drop divided by 2)
Room temperature 20 degrees C
Temperature difference (Mean water temp. Room temp.)

Delta T factors for radiator- to- room temperature differences (figures may
vary slightly depending on manufacturer):

Temperature difference (degrees C) Delta T factor


30 0.423
35 0.512
40 0.605
45 0.700
50 0.798
55 0.898
60 1.000
65 1.104
70 1.211
75 1.319

Example:
Heat emission required: 2000 Watts (2 KW)

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Room air temperature required: 20 degrees C


Mean water temperature in radiator: 60 degrees C

1. Temperature difference
60 20 = 40 degrees C

2. From delta T factor table 40 degrees C


0.605

3. Divide the required heat emission by factor


2000 watts (2KW) required divided by 0.605 = 3305 watts (3.3KW)

4. From the manufacturers selection table, choose the radiator rated at


3305 watts (or slightly more).

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Programmer and time switch


compatibility guide
Programmers do vary in their settings/functions and the differences are as
follows:
24 hour programmer one set of times all week
5/2 day one set of times for week days/ another set of times for
weekends (but weekend times may be set the same as for weekdays).
7 day different times for each day of the week.

There are two types of programmer:

Mini programmer
The hot water mode can be switched on without the heating mode, but in
order to switch on just the central heating, the hot water will also
simultaneously come on with it. (This will be common on gravity hot water
systems with fully pumped heating).

The temperature of the domestic hot water can reach very high temperatures
in this arrangement, as whilst the heating is on, gravity convection currents
take place and cycles until heating is satisfied via room thermostat or more
commonly the boiler thermostat.

Should a temperature rise occur within the radiators during the summer
months whilst on hot water mode only, then the anti-gravity valve (fitted on
central heating flow pipe) may be faulty letting-by.

Full programmer
The hot water mode and heating mode can be switched on totally
independent from one another or both modes can be on at the same time.
(This will be common on fully pumped systems).

Some two channel programmers will share the time base (common time base)
which means both hot water and heating must share the same on/off periods.

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The following compatibility guides are a quick and easy reference tool to
upgrade and replace existing programmers and time switches to Drayton
models, indicating the respective time base (24 hour, 5/2 day or 7 day) and
respective terminal comparisons (E, N, L, H/W ON/OFF, C/H ON/OFF).

Simply look through the existing makes and models within the faulty
programmer sections or within the faulty time switch sections and the "Boiler
Fault Finder" will show all recommended Drayton replacements.

Then simply look through the programmer or time switch terminal comparison
tables to ascertain the necessary back plate wiring conversion.

Please note: In the event of removing any existing programmer, it is


paramount to make note of the wire colours, the terminal positions and the
numbers in relation to the existing back plate.

You may find the existing faulty programmer or time switch model has been
discontinued, however, by using this guide, it will indicate the suitable
replacement.

Some recommended replacement models maybe a direct plug in replacement


without any disturbance to the wiring, some models may need simple minor
wiring conversion and some models may need both the back plate and the
wiring changed. The manufacturer must be consulted at all times if there is any
doubt whatsoever.

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24 hour programmer compatibility guide


Existing make and model: Danfoss Randall
102, 102E, 922, 3020P, 3060, 4033, SET2,
SET2E, SET3, SET3E, SET3M, CP15, CP715,
CP715 SI, FP15, FP715, FP715 SI, MP15

Suitable replacements for above:


LP112 (Electronic, linked H/W & C/H common time base)
LP241 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP241 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
SM2 (Electromechanical)

Existing make and model: Drayton


TEMPUS 3 & 6

Suitable replacements for above:


LP112 (Electronic, linked H/W & C/H common time base)
LP241 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP241 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
SM2 (Electromechanical)

Existing make and model: Honeywell


ST699, ST6200, ST6300, ST9400A, ST9400S

Suitable replacements for above:


LP112 (Electronic, linked H/W & C/H common time base)
LP241 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP241 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
SM2 (Electromechanical)

