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buried structures are constructed or voids are backfilled. A few common applications in

geotechnical engineering, where arching can be observed, are backfilled trenches overlying

conduits, conduits covered with an embankment, and backfills behind retaining walls. Due

to the frictional resistance provided by the vertical or inclined walls, only a fraction of the

self-weight of the backfill material is transferred to the bottom, and the rest is transferred to

the walls in the form of shear stresses. This phenomenon is known as arching. The effect of

arching therefore works in favour of the designer, enabling the design of the buried

structures and stability analysis of the stopes to be carried out to withstand lower loadings

than what is expected when arching is ignored. A better understanding of arching and

rational methods to quantify the reductions in the stress conditions within the backfill will

always lead to technically effective and economical design of structures. The stress

conditions within the backfill show that the geometry of the voids/trenches/filling areas,

wall roughness defined in terms of interface friction angle (or angle of interface shearing

resistance) , friction angle (or angle of shearing resistance) of the backfill, and unit

weight of backfill greatly govern the arching action within the backfill. Two essential

prerequisites for arching to develop in soil are:

2. Availability of shear strength.

The relative movement is what causes the shear strength, which is latent in the soil, to

mobilise itself; hence if there is no relative movement there is no arching and the

consequence reduction in pressure. On the other hand, if there is sufficient relative

movement, but no shear strength, there is no arching either. Thus arching cannot develop in

a medium like water which has no shear strength.

Assumptions

2. Surfaces of sliding are vertical and shear strength is fully mobilised on these

surfaces.

Soil at a variable depth z = nB is considered within a yielding mass of soil of width 2B,

and subjected to a surcharge q at z = 0 (Fig. ). Originally the vertical pressure at this

depth = z. Due to arching, caused by the downward movement of the mass, the pressure

decreases and reaches a finite value corresponding to the development of full arching, and

this finite value of pressure is investigated. Let the unit weight of the soil be . The shear

strength of the soil, s= c + tan . In order to develop the expression for the expression for

the vertical pressure v at a depth z due to arching, it is necessary to consider an elemental

strip of the soil at depth z and having thickness dz. The forces is examined which keeps this

strip of the soil in equilibrium at the stage arching is fully developed (Fig. ). Among

them while v (the unknown in the problem) is the pressure exerted by the soil above on the

strip, v + dv is the pressure exerted by the soil below on the strip which is actually equal

and opposite to the pressure exerted by the strip on the soil below. The former is considered

because concerned forces are those acting on the strip which keeps it in equilibrium. As far

as the shear strengths acting on the sides (exerted by the soil outside the strip on the strip)

are concerned, the contribution of the shear strength parameter to shear strength depends

upon the horizontal pressure h. But h in turn is a function of v, stated as, h= Kv, where

K is an appropriate coefficient of earth pressure. Writing the equation for equilibrium,

V=0, as,

2 B v + 2 B dz 2 B ( v + d v ) 2 dz ( c + K v tan ) =0

Dividing by Bdz,

v K tan c

dz

+( B ) ( )

v=

B

dy

This is a linear differential equation with constant coefficients of the form: + Py=Q ,

dx

the solution of which is obtained by multiplying the integrating factor exp ( Pdx).The

general solution will contain one arbitrary constant which can be determined in the present

case by invoking the boundary condition that at z = 0, v =q . The general solution so

obtained is,

c

B ( )

v=

B

K tan (

1exp K

z

B ( ( ) ))

tan +q exp K

z

B

tan ( () )

Equation ( ) is the general expression for the vertical pressure at the depth z in case of

C - soil carrying a surcharge q. Now if q=0 and c=0 and substituting z=nB, where n is a

nondimensional factor representing the depth. The result is:

B

v= ( 1exp (K n tan ) )

K tan

1

If exp (K n tan )=b , and ( 1b )=a Eq. ( ) reduces as,

K tan

v =B a

At z = 0, n = 0, b = 1, a = 0.

1

At z = , n = , b = 0, a =

K tan

Hence,

At z = 0, v =0 , and

B

At z = , v =

K tan

IS CODE METHOD

The code covers the structural design of cut and cover concrete conduits meant for

transporting water under pressure or otherwise. The provisions of the code are applicable

only to conduits installed in a trench dug in undisturbed soil and backfilled to final grade.

