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# Physics As unit 3

## 1) In an experiment to determine the Young modulus of a material in the form of a wire,which

of the following instruments should be used to measure the diameter of the wire?
A electronic balance
B metre rule
C micrometer screw gauge
D vernier calipers

## 2) Four readings are taken of the diameter of a wire:

0.27 mm 0.29 mm 0.72 mm 0.26 mm
Which of the following should be recorded as the mean value?
A 0.39 mm
B 0.385 mm
C 0.273 mm
D 0.27 mm

## 3) In an experiment to determine the resistivity of the material of a wire, which of the

following measurements of the wire would not be required?
A diameter
B length
C mass
D resistance

## 4) A student is measuring the length of a wire. He takes the following readings.

1000 mm, 1002 mm, 999 mm, 998 mm
How should he record the mean length in his results table?
A 1.0 m
B 1.00 m
C 1.000 m
D 0.999 m

## 5) A wire is stretched by a constant force.

The extension will be directly proportional to the
A Young modulus of the wire.
B length of the wire.
C diameter of the wire.
D area of cross-section of the wire.

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6) A graph is plotted with velocity on the y-axis and time on the x-axis. Which of the
following would represent the distance travelled?
A area under the graph
C intercept with the y-axis
D intercept with the x-axis

7) In an experiment to measure the breaking stress of a wire, the diameter of the wire is
measured with a micrometer.
Which of the following procedures would not be good practice?
A checking for zero errors
B repeating the reading three times
C rotating the micrometer between readings
D using a second piece of the wire to check the diameter

## 8) The diameter of a ball bearing is measured four times.

The measurements are 0.27 mm, 0.29 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.26 mm.
How should the average value be stated?
A 0.2675 mm
B 0.268 mm
C 0.27 mm
D 0.3 mm

9) A student is trying to determine his reaction time. He takes the following readings:
0.20 s, 0.18 s, 0.19 s, 0.08 s
Which of the following is the best mean value of his reaction time stated with a suitable
uncertainty?
A 0.19 0.06 s
B 0.19 0.01 s
C 0.16 0.06 s
D 0.16 0.01 s

10) An experiment to determine the acceleration due to gravity uses a free-falling ball.
Which of the following measurements would not be needed?
A initial velocity
B final velocity
C mass of the ball
D time taken

11) Which of the following would minimise parallax error when timing the ball bearing
as it falls through a fixed distance in the oil?
A Ensure that the observer is at eye level with the ball bearing.
B Use a metre rule rather than the scale on the measuring cylinder.
C Use two parallel rubber bands around the measuring cylinder to indicate the fixed
distance.
D Start and stop the clock as the middle of the ball bearing passes through the
start and finish points

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EXPERIMENTS

## 1) A student is asked to plan an experiment to determine the energy stored in a stretched

spring when it is extended by 300 mm. The student is told to use a graphical method.
For a 1 N load the extension of the spring is 40 mm.
Write a plan which could be used for this experiment.
You should:
(a) draw a labelled diagram of the experimental set-up and list any additional apparatus
required,
(b) state which quantity is the independent variable and which quantity is the dependent
variable,
(c) state and explain your choice of measuring instruments for the independent and
dependent variables,
(d) describe how you would ensure that your measurement of the extension is as accurate
as possible,
(e) comment on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case,
(f) explain how the data collected will be used to determine the energy stored,
(g) explain the main source of uncertainty and/or systematic error,
(h) comment on safety.

## Draw a labelled diagram of the experimental set-up to be used and list

any additional apparatus you might need
Labelled diagram of a workable set-up
(should include spring, mass/weight and support)
Rule, shown on diagram or mentioned in text
(e.g. set square, pin, balance)
(These may appear anywhere in the whole answer to Q7.)
State what quantity is the independent variable and what quantity is the
dependent variable
Mass/weight/force and extension/length
Correctly identifies mass/weight/force as the independent variable and
extension/length as the dependent variable
For the independent and dependent variables state and explain your
choice of measuring instruments
States measuring instrument for mass/weight/force
Justification of choice of measuring instrument with reference to scale
(uncertainty or range) and expected measurement
Either
States measuring length using metre rule
Justification of choice of metre rule with reference to scale and expected
measurement
Or
States measuring extension using metre rule/vernier calliper
Justification of choice of metre rule/vernier callipers with reference to scale

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and expected measurement
Describe how you would ensure that your measurement of the extension is
as accurate as possible
Max 2
Use of fiducial mark
Use of set square
Readings at eye level (to avoid parallax error)
Comment on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case
Justified appropriate comment
e.g. would not repeat because of permanent extension
e.g. would repeat to identify anomalies
e.g. would repeat and average to get more accurate result

2) A student is asked to determine a value for the acceleration of free fall g by timing a
falling steel ball.
The diagram below shows the apparatus to be used. The steel ball falls a distance s from
the electromagnet to switch X. The electronic timer records the time taken t.
The student is told to plot a graph of s against t2.
Write a plan for an experiment to determine g using this method.
You should:
(a) state the apparatus required to measure s and explain your choice,
(b) explain why an electronic timer is used to measure t,
(c) comment on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case,
(d) explain what data will be collected and how it will be used to determine g,
(e) identify the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error,
(f) comment on safety.