Existing make and model:Horstmann


525, Centaur Plus C21, Diadem, H21, H121, TC1, Tiara

Suitable replacements for above:


LP112 (Electronic, linked H/W & C/H common time base)
LP241 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
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LP241 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)


SM2 (Electromechanical)

Existing make and model:Myson


MEP2C

Suitable replacements for above:


LP112 (Electronic, linked H/W & C/H common time base)
LP241 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP241 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
SM2 (Electromechanical)

Existing make and model:Potterton Myson


MINIMINDER, 2000

Suitable replacements for above:


LP112 (Electronic, linked H/W & C/H common time base)
LP241 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP241 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
SM2 (Electromechanical)

Existing make and model:Siemans/Landis&Staefa


RWB200

Suitable replacements for above:


LP112 (Electronic, linked H/W & C/H common time base)
LP241 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP241 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
SM2 (Electromechanical)

Existing make and model:Sunvic


SP50, MP2, SELECT 207

Suitable replacements for above:


LP112 (Electronic, linked H/W & C/H common time base)
LP241 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP241 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
SM2 (Electromechanical)
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5/2 day programmer compatibility guide


Existing make and model:Danfoss Randall
102E5, CP15, CP75, CP715, CP715 SI, FP7, FP15,
FP715, FP715 SI, FP975, MP15, MP75, SET5

Suitable replacements for above: LP522 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP522 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Drayton


TEMPUS 4,6,7

Suitable replacements for above: LP522 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP522 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Honeywell


ST6450

Suitable replacements for above: LP522 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP522 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Myson


MEP2C
Suitable replacements for above: LP522 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP522 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Potterton Myson


EP2001, 2002

Suitable replacements for above: LP522 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP522 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Siemans/Landis&Staefa


RWB9, RWB252

Suitable replacements for above: LP522 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP522 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

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Existing make and model:Sunvic


SELECT 207

Suitable replacements for above: LP522 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP522 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

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7 day programmer compatibility guide


Existing make and model:Danfoss Randall
102E7, 972, CP15, CP75, CP715, CP715 SI, FP75,
FP715 SI, FP975, MP75,

Suitable replacements for above: LP722 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP722 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Drayton


TEMPUS 7

Suitable replacements for above: LP722 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP722 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Honeywell


ST6400, ST9400C

Suitable replacements for above: LP722 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP722 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Horstmann


527, CENTAUR TC7, CENTAUR PLUS C27,
H27,

Suitable replacements for above: LP722 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP722 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Myson


MEP2C

Suitable replacements for above: LP722 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP722 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Potterton Myson


EP3000, 3002, 6000, 6002

Suitable replacements for above: LP722 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
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LP722 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Siemans/Landis&Staefa


RWB9, RWB270

Suitable replacements for above: LP722 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP722 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

Existing make and model:Sunvic


SELECT 207, SP100

Suitable replacements for above: LP722 (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)
LP722 SI (Electronic, independent H/W & C/H)

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24 hour time switch compatibility guide


(All the following Danfoss suitable replacement time switches have
Volt free contacts, making them suitable for combi boilers).

Existing make and model:Danfoss Randall


103, 911, SET1, SET1E, TS15, TS715, TS715 SI,

Suitable replacements for above: LP111 (Electronic) LP111 SI (Electronic)


SM1 (Electro mechanical)

Existing make and model:Drayton


TEMPUS 1

Suitable replacements for above: LP111 (Electronic) LP111 SI (Electronic)


SM1 (Electro mechanical)

Existing make and model:Honeywell


ST6100A, ST9100A, ST9100S

Suitable replacements for above: LP111 (Electronic) LP111 SI (Electronic)


SM1 (Electro mechanical)

Existing make and model:Horstmann


CENTAUR SC1, CENTAUR PLUS C11, CORONET, H11

Suitable replacements for above: LP111 (Electronic) LP111 SI (Electronic)


