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Mathematical Modelling of Steam-water Cycle With Auxiliary Empirical Functions Application

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of thermodynamics

Vol. 31(2010), No. 3, 165183

DOI: 10.2478/v10173-010-0021-x

auxiliary empirical functions application

GRZEGORZ SZAPAJKO

HENRYK RUSINOWSKI

Konarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

ations with the application of mathematical models of thermal processes

has been developed in the eld of energy processes diagnostics. Simple

models, characterised by short calculation time, are necessary for thermal

diagnostics needs. Such models can be obtained using empirical modelling

methods. Good results brings the construction of analytical model with

auxiliary empirical built-in functions. The paper presents a mathematical

model of a steam-water cycle containing mass and energy balances and semi-

empirical models of steam expansion line in turbine as well as heat transfer

in exchangers. A model of steam expansion line in a turbine is worked out

with the application of a steam ow capacity equation and an internal e-

ciency of process equation for each group of stages for the analysed turbine.

A model of a heat exchanger contains energy balance and the relation de-

scribing heat transfer in an exchanger, proposed by Beckman. Estimation of

empirical equations coecients was realised with the application of special

and reliable measurements. Estimation criterion was a weighted relative

sum of the remainder squares. There are exemplary calculations results

presented in the nal part of paper.

model

Corresponding author. E-mail address: grzegorz.szapajko@polsl.pl

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166 G. Szapajko and H. Rusinowski

Nomenclature

A empirical coecient

B empirical coecient

c specic heat capacity, J/(kg K)

C empirical coecient

D empirical coecient

E empirical coecient

G mass ow rate, kg/s

i specic enthalpy, kJ/kg

N power, MW

p pressure, MPa

Q thermal power, MW

s specic entropy, kJ/(kg K)

t temperature, C

T temperature, K

v specic volume, m3 /kg

x operating parameter

Greek symbols

empirical coecient

empirical coecient

losses

load factor

eciency

Subscripts

bl bleed

c condensate

cal calculated

el electrical

g applies to gland

G generator

he applies to heat exchanger

i internal

i number of special measurements

in inlet

m mechanical

me electromechanical

mea measured

nom nominal

out outlet

s saturation

T applies to turbine

v applies to valve

w water

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Mathematical modelling of steam-water cycle. . . 167

1 Introduction

There are factors describing operation of a CHP unit (Cogeneration also

Combined Heat and Power), such as specic fuel chemical energy consump-

tion, energy eciency and specic heat consumption in a turbines cycle,

applied to evaluate energy consumption in heat and electricity generation

process. For each load of a CHP unit, there are values of operating pa-

rameters for which energy losses and specic fuel energy consumption are

minimal. During actual operation of a CHP unit, values of operating pa-

rameters dier from values for which minimal energy losses are obtained.

Thus, factors describing energy evaluation of operation dier from optimal.

For the operation and maintenance services (O&M) important is infor-

mation about the inuence of operating parameters which varies on spe-

cic energy consumption, specic heat consumption or energy eciency of

a CHP unit. Such information can be determined on the basis of boilers

energy characteristic and correction curves or a mathematical model. More

information about the inuence of operating parameters on deviations of

factors describing operation of a CHP unit brings the model. It allows to

analyse the inuence of a bigger number of operating parameters than it

is possible with the application of the correction curves and boilers energy

characteristic.

The paper presents a mathematical model of a steam-water cycle of

a CHP unit with a bleed-condensing turbine. Analytical modelling tech-

niques are combined there with empirical modelling. Basic equations of

this model are mass and energy balances. A steam expansion line in a tur-

bine and heat transfer in exchangers are described with the relations where

unknown parameters occur. These unknown parameters were estimated

using a regression analysis method. Exemplary calculation results are pre-

sented. They apply to the inuence of selected operating parameters on

specic energy consumption and generated electricity in a CHP unit with

a bleed-condensing turbine in a condensing mode.

A mathematical model can be formulated twofold: with the application of

conservation laws analytical model is constructed or with the applica-

tion of measurements empirical model is determined. Empirical models,

comparing to the analytical ones, are easier to elaborate, however their

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168 G. Szapajko and H. Rusinowski

application is limited to the range of operation, for which model was cali-

brated. They also dont explain physical issues of the process, because some

parameters dont have physical interpretation. However, advantages for de-

velopment of empirical models prevail, when analytical models are dicult

to build or when there are the requirements about the on-line optimisation

of the process parameters [1,6,8,14,17].