The structural design of cut and cover concrete conduits is affected by many factors,

namely, type of installation, rigidity of conduit, shape of conduit, nature of foundation,

physical characteristics and degree of compaction of fill materials.

DESIGN LOADS

Depending upon site conditions, a cut and cover concrete conduit, in addition to its self-

weight, is subjected to the forces listed below. The structural design of the conduit shall be

based on the most unfavourable combination of all loads and effects listed below acting

simultaneously:

1. Loads due to backfill,

2. Internal water pressure,

3. External water pressure,

4. Loads due to concentrations and surcharge including effects of live load, and

5. Seismic effects.

LOADS DUE TO BACKFILL

VERTICAL LOAD - The vertical load due to backfill on rigid trench conduits resting on

natural strata shall be given by equation:

W = 10 Ct Bt2

Where

1e

2 K a

( BH )tan

t

,

Ct =

2 K a tan

Where

= angle of friction between the backfill and the natural soil on the side of

the trench,

The lateral pressure diagram due will be trapezoidal i. e. due to overburden it will be

rectangular and due to soil between crest and bottom of the tunnel lining it will be

triangular. The value of rectangular pressure will be = Ka v and Ka H for triangular

portion.

PERMISSIBLE STRESSES

The permissible stresses in concrete and steel reinforcement shall conform to IS: 456

(2000).

The crack width in concrete face shall normally be restricted to 0.2 mm.

This monograph presents the results of the stress analysis, by means of the Beggs

Deformeter apparatus, of nine shapes of single-barrel conduits. A partial analytical check

was made using the least work method to determine the redundant reactions for all shapes

due to a uniform vertical load and a uniform horizontal load. Reaction coefficients for bending

moment, thrust, and shear at selected locations along the centroidal axis of the conduits have

been determined for 15 different loading conditions. A conduit of unit length was

considered in the analysis. Bending moment, thrust, and shear coefficients were determined

at the various locations shown, and are expressed in terms of unit intensity of loading and

unit internal crest radius. Multiplying the reaction coefficient by the proper load factor gives

the total bending moment, thrust, or shear at the centroid of the section under consideration.

The foundation load distribution due to a vertical load on the conduit must be assumed, and

is influenced by the modulus of elasticity of the foundation material. As the foundation

modulus increases, the foundation load distribution approaches a concentration at the

outside corners of the conduit, and as it decreases the load approaches a uniform

distribution. So in case of pure rock foundation triangular foundation reaction occurs and in

pure soil uniform foundation reaction occurs. For the dead load the assumed foundation

reaction is minimum at the centre varying linearly to a maximum at the outside corners,

with the intensity at the center equal to the intensity of the weight of the conduit at the

centre of the base.

0.33333 0.33333 0.33333

r r r

1.50000 1.33333 1.16667

D

r r r

2

Area (r ) 4.4635 2.7773 1.2895

BULLs METHOD

The theory divides the ring into 16 equal divisions with the external loads combined to give

16 point loads, one acting upon each of the divisions. Then it can be shown that

Where

Thus Pv and Ph can be calculated together with the weight of the lining for each point.

The bending moments and thrusts can then be determined for the active and soil reaction

forces, using constants given by Bull and summated to give the total values at each point

and thus the bending stresses.

PECKS METHOD

Pecks design methods utilises the strength of the surrounding soils and considers four

separate steps.

The provision of adequate hoop load in the lining of the anticipated distortion due to

bending of buckling of other external loads not included in the above.

D

Ring stress = pz where pz is the vertical pressure at axis = z

2

From the known distortions of tunnels an estimate can be made of the likely distortion of

the tunnel under load. Thus the bending moment due to stress distortion can be calculated

by conventional theories.

EI

H 3 2

a

Number of rams is calculated that could act on one segment and the maximum force from

each ram: Calculate the moment of inertia of the segment cross-section.

Bending stresses are My1/I and My2/I for the extreme fibre point thus the combined stresses

in compression or tension.

Shear stress is calculated for loading directly onto, and for the rams positioned midway

between any transverse ribs or gussets in the segment.

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