SM1 (Electro mechanical)

Existing make and model:Myson


MEP1C

Suitable replacements for above: LP111 (Electronic) LP111 SI (Electronic)


SM1 (Electro mechanical)

Existing make and model:Potterton Myson


EP 4000

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Suitable replacements for above: LP111 (Electronic) LP111 SI (Electronic)


SM1 (Electro mechanical)

Existing make and model:Siemans/Landis&Staefa


RWB30, 50, 100

Suitable replacements for above: LP111 (Electronic) LP111 SI (Electronic)


SM1 (Electro mechanical)

Existing make and model:Sunvic


SP20, SELECT 107

Suitable replacements for above: LP111 (Electronic) LP111 SI (Electronic)


SM1 (Electro mechanical)

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5/2 day time switch compatibility guide


Existing make and model:Danfoss Randall
103ES, SET4, TS15, TS715, TS715 SI, TS75, TS975

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Drayton


TEMPUS 1, 2

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic) LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Myson


MEP1C

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic) LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Potterton Myson


EP 40001, 4002

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic) LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Siemans/Landis&Staefa


RWB152

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic) LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Sunvic


SELECT 107

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic) LP711 SI (Electronic)

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7 day time switch compatibility guide


Existing make and model:Danfoss Randall
103E7, 971, TS75, TS715, TS715 SI, TS975

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic)


LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Drayton


TEMPUS 2

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic)


LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Honeywell


ST6100C,ST9100C

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic)


LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Horstmann


CENTAUR SC7, CENTAUR PLUS C17, H17, 517

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic)


LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Myson


MEP1C

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic)


LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Potterton Myson


EP 5002

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic)


LP711 SI (Electronic)

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Existing make and model:Siemans/Landis&Staefa


RWB170

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic)


LP711 SI (Electronic)

Existing make and model:Sunvic


SP35, SELECT 107

Suitable replacements for above: LP711 (Electronic)


LP711 SI (Electronic)

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Programmer terminal comparisons


H/W C/H H/W C/H
Make Model E N L
OFF OFF ON ON

Drayton LP112,LP241, LP522,


N L 1 2 3 4
lifestyle LP722,LP241 SI,
LP522 SI, LP722 SI
Drayton SM2 N L 1 2 3 4
The following makes and models need to be cross referenced to the above for wiring
comparisons
(Some of the following existing models may be discontinued but replace with the above
models)

ACL MP(TOWERCHRON) 2 1
FP (TOWERCHRON) 2 1 8 11 6 10
400,600 (NO CONNECTION TO
Switchmaster N L 4 3 1
TERM.4 ON 600)
Drayton 805,900,900I N L 4 2 3 1
British Gas EMP2, UP1 N L 1 2 3 4
Danfoss CP15,CP715,FP15,FP715,CP71
N L 1 2 3 4
Randall 5SI, FP715SI
3020P,3060 E 7 6 4 2
4033(LINK 1-6) E 7 6 5 4 3 2
102,102E,102E5,102E7(LINK6-
E 5 6 1 2
3)
701(LINK L-5 AND 5-6) E N L 3 1
702(LINK L-5 AND 5-6) E N L 4 2 3 1
922,972 (LINK L-2 AND 2-5) E N L 1 4 3 6
SET2,SET2E,SET3E,SET3M,FP9
E N L 3 6 1 4
75,
SET5 (LINK L-2 AND 2-5) N L 7 4 6 3

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C/
H/ H/ C/
H
Make Model E N L W W H
OF
OFF ON ON
F
Drayton LP112,LP241, LP522,
N L 1 2 3 4
lifestyle LP722,LP241 SI,
LP522 SI, LP722 SI
Drayton SM2 N L 1 2 3 4
The following makes and models need to be cross referenced to the above for wiring
comparisons

(Some of the following existing models may be discontinued but replace with the above
models)