Figure 1 presents a diagram of the analysed CHP unit. Typical points

of the cycle are denoted. Denotations of typical points are in accordance

with the ones contained in special and reliable measurements [17,20].

district heat exchanger (DHE), high- and low-pressure heat regeneration

system (including heat exchangers HP2, HP1, LP2 and LP1), feed-water

tank (FWT) with degasier, vapour cooler and pumps. Mathematical

model contains balance model, model of steam expansion line in turbine

and empirical model of heat transfer in exchangers.

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Mathematical modelling of steam-water cycle. . . 169

The balance model of the steam-water cycle contains mass and energy bal-

ances for turbine, district heat exchanger, high- and low-pressure heat re-

generation system, feed-water tank and condenser.

G2 + G3 + G4 + G5 + G6 + G7 + Gg47 + Gg48 +

+Gg49 + Gg57 + Gv72 + Gv74 = G0 + Gg62 , (1)

+G45 (i4 i5 ) + G56 (i5 i6 ) + G67 (i6 i7 ) = Nel /me , (2)

where steam mass ows in particular groups of stages are calculated from

relations:

G12 = G1 Gg46 Gg47 + Gg48 + Gg49 , (3)

G1 = G0 Gv72 Gv74 , (4)

G23 = G12 (G2 Gg46 ) , (5)

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170 G. Szapajko and H. Rusinowski

and electromechanical eciency of turbine me from:

me = mT G . (10)

of the analysed operation is constant me = 96.8% [17,20].

Leaks from valves Gv72 , Gv74 and steam and vapour mass ows from

the glands Gg46 , Gg47 , Gg48 , Gg49 , Gg57 , Gg59 , Gg62 are calculated on the

basis of data provided by a turbines producer [17]. They are approximated

using a linear relation in the form:

Gi = A1 + A2 G0 , (11)

It is assumed that specic enthalpy decreases between a bleed A2 (su-

perheated steam) and turbine outlet (wet steam). It can be determined

using a linear relation in the form:

i = A3 + A4 s , (12)

of specic enthalpy in bleed A1 i6 is assigned on the basis of intersection

between a steam expansion line and an adequate isobar using iterative pro-

cedure.

Other equations are the dependences which result from the equal ows.

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Mathematical modelling of steam-water cycle. . . 171

G49 i49 G48 i48 = G3 i3 + G30 i30 G31 i31 , (17)

G30 + G3 = G31 . (18)

G43 i43 G42 i42 = G17 i6 + G32 i32 G33 i33 , (20)

G17 + G32 = G33 , (21)

G34 + G43 = G44 = G45 . (22)

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172 G. Szapajko and H. Rusinowski

where:

Gvap = Gg48 + Gg49 + Gv74 + Gg57 , (26)

Ginj = G0 G47 . (27)

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Mathematical modelling of steam-water cycle. . . 173

A balance model of a steam-water cycle for the 70 MWel CHP unit with a

bleed-condensing turbine allows to analyse operation of a power unit on the

basis of registered measurements, to determine non-measured ows and to

identify a steam expansion line in a turbine.

There are methods using ow modelling or methods basing on steam ow

capacity and eciency of process equations applied for evaluation of a steam

expansion line in a turbine. Combining these methods is also possible. How-

ever, ow computations demand the knowledge of the ow system geometry.

Such computations are time-consuming and require complex models. The

computations on the basis of steam ow capacity and eciency of process

equations are simpler and less time-consuming.

The equations for a model of the steam expansion line in a turbine

were formulated for particular groups of stages. Dierent forms of a steam

ow capacity equation and an internal eciency equation [4,5,7,10,11,13

17,19] were analysed. Good modelling results were obtained for a steam

ow capacity equation [17]:

2 vin pout 2

G = B1 + B2 1 , (28)

pin pin

2

pout pout

i = B3 + B4 + B5 , (29)

pin pin

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174 G. Szapajko and H. Rusinowski

and specic volume at the inlet of the group of stages, pout steam pres-

sure at the outlet of the group of stages, B1 , B2 , B3 , B4 , B5 empirical

coecients.

