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EBN 111/122

ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS

Chapter 6

Capacitors and Inductors

Chapter 6

6.2 Capacitors

6.3 Series and Parallel Capacitors

6.4 Inductors

6.5 Series and Parallel Inductors

1

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6.2 Capacitors

Physical characteristics

A capacitor is a passive element designed

to store energy in its electric field.

A capacitor consists of two conducting plates

separated by an insulator (or dielectric).

A

C=

d

A = Surface are of the metal plate [m2]

= permittivity of the dielectric [F/m]

d = distance between plates [m]

= r 0

r = Relative permittivity of material

0 = Permittivity of air (8.854 x 10-12 F/m)

3

6.2 Capacitors

Electrical characteristics

Capacitance C is the ratio of the charge q on one

plate of a capacitor to the voltage difference v

between the two plates, measured in farads (F).

If i > 0: Capacitor is charging.

If i < 0: Capacitor is discharging.

OR

1 1

4

2

2013/01/25

6.2 Capacitors

Energy and Power

The energy, w, stored and

power p in the capacitor is:

1

2 2

Important characteristics of capacitors:

It is an open circuit to dc (dv/dt = 0).

Its voltage cannot change abruptly (dv/dt = ).

Does not dissipate energy, but stores it when

charging or provides it when discharging.

6.2 Capacitors

New Equations

V-I characteristic of a Cap

1

1

2 6

3

2013/01/25

PP 6.1

What is the voltage across a 3F capacitor if the charge on one plate is

0.12 mC. How much energy is stored in the capacitor?

1

2

PP 6.2

The voltage source connected across a 10 F capacitor is given as:

v(t) = 50 sin 2000t V. Calculate i(t).

PP 6.3

If the current through a 100 F capacitor is given as:

i(t) = 50 sin (120t) mA, calculate v(1ms) and v(5ms).

Assume v(0) = 0 V

1

1 #$%

1 50 sin 120 ! 10" 0

1 &$%

5 50 sin 120 ! 10" 0 1.736 V

8

4

2013/01/25

PP 6.5

For DC conditions, calculate

the energy stored in the two + V30

capacitors.

+

V30F = 3 V

V20

w = 0.5Cv2

= 0.5 3010-6 32

= 135 J

+ 3V

V20F =

+ V30

+ 1V

+

w=

+ 6V

V20

=

=

9

Capacitors

1 1 1 1 C eq = C1 + C 2 + ... + C N

= + + ... +

C eq C1 C 2 CN

10

5

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PP 6.6

Determine the equivalent capacitance

(Ceq = 40 F)

11

Ch. 6 L#2

6.4 Inductors

Physical characteristics

An inductor is a passive element designed

to store energy in its magnetic field.

N2 A

L= [H ]

l

An inductor consists of a coil of conducting wire.

Core from iron, steel, plastic or air.

= permeability = r0 12

6

2013/01/25

6.4 Inductors

Electrical characteristics

1

,

,

1

, ,

2

Important characteristics of inductors:

It is a short circuit to DC (di/dt = 0).

Its current cannot change abruptly (di/dt = ).

Does not dissipate energy, but stores it when

charging or provides it when discharging.

13

PP 6.8

The current through a 1 mH inductor is i(t) = 20 cos 100t mA.

Calculate the voltage and the stored energy.

, 110" ! 20 cos 100 10"

1

, 0.2cos2100 /0

2

PP 6.9

The voltage across a 2 H inductor is v(t) = 10(1 t) V.

Determine the current through the inductor at t = 4 s if i(0) = 2 A.

1 3

4 10 1 2 2

2

14

7

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PP 6.10

Determine vC, iL and the energy stored in both the

capacitor and the inductor for the DC circuit below.

6

4 4 3 A

62

1

, 0.563 27 J

2

6

15

Inductors

1 1 1 1

Leq = L1 + L2 + ... + LN = +

Leq L1 L2

+ ... +

LN

16

8

2013/01/25

17

PP 6.11

Calculate Leq

Leq = 25 mH

18

9

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PP 6.12

If i1(t) = 0.6e-2t A and i(0) = 1.4 A ,find

a) i2(0) (b) i2(t) and i(t) (c) v1(t), v2(t) and v(t)

a) i1(0) = 0.6 A

KCL: i2(0) = i(0) i1(0)

= 1.4 0.6 = 0.8 A

19

PP 6.12 continued

If i1(t) = 0.6e-2t A and i(0) = 1.4 A ,find

(b) i2(t) and i(t) (c) v1(t), v2(t) and v(t)

a) i2(0) = 0.8 A

1

# 0 9:: #

,

#

# ,1 6 0.6:

6 ! 22 ! 0.6:

27.2: V

1

27.2 1 t

27.2: 0.8 : 0.8

3 3 22 0

1.2 : 2 1 0.8

1.2: 2 0.4 A 20

10

2013/01/25

PP 6.12 continued

If i1(t) = 0.6e-2t A and i(0) = 1.4 A ,find

(b) i2(t) and i(t) (c) v1(t), v2(t) and v(t)

# ) 27.2: V

1.2: 2 0.4 A

KCL:

) #

0.6: 1.2: 2 0.4 A

1.8: 2 0.4 A

, 8 1.8: 2 0.4

8 ! 22 ! 1.8:

228.8: V KVL:

v) #

27.2: 2 28.8:

236: V 21

Problem 6.40

The current through a 10 mH inductor is shown below.

Determine the voltage across the inductor at t = 1, 3 and 5 ms.

0.01 0.01

1 3

OR 5

20 2 0

B 0

0.002 2 0

0.01

22

11

2013/01/25

Problem 6.48

Under steady state

dc conditions, find

i and v.

23

12

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