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Honeywell ST699/799 (LINK L-5 AND 5-8) N L 1 2 3 4


ST6200,ST6300,ST6400,ST645
0
ST6400S,ST9400A/C,ST9400S
ST9500C
ST7100 (LINK L-3 AND 3-6) N L 7 4 8 5
525,527,425DIADEM,H21,H27
Horstmann E N L 3 6 1 4
,H121
TIARA (LINK L-2 AND 2-5)
CHANNEL PLUS
H21XL,H27XL,H27ZXL
CENTAUR PLUS C21,C27 N L 1 2 3 4

MICROTIMER (LINK L-5 AND


Myson N L 7 4 6 3
5-8)
MEP2C N L 1 2 3 4
Potterton ALL
N L 1 2 3 4
Myson EP200`S,EP3000`S,EP6000`S
(LINK L-5 AND N-N)
MINIMINDER N L 1 2 3 4
Siemens/Lan RWB2,RWB2E,20,40,102,200,
N L 1 2 3 4
dis & Staefa 252,270
RWB9,RWB29
Sunvic SELECT 207 N L 1 2 3 4
SP50,SP100 (LINK L-3) N L 1 4 2 5

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Time switch terminal comparisons

C
O O
Make Model E L M N OFF SPARE
Drayton LP111,LP711,LP111SI,L
lifestyle P711SI N L 1 3 2 4
Drayton SM1 N L 1 3 2 4
The following makes and models need to be cross referenced to the above for
wiring comparisons
(Some of the following existing models may be discontinued but replace with the
above models)
ACL TC (TOWERCHRON) 2 1 4 7
Switchmaster 300,980 N L 4 1
Drayton TEMPUS 1 AND 2 N L 1 3 2 4
British Gas EMT2, N L 1 3 2 4
UT1 N L 1 3 2 4
Danfoss
Randall TS15,75 E N L 1 4 2 5&6
TS715,TS715SI N L 1 4 2 3
TS975 E N L 5 4 6 1,2,3
SET1, SET1E E N L 5 4 6
SET4 E N L 5 4 6
103,103E,103E5,103E7 4 5 6 3 1 2
911,971 E N L 5 6 4 2
Honeywell ST6100A,ST6100C,ST61
00S,ST9100A,ST9100S N L 1 4 2
ST7000B N L 1 2 3 4

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C
O O
Make Model E L M N OFF SPARE
Drayton LP111,LP711,LP111SI,L
lifestyle P711SI N L 1 3 2 4
Drayton SM1 N L 1 3 2 4
The following makes and models need to be cross referenced to the above for
wiring comparisons
(Some of the following existing models may be discontinued but replace with the
above models)
Horstmann CENTAUR SC1,SC7 L 3 2
CHANNEL PLUS H17XL,
H11XL E N L 4 6
CENTAUR PLUS
C11,C17 N L 2 4 3
EMERALD423,PEARL
AUTO N L 2 4 3
517,CORONET,H11,H1
7 E N L 3 4
MICROTIMER (LINK L-5
Myson AND 5-8) E N L 5 4 6
MEP1C N L 3 4 2
Potterton EP4000,4001,4002,500
Myson 2 N L 5 4 2

Siemens / RWB3, N L 4 3
Landis & RWB27,RWB30,RWB50
Staefa ,100,152,170 N L 2 4 3
RWB7 E N L 2 4 3
Sunvic SELECT 107 N L 1 3 2 4
SP20,SP35 N L 3 5 4 5

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Asbestos the hidden dangers!


Asbestos components may take the form of seals, gaskets, insulation panels
and rope within old appliances, especially aged boilers.

There are three types normally encountered in the UK:

Chrysotile (white)
Amosite (brown)
Crocidolite (blue)

These are usually referred to as their common names (shown above in


brackets), although they cannot be identified by their colour. Laboratory
analysis is needed for positive identification.