## state the quantities to be measured,

mass/weight, height/distance, time
for two of these quantities explain your choice of measuring
instrument,
Max 2 per quantity
mass weighing machine,
comment on scale related to expected mass
height metre rule,
adequate range with 1 mm divisions with reference to
height be measured
time stopwatch,
reading to 0.1 s with reference to reaction
time or percentage uncertainty
comment on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case,

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Max 2
Student may become tired/velocity may change/power may change
Repeat after rest
Repeat height measurement
Difficulty of starting and stopping (visual or reaction time)
explain how the data collected will be used to determine the power,
explanation of how total height is found Or reference to vertical distance
use of mgh or force distance
power equation given (any appropriate mechanical form)
identify the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error,
Max 2
reaction time,
difficulty of dealing with different starting and stopping points.,
comment on parallax
(f ) comment on safety.
Relevant hazard identified and precaution to be taken
Examples
May be collisions if other people are on stairs, ensure that there are none.
Wear appropriate footwear to avoid falling/damage to feet.

3) A manufacturer states that a solar cell gives an output of 5 V and 100 mA. An experiment
is to be carried out to check the e.m.f. and determine the internal resistance of the cell.
Write a plan for this experiment using standard laboratory apparatus and a graphical
method for analysing the data.
You should:
a. draw a diagram of the circuit to be used and list any additional apparatus that might be
required,
b. state the quantities to be measured,
c. for each of these quantities, state and explain your choice of measuring instrument,
d. explain how the data collected will be used to determine the e.m.f. and the internal
resistance,
e. identify and state how to control all other relevant variables to make it a fair test,
f. identify the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error,
g. comment on safety.

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a) Circuit diagram that would work e.g. ammeter, voltmeter and solar cell
Correct use of a variable resistor
(Accept any clear indication of solar cell)
[Allow calibrated wire potentiometer for voltmeter, send to review if unsure.]

## b) P.d./V/voltage and current/I

(Do not credit amps and volts)

## c) P.d. voltmeter Or multimeter on voltage range

with appropriate scale stated suitable for reading 5 V
(e.g. 5 V, 6 V, 10 V, 12 V, 15 V, 20 V, 30 V)
Ammeter Or multimeter on current range
with appropriate scale stated suitable for reading up to 100 mA
(e.g. 100 mA,150 mA, 200 mA, 300 mA, 500 mA, 600 mA, 1 A)

## d) Plot graph of V and I Or correct alternative

E.m.f. is intercept on V axis Or correct for their suggested graph
Internal resistance from gradient Or correct for their suggested graph

## e) Identifies a relevant variable to control

States how to control the variable Or identifies a second relevant variable
Examples
Keep light level constant
Any suitable way of attempting this e.g. light meter or avoiding shadows
or using a lamp at a fixed distance or do outside on a clear day
Keep temperature (of solar cell) constant
Any suitable way of attempting this e.g. do experiment quickly or open

## f) Main source of uncertainty is keeping light level constant

(Allow zero error in meter readings or parallax error if analogue meters)
(Do not credit meters not read simultaneously.)

## g) Appropriate justified comment on safety.

Examples.
Low p.d./current/power, so no danger of shock
Solar cell / variable resistor / protective resistor / lamp may get hot, so
handle with care.
(Do not credit rubber gloves / goggles etc or wires getting hot.)