Figure 8. presents a diagram of a heat exchanger.

changer is complex. As the literature and calculation results [2,3,13,17,18]

show, the analytical description can be replaced by the thermal eciency

method (the load factor method). Such a method allows to work out a math-

ematical model of a heat exchanger which in mathematical notation is sim-

pler. Calculation time is shorten what is priceless for the developed model,

especially when the results are satisfactory. The description of heat trans-

fer phenomena, in a heat exchanger where steam condensation proceeds, is

replaced by a load factor :

Tw out Tw in

= . (30)

Ts Tw in

Beckman proposed, that a load factor can be approximated using the

power function dependent on operating parameters in a form [2]:

Coecients C1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 are determined on the basis of detailed

information about geometry of exchanger and heat exchange in the reference

state. Detailed data can be decreased by dividing the load factor by

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Mathematical modelling of steam-water cycle. . . 175

eliminate the coecient C1 leading to relation [2]:

1 2 4

Gw Gbl Tw in 3 Ts

= , (32)

nom Gnom

w Gnom

bl

Twnom

in Tsnom

Constant value nom and exponents 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 are determined on

the basis of measurements. On the basis of research [2], Beckman states,

that exponents 2 and 3 are close to zero, whereas the exponents 1 and

4 vary in a short range. Thus, the relation (32) can be written down in

a simpler form:

1 4

Gw Ts

= . (33)

nom Gnom

w

Tsnom

In regenerative heat exchangers, variations of condensing steam saturation

temperature results from variations of the bleed steam pressure. These

variations are not signicant, so Eq. (33) can be rewritten:

1

nom Gw

= . (34)

Gnom

w

water mass ow is proposed [17,18]:

= D1 + D2 Gw , (35)

where: D1 , D2 empirical coecients.

Energy balance for the heat exchanger presented in Fig. 8 has a form:

It is assumed here that the eciency of a heat exchanger is 99% [9].

Condensate specic enthalpy can be determined from the relation:

ic = i(phe , Ts T ) , (37)

where: phe pressure in the exchanger, T condensate subcooling.

Condensate temperature Tc at the outlet of heat exchanger is lower than

saturation temperature Ts for pressure in an exchanger phe about a so-called

condensate subcooling:

T = Ts Tc . (38)

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176 G. Szapajko and H. Rusinowski

of thermal power of an exchanger Q is applied [17,18]:

T = E1 + E2 Q , (39)

Pressure phe occurring in Eq. (37) can be determined from a relation:

Pressure losses in a short pipeline p can be calculated using the relation:

2

1 RT L Gbl

p = f , (41)

2 pbl d F

mean steam temperature, L, D, F length, diameter and cross-section area

of a pipeline. Assuming f = idem, the dependence (41) can be written as:

changer enables determination of a bleed-steam mass ow Gbl and heated

water temperature Tw out .

Presented in Section 2.3 Eq. (28), (29), (35), (39) and (42) contain unknown

coecients B1 B5 , D1 , D2 and E1 E3 . These coecients were estimated

using a least-squares method. The task of coecient estimation is a non-

linear problem in mathematical notication. The Engineering Equation

Solver (EES ) software was used to calculate solutions.

Taking into account limitations of EES in extent of optimized param-

eters number, it was impossible to perform computations for all groups of

stages and all heat exchangers together. Thus, estimation coecients for

equations describing the course of steam expansion line in a turbine and

heat transfer in exchangers was performed for each group of turbine stages

separately. Equations describing the course of steam expansion line and

equations describing heat exchanger fed from the outlet of the analysed

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Mathematical modelling of steam-water cycle. . . 177

the form:

n

2 mea 2

imea ical pi pcal

i i i

i + p +

imea

i pmea

i

i=1

mea cal

2 mea cal

2

Tw out i Tw Gbl i Gbl i

+T T mea

out i

+ G Gmea

min , (43)

w out i bl i

where is the inuence weight for dierence between measured and cal-

culated values. Minimum of function (43) was found using the Powells

method [12].

For statistical evaluation of quality prediction for the elaborated model,

a coecient of determination R and a mean squared error for pressure

and specic enthalpy at the outlet of the group of stages are used:

n

(Yi Y )(Yi Y )

i=1

R=
, (44)

n

n

(Yi Y )2 (Yi Y )2

i=1 i=1

n

(Y Yi )2

i=1 i

= , (45)

nm1

where: Yi measurement, Y mean value, Yi estimated value, n number

of measurements, m number of estimated coecients, Y = G, T, p, i.