Asbestos fibres enter the body through breathing, via the nose and mouth.
They cannot enter the body through the skin or via food and drink as this will
pass through.

Disease is caused by tiny fibres of asbestos passing into the lungs where they
can stay for many years. Small but repeated exposure on different jobs over
time can lead to the development of an asbestos-related disease, which can
take anything from 15 to 60 years to develop.

THIS IS WHY IT IS CRUCIAL TO PREVENT EXPOSURE ON EVERY JOB!


If in doubt or suspect asbestos STOP WORK IMMEDIATELY!

The following list has been compiled to aid you and minimise the risk from
exposure, however, the list cannot be considered to be definitive, and any
material you do suspect as asbestos should be treated as such. There may be
other appliances containing asbestos materials that do not appear on the list.
Specialist advice should be sought from the manufacturer prior to commencing
any work and where necessary, specialist licensed asbestos removal
companies used.

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Boilers known to contain asbestos


Manufacturer Model G.C. Number Components

Caradon concord
Ideal companion 44-392-21 G, R
Mexico
Super CF 100 41-407-46 MF
Mexico
Super CF 125 41-407-48 MF
Mexico
Super CF 140 41-421-39 MF
Mexico
Super CF30/40 41-415-26 MF
Mexico
Super CF30/40 41-415-05 MF
Mexico
Super CF40 41-407-20 MF
Mexico
Super 40/50 41-421-49 MF
Mexico
Super CF40/60 41-415-27 MF
Mexico
Super CF40/60 41-415-06 MF
Mexico
Super CF50/60 41-421-50 MF

Keys to components that contain asbestos (where known):

G Gaskets MF Mastic containing Fibres


I Insulation R Rope
T Tape SW Sealing Washers

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Manufacturer Model G.C. Number Components


Caradon Mexico
Ideal Super CF 55 41-407-22 MF
Mexico
Super CF 65 41-407-40 MF
Mexico
Super CF 75 41-407-42 MF
Mexico
Super CF80 41-407-44 MF
Mexico
Super RS 100 41-415-05 MF
Mexico
Super RS125 41-407-49 MF
Mexico
Super RS30/40 41-415-24 MF
Mexico
Super RS30/40 41-415-03 MF
Mexico
Super RS40 41-407-19 MF
Mexico
Super RS40/50 41-421-47 MF
Mexico
Super RS40/60 41-415-04 MF

Keys to components that contain asbestos (where known):

G Gaskets MF Mastic containing Fibres


I Insulation R Rope
T Tape SW Sealing Washers

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Manufacturer Model G.C. Number Components


Caradon Mexico
Ideal Super RS50/60 41-421-48 MF
Mexico
Super RS55 41-407-21 MF
Mexico
Super RS65 41-407-41 MF
Mexico
Super RS75 41-407-43 MF
Mexico
Super WRS 430 41-407-53 R, M F
Mexico
Super WRS440 41-407-54 R, M F
Mexico
Super WRS450 41-407-55 R, M F
Mexico
Super WRS460 41-407-56 R, MF

Keys to components that contain asbestos (where known):

G Gaskets MF Mastic containing Fibres


I Insulation R Rope
T Tape SW Sealing Washers

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Manufacturer Model G.C. Number Components


Gloworm Space saver
20-30 RF 41-313-86 *
Space saver
30-40 RF 41-313-87 *
Space saver
50-60 RF 41-313-89 *
Space saver
50 BF 41-315-27 *
Space saver
38 BF 41-315-31 *
Space saver
75 BF 41-315-32 *
Space saver
38 CF 41-315-44 *
Space saver
52 CF 41-315-45 *
Space saver
75 CF 41-315-46 *
Space saver
45-60 OF 41-315-63 *
Space saver
45-60 BF 41-315-64 *
Space saver
22-30 B 41-315-69 *
Space saver
22-30 OF 41-313-70 *
Fuel saver
12 CF 41-047-05 *
Fuel saver
12 RS 41-047-04 *
Fuel saver
15 CF 41-047-03 *
Fuel saver
15 CF2 41-047-09 *
Fuel saver