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5) Write a plan for an experiment which could be used to determine the viscosity of the oil
using standard laboratory apparatus and a graphical method.
You should:
(a) list any additional apparatus required, you may add to the diagram if you wish,
(b) state the quantities to be measured,
(c) for two of these quantities state and explain your choice of measuring instrument,
(d) state which is the independent and which is the dependent variable,
(e) explain how the data collected will be used to find the viscosity,
(f) identify the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error,
(g) comment on safety

## a) labels on diagram plus additional apparatus required which is not on diagram

markers or reference to light gates
rule, timing device, micrometer
b) state the quantities to be measured
diameter, distance, time
Or diameter, velocity
c) for two of these quantities explain your choice of measuring instrument,
Max 2 per quantity
e.g. diameter micrometer reading to 0.01 mm (0.001 mm)
length metre rule reading to 1 mm
time stopwatch reading to 0.1 s (0.01 s)
d) state which is the independent and which is the dependent variable:
e) explain how the data will be used
Max 2
e.g. radius determination from measured diameter
Or velocity from distance and time
graph of v against r2 and reference to gradient
f) identify the main source of uncertainty and/or systematic error:
Max 2
terminal velocity not reached
reaction time temperature not constant
measurement of diameter micrometer zero error
measurement of distance fallen parallax error
g) appropriate comment on safety
Max 1 Answer should have some explanation/justification
e.g. mop up spills wear goggles to avoid splashes in eye
use gloves (if allergic to oil)
normal laboratory rules should be followed
low risk experiment

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6) One student says that it is better to use light gates or sensors and a datalogger. Another
student says that just using a stopwatch is better.

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7) You are to plan an experiment to determine the Young modulus of a material in the form
of a long wire. You are to use a graphical method. Assume that standard laboratory
apparatus is available.
(a) a labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used,
(b) a list of any additional apparatus required that is not shown in the diagram,
(c) the quantities to be measured,
(d) an explanation of your choice of measuring instrument for two of these quantities,
(e) which is the independent and which is the dependent variable,
(f) how the data collected will be used to determine the Young modulus,
(g) the main source of uncertainty and/or systematic error,
(h) a comment on safety.

## a) wire, support, weights, method of measuring length

[credit can be given for apparatus mentioned anywhere, not
just in diagram]
b) micrometer screw gauge/vernier callipers/digital vernier
c) length, extension /extended length, diameter,
mass/weight/force
d) Credit two instruments
Examples
o original length - metre rule,
long length, 1 mm appropriate
o extension metre rule/travelling microscope/vernier
scale,
small length, appropriate precision
o diameter micrometer, small length,
measures to1/100 mm
o mass use of appropriate balance for size of mass
[for the second mark in each case the precision of the
measuring instrument is expected]
e) independent - weight/force, dependent extension/extended length
[allow mass as independent, or stress, strain, in context]
f) Answers should give all details including definitions of strain
and stress if relevant.
use of d2/4 [allow r2]
use of YM equation and graph
g) extension/diameter
h) identifies hazard/risk and gives appropriate precaution
Examples
alling weights and toe protection
snapping wires and safety glasses

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8) You are to plan an experiment to investigate the variation of the resistance of a negative
temperature coefficient thermistor with temperature. You are to use a graphical method.
Assume that standard laboratory apparatus is available.
a. a labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used,
b. a list of any additional apparatus required that is not shown in the diagram,
c. the quantities to be measured,
d. an explanation of your choice of measuring instrument for two of these quantities,
e. which is the independent and which is the dependent variable,
f. how the data collected will be used,
g. the main source of uncertainty and/or systematic error,
h. a comment on safety.

## a) labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used

b) list additional apparatus required which is not on diagram
Mark (a) and (b) together
A complete circuit that could be used to measure resistance
(allow correct symbols or clear labelling) 1 mark
3 points from list below for 1 mark:
thermistor in water
means of heating/cooling (bunsen or water bath or ice)
means of taking temperature
stirrer
c) state the quantities to be measured
resistance, temperature (not temperature change)
OR current, pd, temperature (not temperature change)
d) for two of these quantities explain your choice of measuring
instrument, max two per quantity
e.g. resistance - ohmmeter direct reading / precision
temperature liquid in glass thermometer adequate range and
precision
p.d.(voltage) voltmeter comment on appropriate range
current ammeter - comment on appropriate range
e) state which is the independent and which is the dependent
variable:
temperature, resistance
f) explain how the data will be used
e.g. graph drawn of resistance against temperature
allow V/I graph if change of gradient is related to temperature)
g) identify the main source of uncertainty and/or systematic error:
e.g. simultaneous reading of two variables / systematic error
on thermometer / parallax error of scale readings / meter zero
error / uneven temperature in liquid

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h) appropriate comment on safety
e.g. sensible precaution to prevent injury when using hot materials
(e.g. hot water, heated wires)

9) Two students are discussing an experiment to plot a cooling curve for a liquid. One says
that it is always better to use a suitable datalogging device. The other says that using a
liquid-in-glass thermometer and stopwatch is better.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method for an experiment which
involves taking the temperature of water in a beaker over a period of 20 minutes and
plotting a temperature against time graph.

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