3 Calculations results

3.1 Results of steam expansion line identification

Calculations for ve operating states in a condensing mode and four op-

erating states in the heating mode were performed with the application of

the elaborated mathematical model of the steam-water cycle for 70 MW

el CHP unit with a bleed-condensing turbine. Data for computations were

carefully and reliable collected measurements. Figures 9 and 10 present

exemplary courses of a steam expansion line in the condensing mode with

Nel =72,3 MW (Fig. 9) and in the heating mode with Q=73.8 MW and

Nel =62.3 MW (Fig. 10). Solid lines represent calculated values, whereas

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178 G. Szapajko and H. Rusinowski

dance with Fig. 1.

Figure 9. Course of the steam expansion Figure 10. Course of the steam expansion

line for selected operating state line for selected operating state

in a condensing mode. in a heating mode.

Calculated steam expansion lines show high consistency with the mea-

surements in the area of superheated steam for both condensing and heating

mode. In the area of wet steam, high consistency was also obtained in the

condensing mode. However, in a heating mode results achieved on the basis

of model have lesser agreement with measurements.

Quality of prediction for the steam expansion line is considerably bet-

ter for condensing mode than for the heating one. It is caused, among

the other, by over simplication in the district heat exchanger and con-

denser modelling. Application of the heat exchange model, which works

for regenerative heat exchangers, where small load variations proceed prop-

erly, seems to be insucient for a district heat exchanger. Moreover, the

inuence on quality of prediction have also a small number of special mea-

surements available.

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Mathematical modelling of steam-water cycle. . . 179

on performance and energy consumption

Multivariate computations of selected operating parameters inuence on

generated electricity, specic heat consumption in a turbines cycle, specic

fuel chemical energy consumption and energy eciency of a CHP unit were

performed using the elaborated model.

Figures 1113 present the inuence of selected operating parameters

variations on variations of electricity generated in condensing mode of a CHP

unit. Figure 11 presents the inuence of live steam temperatures variations,

Fig. 12 cooling water mass ows variations and Fig. 13 cooling water tem-

peratures at the inlet of a condenser.

Figures 1416 present the inuence of selected operating parameters

variations on variations of specic energy consumption in condensing mode

of a CHP unit. Figure 14 presents the inuence of live steam temperatures

variations, Fig. 15 cooling water mass ows variations and Fig. 16 cooling

water temperatures at the inlet of a condenser.

The inuence of live steam temperature on electrical power and specic

fuel chemical energy consumption has a course close to linear. In the ana-

lyzed variability range of live steam temperature (between 535 and 538 C)

electrical power changes about 0.4 MW, and specic energy consumption

about 8 kJ/kWh. The inuence of cooling water mass ow on power and

specic energy consumption has more non-linear course. In the analyzed

variability range (between 2700 and 3150 kg/s) electrical power changes

slight (50 kW), and specic energy consumption about 7 kJ/kWh. The

inuence of cooling water temperature at the inlet of a condenser is impor-

tant and has clearly a non-linear course. In the analyzed variability range

(between 17 and 31 C) electrical power changes by about 1.8 MW, and

specic energy consumption by 250 kJ/kWh, respectively.

4 Conclusions

The elaborated mathematical model of the steam-water cycle for 70 MWel

CHP unit with a bleed-condensing turbine contains partial models of: a tur-

bine, a district heat exchanger, a high- and low-pressure regeneration sys-

tem, a feed-water tank with a degasier and a condenser. The model was

implemented in Engineering Equation Solver (EES ). Data for calibration

were carefully and reliable collected measurements. Taking into account

limitations of EES, for each group of turbines stages, estimation of empir-

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180 G. Szapajko and H. Rusinowski

Figure 11. Inuence of live steam temperature on electrical power for selected operating

state in a condensing mode.

Figure 12. Inuence of cooling water mass ow on electrical power for selected operating

state in a condensing mode.

Figure 13. Inuence of cooling water temperature on electrical power for selected oper-

ating state in a condensing mode.

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Mathematical modelling of steam-water cycle. . . 181

Figure 14. Inuence of live steam temperature on specic energy consumption for se-

lected operating state in a condensing mode.

Figure 15. Inuence of cooling water mass ow on specic energy consumption for se-

lected operating state in a condensing mode.

Figure 16. Inuence of cooling water temperature on specic energy consumption for

selected operating state in a condensing mode.

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182 G. Szapajko and H. Rusinowski

expansion line was performed together with relations describing heat trans-

fer in the exchanger fed from the bleed.