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Manufacturer Model G.C. Number Components


Gloworm 15 RS 41-047-02 *
Fuel saver
15 RS2 41-047-08 *
Fuel saver
18 RS 41-047-12 *
Fuel saver
20 RS 41-047-06 *
Fuel saver
25-30 41-315-80 *
Fuel saver
25-30B 41-315-79 *
Fuel saver
30-40 41-315-82 *
Fuel saver
30-40B 41-315-81 *
Fuel saver
40-50 41-315-84 *
Fuel saver
40-50B 41-315-83 *
Fuel saver
55-60B 41-315-85 *
Fuel saver
60-70B 41-315-87 *
Fuel saver
9 CF 41-047-11 *
Fuel saver
9 RS 41-047-10 *
Fuel saver
60-70B 41-315-87 *
Fuel saver
9 CF 41-047-11 *
Fuel saver
9 RS 41-047-10 *
*Various components have been known to contain asbestos within these
boilers, and for this reason, cannot be disclosed in the list.

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Manufacturer Model G.C. Number Components


Potterton Flamingo
Myson 50 BF WM 41-601-14 G, I
Flamingo
CF 20-30 41-601-33 G, I
Flamingo
CF 50 41-601-18 G, I
Flamingo
RS 13 41-601-06 G, I
Flamingo
50 BF WM 41-601-14 G, I
Flamingo
CF 20-30 41-601-33 G, I
Flamingo
CF 50 41-601-18 G, I
Flamingo
RS 13 41-601-06 G, I
Flamingo
Rs 13 41-601-12 G, I
Flamingo
Rs 20-30 41-601-23 G, I
Flamingo
RS 40 41-601-25 G, I
Flamingo
RS 50 S 41-601-43 G, I
Kingfisher
180&120 41-601-19 G, I
Kingfisher
180&220 41-601-20 G, I

Keys to components that contain asbestos (where known):

G Gaskets MF Mastic containing Fibres


I Insulation R Rope
T Tape SW Sealing Washers

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Manufacturer Model G.C. Number Components


Potterton Kingfisher
Myson 180 CF 41-605-80 G, I
Kingfisher
220 CF 41-605-81 G, I
Kingfisher
CF100 41-605-42 G, I
Kingfisher
CF125 41-605-15 G, I
Kingfisher
CF150 41-605-16 G, I
Kingfisher
CF40 41-605-57 G, I
Kingfisher
CF 40A 41-605-60 G, I
Kingfisher
CF45 41-605-07 G, I
Kingfisher
CF50 41-605-58 G, I
Kingfisher
CF50 A 41-605-61 G, I
Kingfisher
CF55 41-605-08 G, I
Kingfisher
CF60 41-605-56 G, I
Kingfisher
CF60 41-605-38 G, I

Keys to components that contain asbestos (where known):

G Gaskets MF Mastic containing Fibres


I Insulation R Rope
T Tape SW Sealing Washers

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Manufacturer Model G.C. Number Components


Potterton Kingfisher
Myson CF80 41-605-39 G, I
Kingfisher
CF90 41-605-40 G, I
Kingfisher
RS 100 41-605-59 G, I
Kingfisher
RS 50 41-605-48 G, I
Kingfisher
RS 60 41-605-37 G, I
Kingfisher
RS 80 41-605-41 G, I
Netaheat
10/16 41-605-67 G, I
Netaheat
16/22 41-605-66 G, I
Netaheat
6/10 41-605-68 G, I
Netaheat
MK 1 BF
10/16 41-605-03 G, I
Netaheat
Mk 1 BF
16/22 41-605-04 G, I
Netaheat
MK 2
10/16 41-605-10 G, I

Keys to components that contain asbestos (where known):

