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GMR Institute of Technology

Rajam, Andhra Pradesh


(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to JNTUK, AP)

Department of Chemical Engineering


rd
Class 3 Sem. - B. Tech. (Chemical Engineering)
Course Chemical Process Calculations Course Code CHEM-2403
Prepared by Mr. P. Satya Sagar, Sr. Assistant Professor
Lecture Topic Material balance calculations
Course Outcome CCHEM203.2 Program Outcome PO1,PO13
13&14
Duration 50+50 min Lecture Unit II
of 45
REMEMBER UNDERSTAND APPLY ANALYSE EVALUATE CREATE
Learning Level
(Tick whichever is applicable)

1. Objectives
a. To recall importance of material balance in process industries
b. To familiarize terms of conservation of mass
c. To acquire knowledge on Mass balancing of process operations
2. Topic Learning Outcomes
After the completion of the class the students will able to:

a. Explain importance of material balance in process industries


b. Utilise conservation of mass for Mass balancing of process operations
c. Calculate amount of raw materials required to produce any compound
3. Teaching Methodology
a. Chalk & Talk /PPT Mode
4. Applications
A good understanding of material balance calculations is essential in process design. Careful
attention must be paid to selecting the best basis and boundaries for material and energy
balances; to predicting yields; and to understanding recycle, purge, and bypass schemes. Material
balances are also useful tools for the study of plant operation and troubleshooting. They can be
used to check performance against design, to extend the often limited data available from the
plant instrumentation, to check instrument calibrations, and to locate sources of material loss.
Material balances are essential to obtaining high-quality data from laboratory or pilot plants.

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5. Evocation

6. Discussion
Law of conservation of mass

A material balance of an industrial process is an exact accounting of all the materials that
enter, leave, accumulate or are depleted in the course of a given time interval of operation. The
material balance is does an expression of the law of conservation of mass in accounting terms.
The overall material balance under steady state conditions is discussed in this unit. This unit
covers various operations like crystallization, extraction, drying, etc., Material balance assists in
the planning and design of processes, in the economic evaluation of the proposed and existing
processes, in the process control and in the process optimization. In the chemical process
industries, it is possible to produce a given end product from different raw materials. For an
appropriate choice of a process, it is very essential to compute the materials requirement for
these different routes. A properly listed material balance enables one to estimate to estimate the
material requirement for an existing process or for a process which is being planned. Material
balance can also assist in the simulation of processes based onm which certain financial
decisions can be made. Thus the material balance can be used in the hourly and daily operating
decisions to be made for running the process efficiently and economically.

In an industrial process, material balance provides an exact accounting of all the materials
that enter and leave and of the changes in the inventory of the materials in the course of a given

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interval of time of operation. The material balance for process with or without chemical reaction
can be written in the following form:

Material input - Material output + Material generation - Material consumption


to the system from the system within the system within the system

= Accumulation of material
within the system

The general principles of material balance calculations is to establish number of independent


equations is equal to the number of unknown compositions and mass. Variations in solving the
problems will depend on the particular items that are unknown.
The following guidelines serves to direct the course of calculations.

01. If no chemical reaction is involved, nothing is gained by establishing material balances for
the chemical elements present. In such processes, material balances should be based on the
chemical compounds rather than on the elements, or on components of fixed composition even if
not pure chemical compounds.

02. If chemical reactions occur, it becomes necessary to develop material balances based on
chemical elements, or on radicals, compounds, or substances that are not altered, decomposed, or
formed in the process.

03. For processes wherein no chemical reactions occur, use of weight units such as grams or
pounds is preferable. For processes in which chemical reactions occur, it is desirable to utilize
the gram-mole or pound mole, or the gram-atom or pound-atom.

04. The number of unknown quantities to be calculated cannot exceed the number of
independent material balances available; otherwise, the problem of indeterminate.