Computations of condensing and heating modes show high accordance

with measurements in the condensing mode and lower in the heating one.

It applies to steam expansion line identication especially. The method of

identication based on steam ow capacity equation and internal eciency

of the process equation do not bring satisfying results in the area of wet

steam. Especially when steam mass ow in last group of stages is low.

Therefore, other modelling techniques should be applied in a heating mode

for bleed-condensing turbines.

Presented exemplary results of calculations for the inuence of selected

operating parameters on the factors describing the CHP unit performance in

the condensing mode show a high accuracy of the model. Short calculation

time allow to perform multivariate analyses, which brings a worked out

model as a useful tool in the operation of control systems.

sources of the Institute of Thermal Technology, The Silesian University

of Technology.

References

[1] Badyda K., Lewandowski J., Miller A., wirski K: Simulator of Power unit

cooperating with distributed control system. Publishing House of Warsaw University

of Technology, Conferences, 15(1997) (in Polish).

[2] Beckman G., Heil G.: Mathematische Modelle fr die Beurteilung vob Kraftwers-

prozessen. EKM Mittellungen, 10(1965).

[3] Bogusz P., Kopczyski O., Lewandowski J.: Simplied mathematical model

of the heat exchanger. XVIIIth Congress of the Thermodynamics, Research Works

Conferences, Publishing House of the Warsaw University

of Technology, 22(2002), 129135 (in Polish).

turbine with the application of measurements from DCS system. Research Works

Conferences Mechanics , Publishing House of Warsaw University of Technology,

Vol. 190, Warsaw 2001 (in Polish).

[5] Chmielniak T.: Thermal Turbines. Publishing House of the Silesian University of

Technology, Script 1737, Gliwice 1993 (in Polish).

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Mathematical modelling of steam-water cycle. . . 183

Publishing Company, New York 1989.

[7] Kosman G., ukowicz H., Kosman W.: Periodic evaluation and update of en-

ergy characteristics for steam turbines. Materials of 1st Conference Contemporary

Energy Technologies, Machines and Devices, Crakow 2007, 275288 (in Polish).

[8] Kreith F., Yogi Goswami D. (eds.): Handbook of Energy Eciency and Re-

newable Energy. CRC Press, Boca Raton 2007.

[9] Laudyn D., Pawlik M., Strzelczyk F.: Power Plants. WNT, Warsaw 1995

(in Polish).

[10] Miller A., Lewandowski J.: Work of Steam Turbines in Variable Workload.

Publishing House of Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw 1992 (in Polish).

[11] Perycz S.: Steam Turbines. Ossolineum, 1992 (in Polish).

[12] Press W. H., Teukolsky S. A., Vetterling W. T., Flannery B. P.: Nu-

merical Recipes in Fortran. The Art of Scientic Computing, 2nd ed. Cambridge

University Press, 1994.

[13] Rusinowski H., Szapajko G.: Energy evaluation of operation for CHP unit with

bleed-condensing turbine. Rynek Energii 85 (2009) 6, 103110 (in Polish).

[14] Rusinowski H., Szapajko G., Stanek W.: Hybrid model of the conventional

power unit. Mechanics 27 (2008) No. 3, 120130.

[15] Rusinowski H., Szega M., Stanek W.: Energy evaluation of the operation of

power unit with utilization of empirical modelling. Research Works Conferences,

25(2007), 2, 469480, Publishing House of the Warsaw University of Technology,

Warsaw 2007 (in Polish).

[16] Savola T., Keppo I.: O-design simulation and mathematical modeling of small-

scale CHP plants at part loads. Applied Thermal Engineering 25(2005), 12191232.

[17] Szapajko G.: Empirical modelling of steam cycle for advanced operating control

systems. PhD thesis, 2010 (in Polish).

[18] Szapajko G., Rusinowski H.: Empirical modelling of heat exchangers in a CHP

plant with bleed-condensing turbine. Archives of Thermodynamics 29 (2008), 4, 177

184.

[19] Tuliszka E.: Thermal Turbines. WNT, Warsaw 1973 (in Polish).

[20] Zibik A., Rusinowski H., Szega M. et al.: Operating control system of the CHP

unit Elektrownia Jaworzno II in the Elektrownia Jaworzno III with the application

of the compensatory calculus. Scientic-research work, Gliwice 2001 (in Polish).

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