G Gaskets MF Mastic containing Fibres


I Insulation R Rope
T Tape SW Sealing Washers

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Manufacturer Model G.C. Number Components


Potterton
Myson Netaheat
MK 2
16/22 41-605-11 G, I
Netaheat
MK 2 F
10/16 41-605-34 G, I
Netaheat
MK 2 F
16/22 41-605-35 G, I

Keys to components that contain asbestos (where known):

G Gaskets MF Mastic containing Fibres


I Insulation R Rope
T Tape SW Sealing Washers

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Manufacturer Model G.C. Number Components


Vaillant Combicompact
VCW 242 E 47-044-13 SW *
Combicompact
VCW 282 E 47-044-18 SW *
T3W VCW
Sine 18 47-044-01 SW
T3W VCW
Sine 20/1 47-044-03 SW
T3W VCW
Sine 25/1 47-044-05 SW
Combicompact
VCW 221 47-044-14 SW *
Combicompact
VCW 240 47-044-15 SW*
Combicompact
VCW 280 47-044-16 SW*

Note: Appliances marked (*) pre 1991

Keys to components that contain asbestos (where known):

G Gaskets MF Mastic containing Fibres


I Insulation R Rope
T Tape SW Sealing Washers

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Notching and Drilling


requirements in joists when 1st
fixing
When notching or drilling structural timbers, it is crucial that the holes/notches
are made in such a way that does not compromise the integrity of the
structure. On new build sites and large developments, any installer intending
to notch/drill holes in structural timbers must first seek permission from the
architect, structural engineer and/or supervising officer for the building.

Notches and holes in simply supported floor joists should be cut no deeper
than 1/8 of the depth of the joist. They should not be cut closer to the support
than 0.07 times the span, nor further away than 0.25 (1/4) of the span.

It is essential that structural members are not weakened by indiscriminate


notching and boring. In this respect, both the size and positioning must be in
accordance with the diagrams shown below.

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Requirements for notching traditional


joists
Span (L)

0.25 x L
Depth (D)

Max depth of
notch = D/8

0.07 x L
Rules for joist depth up to
250mm. For deeper joists
assume D = 250mm Notches should
be in this zone

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Requirements for drilling holes through


traditional joists
Span (L)

Holes should be located


0.4 x L
in this zone and drilled
at the neutral axis
0.25 x L
Depth of joist (D)

Maximum diameter of a
hole = 0.25 x D
Neutral axis
of joist
Not less than 3 diameters
apart centre to centre

Drilled holes should be no greater in diameter than of the depth of the joist.
They should be drilled on a neutral axis and should not be less than three
diameters apart, measured from centre to centre. Drilled holes should be
located in the area between 0.25 and 0.4 times the span of the joist from the
support.

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Engineering joists
Buildings that incorporate timber I joists (engineering joists) allow for more
flexible drilling of holes for pipework. I joists incorporate 38mm knockouts
(dependent upon the manufacturer), and also allow for larger holes to be
drilled through the joists. The same rule applies when drilling through I joists as
for drilling traditional joists where horizontal measurements between holes
are concerned.

However, as the strength of I joists is in the flange, these joists are not suitable
for notching, as notching the flange will damage the structure of the joist,
which will have a detrimental effect on its strength. The size and positioning of
holes drilled through I joists must be in accordance with the diagram shown
below.

Not less than 3 diameters


apart centre to centre

38mm diameter knockouts are


Flange
incorporated in TJI joists at
approx 300mm centres

Web
Flange

Additional holes can be cut but


leave minimum 3mm of web at
top and bottom

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Example: (Refer to previous diagrams for clarity):

Notching traditional joists

For a traditional joist (150mm deep x 50mm wide and spanning


3000mm):
Minimum distance from supporting wall = 3000mm x 0.07 times the
span = 210mm
Maximum distance from supporting wall = 3000mm x 0.25 times the
span = 750mm
Maximum depth of notch = 150mm / 8 = 18.75mm

Therefore, notching may occur between 210mm and 750mm from the
supporting wall, and notches should be no deeper than 18.75mm.