05. If the number of independent material-balance equations exceeds the number of unknown
weights that are to be computed, it becomes a matter of judgment to determine which of the
equations should be selected to solve the problem. If all the analytical data used in setting up the
equations were perfect, it would be immaterial which equations were selected for use. However,
analytical data are never free from error, and a certain amount of discretion is necessary in order

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to select the most nearly accurate equations for solving the problem. In general, equations based
on components forming the largest percentage of the total mass are most dependable.

06. Recognition of the maximum number of truly independent equations is important. Any
material-balance equation that can be derived from other equations written for the process cannot
be regarded as an additional independent equation.

07. If any two or more substances exist in fixed ratio with respect to one another in each stream
where they appear, only one independent material balance equations may be written with respect
to these substances. Although a balance may be written for any one substance in question, it is
generally best to combine the substances appearing in constant ratio into a single group and
develop a single equation for this combined group.

08. A substance that appears in but one incoming stream and one outgoing stream serves as a
reference for computations and is termed a tie substance. Knowledge of the percentage of a tie
substance in two streams establishes the relationship between the weights of the streams so that,
if one is known, the other can be calculated.

09. Material balances of processes involving chemical reaction is fall into two general classes:

(a)The compositions and weights of the various streams entering the process are known. It is
required to calculate the compositions and weights of the streams leaving the process for a
specified degree of completion of the reaction.

(b)The compositions and weights of the entering streams are partially known. It is required to
calculate the compositions and weights of all entering and leaving streams and to determine the
degree of completion of the reaction.

Steps to follow Material Balance Calculations:

Draw a flowchart
Choose basis of calculations
Label unknown stream variables on the flowchart
Convert known stream volumes or volumetric flow rates to mass or molar basis
using densities or gas laws
Convert all mass and molar unit quantities to one basis

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If any given information has not been used in labeling the flowchart, translate it
into equations in terms of the unknown variables
Write material balance equations in an order such that those involve the fewest
unknowns are written first
Number of equations must be equal to number of unknowns.
Solve the equations
7. Example problems :
01. A solution of sodium nitrate in water at a temperature of 40 oC contains 49% NaNO3 by
weight.
(a) Calculate the percentage saturation of this solution.
(b) Calculate the weight of NaNO3 that may be crystallized from 1000 kg of this solution by
reducing the temperature to 10oC.
(c) Calculate the percentage yield of process.
Solubility of NaNO3 at 40oC = 51.4% by weight
Solubility of NaN03 at 10oC = 44.5% by weight

Basis: 1000 kg of original solution.

Weight of NaNO3 = 0.49 X 1000 = 490 kg.

Weight of water = 0.51 X 1000 = 510 kg.

49 48.6
(a) % saturation = x
51 51.4
= 91.0%

(b) Yield of NaNO3 crystals = x kg

From a NaNO3 balance,

1000(0.49) = (1000 x) (0.445) + x

Hence x = 81 kg

81
C) % yield = = 16.5%
490

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02. A solution of potassium dichromate in water contains 13% K2Cr2Or by weight. From 1000
kg of this solution are evaporated 640 kg of water. The remaining solution is cooled to
20oC. Calculate the amount and the percentage yield of K2Cr2Or crystals produced.
Solubility of K2Cr2Or at 20oC = 0.390 kmole per 1000 kg H2O

Basis: 1000 kg of original solution

Water = 870 kg
K2Cr2Or = 130 kg
Water remaining after concentration = 870 - 640 = 230 kg

230
= x 0.390 = 0.090 kg.mole or 0.090 x 294 = 26.4 kg
1000

Yield of K2Cr2Or crystals = 130 26.4 = 103.6 kg

103.6
% yield = = 79.7
130

03. An aqueous solution of sodium surface is saturated at 32.5 oC. Calculate the temperature to
which this solution must be cooled in order to crystallize 60% of the solute as Na 2SO4
10H2O.
Basis: 1000 kg of initial solution.
Mol.wt .ofNa 2 SO 4
Weight fraction of Na2SO4 in 10 H2O crystal =
Mol. wt. of Na 2 SO 4 10 H 2O

Na2SO4 crystallized = 325 x 0.6 = 195 kg

Na2SO4 10 H2O crystallized = 195/0.441 = 442 kg

Water in these crystals = 442-195 = 247 kg

Water left in solution = 675 247 = 428 kg

Na2SO4 left in solution = 325 x 0.4 = 130 kg

Composition of final solution = 130 /(130+428) = 23.3% Na2SO4.

The temperature to which the solution be cooled

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04. A solution of ferric chloride in water contains 64.1% FeCl3 by weight. Calculate the
composition and yield of the material crystallized from 1000 kg of this solution if it is so
cooled as to produce the maximum amount of crystallization from a residual liquid.

Basis: 1000 kg original solution.

162.2
% FeCl2 in FeCl3 6H2O = = 60.0%
162.2 108

Let y = kg of FeCl3 6H2o crystallized.

Concentration of FeCl3 in solution = 68.3%

Material Balance of FeCl3

Original solution Final Solution Crystals


(1000) (0.641) = (1000 y) (0.683) + 0.600y

y = 511 kg FeCl3 6H2O crystals.

05. A solution of sodium sulfate in water is saturated at a temperature of 40 oC. Calculate the
weight of crystals and the percentage yield obtained by cooling 100 kg of this solution to a
temperature of 5oC.
Basis: 100 kg of original solution, saturated at 40oC

142
% Na2SO4 in Na2SO4 10H2O crystals = = 44.1%
142 180

Let y = kg of Na2SO4 10H2O crystals formed.

Solubility of Na2SO4 at 40oC = 32.6%

Solubility of Na2SO4 at 5oC = 5.76%

Material Balance of Na2SO4

Original solution Final Solution Crystals


0.326 (100) = 0.057 (100-y) + 0.441y

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70.05x 0.441
1% yield = x 100 = 94.76%
32.6

06. The waste acid from a nitrating process contains 23% HNO 2 57% H2SO4 and 20% H2O by
weight. This acid is to be concentrated to contain 27% HNO 3 and 60% H2SO4 by the
addition of concentrated sulfuric acid containing 93% H2SO4 and concentrated nitric acid
containing 90% HNO3. Calculate the weights of waste and concentrated acids that must be
combined to obtain 1000 kg of the desired mixture.
Basis: 1000 kg of final mixture.

Let x = weight of waste acid


y = weight of concentrated H2SO4
z = weight of concentrated HNO3

Over all balance


x + y + z = 1000 (1)

H2SO4 Balance
0.57 x + 0.93 y = 1000 x 0.60 = 600 (2)

HNO3 Balance

0.23 x + 0.90 z = 1000 x 0.27 = 270 (3)

Solving the simultaneous equations 1, 2 and 3 gives

x = 418 kg waste acid


y = 390 kg concentrated H2SO4
z = 192 kg concentrated HNO3

These results may be verified by a material balance of the water in the process:

Water entering = (418 x 0.20) + (390 x 0.07) + (192 x 0.10) = 130 kg

Since the final solution contains 13% H2O, this result verifies the calculations.

8. Mind Map

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9. Readings:
1. Hougen, Olaf A., and Kenneth M. Watson. "Chemical Process Principles-Part 1: Material
and Energy Blances." (1948)
2. Himmelblau, David Mautner, and James B. Riggs. Basic principles and calculations in
chemical engineering. FT Press, 2012
3. Bhatt, B. I., and S. M. Vora. Stoichiometry:(si units). Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co., 1996
10. Questions:
Remember:
1. Define the fallowing: chemical Process, system, extensive and intensive properties, mole,
Stoichiometric coefficient
Apply:
1. Leather containing 100% of its own weight of water is dried by means of air. The dew
point of entering air is 40C while that of leaving air is 130C. If 1000 kg of wet air is
forced through the drier per hour, how many kg of water is removed per hour. Total
pressure is 750 mm Hg. Vapor pressure of water at 40C = 6.3 mm Hg and at 180C = 11
mm Hg.
2. By adsorption in silica gel you are able to remove all the water (0.93 kg) of water from