Drilling holes through traditional joists

For a traditional joist (150mm deep x 50mm wide and spanning


3000mm):
Minimum distance from supporting wall = 3000mm x 0.25 times the
span = 750mm
Maximum distance from supporting wall = 3000mm x 0.4 times the
span = 1200mm
Maximum hole diameter = 150mm / 4 = 37.5mm

Therefore, holes can be drilled at the neutral axis between 750mm and
1200mm from the supporting wall. The maximum hole diameter should not
exceed 37.5mm and holes should not be located less than three diameters
apart (centre to centre), meaning 37.5mm holes should be separated

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A Typical Service & Repair


Engineers Toolkit

Hand tools
Small adjustable spanners
Pump pliers (small, medium and large)
1000V rated electrical screwdriver set
1000V rated electrical nose pliers
Selection of TORX head bits & holder
Microbore pipe bender
Adjustable pipe cutter
Soldering equipment
Pair of earth continuity bonding leads
Hydraulic pressure vessel hand pump
Digital pressure vessel checker
Stopwatch
Telescopic inspection mirror
Telescopic magnet
Electronic combustion gas
Analyser & printer
Differential digital manometer
Differential digital thermometer
Water flow rate weir gauge
Electronic gas leak detector
Digital multimeter with fused leads
Battery powered volt stick
Selection of heat exchanger brushes
Smoke match holder
Very soft paint brushes (1 and 2)
Telescopic inspection camera
Infra red temperature gun

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Braided filling loop hose


Filling loop keys (Worcester Bosch)
Long posi-drive screw driver
Small LED torch
Pump head allen keys (4mm & 6mm)
Selection of allen keys
Sharp Stanley knife
Sharp paint scraper
Clean dust sheets (for carpet)
Engineers maintenance mat (worktops)
Henry Hoover
Air vent sizing gauge
Fuse kit (quick blow and 3amp type)
Fibre washer kit (various sizes)
Boiler first aid kit (various nuts, screws
and bolts) notice)
Smoke pellet holder
Fire extinguishers (water,CO2 & dry powder)

Consumables
Purimachos FJC non setting compound
Strikes smoke matches
Hayes orange smoke pellets
abrasive cleaning strips
ROCOL gas seal compound
ROCOL LDF (leak detection fluid)
ROCOL air dusting cans
PTFE tape (gas & non-gas types)
Gas ON/OFF identification tape
ROCOL gas tap lubricant
heat conductive paste
Hoover bags
PRS 10 approved closure tape
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silver foil tape


absorbent paper towels
silicone lubricant grease
silicone lubricant spray
back to black coal spray
water regulation approved jointing compound
spare neoprene manometer hose

Up to Date Pocket Reference Guides


tightness testing & purging
terminals and terminations
ventilation slide rule
gas rating slide rule
Gas Industry Unsafe Situations Procedure
WLAR (warning labels - AR)
WLID (warning tags ID)
CP3 (chimney/hearth notice plate)
WL5 (gas emergency control valve label)
WL8 (compartment/ventilation label)
WL9 (electrical bonding label)
WL16 (electrical isolation warning tag)

Forms / Labels
CP1 (gas safety record)
CP14 (warning / advice
CP3 (chimney/flue/fireplace & hearth pad)

THIS LIST CANNOT BE CONSIDERED TO BE DEFINITIVE OR BY ANYWAY IN


ORDER, HOWEVER, IT DOES COVER MOST OF WHAT A PROFESSIONAL WILL

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NEED WHEN CARRYING OUT SERVICE AND REPAIR WORK WITHIN THE FIELD.
THIS LIST HAS BEEN COMPILED TO ASSIST THOSE WHO ARE NOT AS
EXPERIENCED AS OTHERS AND MAY NOT SEE THESE ITEMS AS SO OBVIOUS.

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