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moist air at 150C and 98.6 kPa. The same air measures 1000m3at 200C and 108 kPa
when dry. What was the relative humidity of the air?
3. A crystallizer is charged with 7,500 kg of aqueous solution at 1040C containing 29.6%
by weight of anhydrous N a2SO4. The solution is then cooled to 200C. During this
operation 5% of water is lost by evaporation. Glauber salt crystal- lizes out. Find the
yield of crystals. Solubility at 200C = 194 g N a2SO4/100 g water Molecular weight of
Glaubers salt (N a2SO4.10H2O) = 142+180 = 322.
11. Self Practice problems :
01. A solution of naphthalene in benzene contains 9.5 kg.moles of naphthalene per 1000 kg of
benzene.
(a) Calculate the temperature to which this solutions must be cooled in order to crystallize
70% of the naphthalene.
(b) Calculate the composition of the solid product if 90% of the naphthalene is
crystallized.
02. A batch of saturated Na2CO3, solution, weighing 1000 kg, is to be prepared at 50oC.
(a) If the monohydrate (Na2CO3H2O) is available as the source of Na2CO3,, how many
pounds of this material and how many pounds of water would be needed to form the
required quantity of solution
(b) If the decahydrate (Na2CO3H2O) is available as the source of Na2CO3, how many kgs
of this material and how many kgs of water would be required ? By means of a sketch,
show how the solubility chart was used in solving the problem.
03. A solution containing 35% Na2CO3, weighs 5000 kg.
(a) To what temperature must the system be cooled in order to recover 98% of the Na 2CO3 ?
(b) What will be the weight of the crystals recovered and of the residual mother liquor n?
By means of a sketch, indicate how the solubility chart was used in solving the problem.

04. A solution of ferric chloride in water contains 15 g-moles of FeCl2r 1000 grams of water.
(a) Calculate the composition of the resulting crystals in percentage of each hydrate formed
when this solution is cooled to 0oC. (b) Calculate the percentage of eutectic crystals
present in the total crystal mass.

05. In the manufacture of soda-ash by the LeBlanc process, sodium sulfate is heated with

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charcoal and calcium carbonate. The resulting black ash has the following composition:
Na2CO3 42%
Other water soluble material 6
52
Insoluble material (charcoal, CaS, etc.)
100%
The black ash is treated with water to extract the sodium carbonate. The solid residue from
this treatment has the following composition:
Na2CO3 4%
Other water-soluble salts 0.5
Insoluble matter 85
10.5
Water
100%
(a) Calculate the weight of residue remaining from the treatment of 1.0 ton of black ash.
(b) Calculate the weight of sodium carbonate extracted per ton of black ash.

06. A contract is drawn up for the purchase of paper containing 5% moisture at a price of Rs.50
per kg. It is provided that, if the moisture content varies from 5%, the price per pound shall
be proportionately adjusted in order to keep the price of the bone dry paper constant. In
addition, if the moisture content exceeds 5%, the purchaser shall deduct from the price paid
to the manufacturer the freight charges incurred as a result of the excess moisture. If the
freight rate is Rs.5 per kg, calculate the price to be paid for 3 tons of paper containing 8%
moisture.
07. A laundry can purchase soap containing 30% of water at a price of $6 per 100 lb of f.o.b.
the factory. The same manufacturer offers a soap containing 5% of water. If the freight rate
is 60 cents per 100 lb, what is the maximum price that the laundry should pay the
manufacturer for the soap containing 5% water ?

08. The spent acid from a nitrating process contains 33% H 2SO4, 36% HNO3 AND 31% H2O by
weight. This acid is to be strengthened by the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid
containing 95% H2SO4 and concentrated nitric acid containing 78% HNO3. The
strengthened mixed acid is to contain 40% H2SO4 and 43% HNO3. Calculate the quantities of

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spent and concentrated acids that should be mixed together to yield 1500 kg of the desired
mixed acid.
12. Key Words:
Stoichiometric coefficient
Mole
Avogadros Number

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