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(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to JNTUK, AP)

rd

Class 3 Sem. - B. Tech. (Chemical Engineering)

Course Chemical Process Calculations Course Code CHEM-2403

Prepared by Mr. P. Satya Sagar, Sr. Assistant Professor

Lecture Topic Material balance calculations

Course Outcome CCHEM203.2 Program Outcome PO1,PO13

13&14

Duration 50+50 min Lecture Unit II

of 45

REMEMBER UNDERSTAND APPLY ANALYSE EVALUATE CREATE

Learning Level

(Tick whichever is applicable)

1. Objectives

a. To recall importance of material balance in process industries

b. To familiarize terms of conservation of mass

c. To acquire knowledge on Mass balancing of process operations

2. Topic Learning Outcomes

After the completion of the class the students will able to:

b. Utilise conservation of mass for Mass balancing of process operations

c. Calculate amount of raw materials required to produce any compound

3. Teaching Methodology

a. Chalk & Talk /PPT Mode

4. Applications

A good understanding of material balance calculations is essential in process design. Careful

attention must be paid to selecting the best basis and boundaries for material and energy

balances; to predicting yields; and to understanding recycle, purge, and bypass schemes. Material

balances are also useful tools for the study of plant operation and troubleshooting. They can be

used to check performance against design, to extend the often limited data available from the

plant instrumentation, to check instrument calibrations, and to locate sources of material loss.

Material balances are essential to obtaining high-quality data from laboratory or pilot plants.

5. Evocation

6. Discussion

Law of conservation of mass

A material balance of an industrial process is an exact accounting of all the materials that

enter, leave, accumulate or are depleted in the course of a given time interval of operation. The

material balance is does an expression of the law of conservation of mass in accounting terms.

The overall material balance under steady state conditions is discussed in this unit. This unit

covers various operations like crystallization, extraction, drying, etc., Material balance assists in

the planning and design of processes, in the economic evaluation of the proposed and existing

processes, in the process control and in the process optimization. In the chemical process

industries, it is possible to produce a given end product from different raw materials. For an

appropriate choice of a process, it is very essential to compute the materials requirement for

these different routes. A properly listed material balance enables one to estimate to estimate the

material requirement for an existing process or for a process which is being planned. Material

balance can also assist in the simulation of processes based onm which certain financial

decisions can be made. Thus the material balance can be used in the hourly and daily operating

decisions to be made for running the process efficiently and economically.

In an industrial process, material balance provides an exact accounting of all the materials

that enter and leave and of the changes in the inventory of the materials in the course of a given

interval of time of operation. The material balance for process with or without chemical reaction

can be written in the following form:

to the system from the system within the system within the system

= Accumulation of material

within the system

equations is equal to the number of unknown compositions and mass. Variations in solving the

problems will depend on the particular items that are unknown.

The following guidelines serves to direct the course of calculations.

01. If no chemical reaction is involved, nothing is gained by establishing material balances for

the chemical elements present. In such processes, material balances should be based on the

chemical compounds rather than on the elements, or on components of fixed composition even if

not pure chemical compounds.

02. If chemical reactions occur, it becomes necessary to develop material balances based on

chemical elements, or on radicals, compounds, or substances that are not altered, decomposed, or

formed in the process.

03. For processes wherein no chemical reactions occur, use of weight units such as grams or

pounds is preferable. For processes in which chemical reactions occur, it is desirable to utilize

the gram-mole or pound mole, or the gram-atom or pound-atom.

04. The number of unknown quantities to be calculated cannot exceed the number of

independent material balances available; otherwise, the problem of indeterminate.

05. If the number of independent material-balance equations exceeds the number of unknown

weights that are to be computed, it becomes a matter of judgment to determine which of the

equations should be selected to solve the problem. If all the analytical data used in setting up the

equations were perfect, it would be immaterial which equations were selected for use. However,

analytical data are never free from error, and a certain amount of discretion is necessary in order

to select the most nearly accurate equations for solving the problem. In general, equations based

on components forming the largest percentage of the total mass are most dependable.

06. Recognition of the maximum number of truly independent equations is important. Any

material-balance equation that can be derived from other equations written for the process cannot

be regarded as an additional independent equation.

07. If any two or more substances exist in fixed ratio with respect to one another in each stream

where they appear, only one independent material balance equations may be written with respect

to these substances. Although a balance may be written for any one substance in question, it is

generally best to combine the substances appearing in constant ratio into a single group and

develop a single equation for this combined group.

08. A substance that appears in but one incoming stream and one outgoing stream serves as a

reference for computations and is termed a tie substance. Knowledge of the percentage of a tie

substance in two streams establishes the relationship between the weights of the streams so that,

if one is known, the other can be calculated.

09. Material balances of processes involving chemical reaction is fall into two general classes:

(a)The compositions and weights of the various streams entering the process are known. It is

required to calculate the compositions and weights of the streams leaving the process for a

specified degree of completion of the reaction.

(b)The compositions and weights of the entering streams are partially known. It is required to

calculate the compositions and weights of all entering and leaving streams and to determine the

degree of completion of the reaction.

Draw a flowchart

Choose basis of calculations

Label unknown stream variables on the flowchart

Convert known stream volumes or volumetric flow rates to mass or molar basis

using densities or gas laws

Convert all mass and molar unit quantities to one basis

If any given information has not been used in labeling the flowchart, translate it

into equations in terms of the unknown variables

Write material balance equations in an order such that those involve the fewest

unknowns are written first

Number of equations must be equal to number of unknowns.

Solve the equations

7. Example problems :

01. A solution of sodium nitrate in water at a temperature of 40 oC contains 49% NaNO3 by

weight.

(a) Calculate the percentage saturation of this solution.

(b) Calculate the weight of NaNO3 that may be crystallized from 1000 kg of this solution by

reducing the temperature to 10oC.

(c) Calculate the percentage yield of process.

Solubility of NaNO3 at 40oC = 51.4% by weight

Solubility of NaN03 at 10oC = 44.5% by weight

49 48.6

(a) % saturation = x

51 51.4

= 91.0%

Hence x = 81 kg

81

C) % yield = = 16.5%

490

02. A solution of potassium dichromate in water contains 13% K2Cr2Or by weight. From 1000

kg of this solution are evaporated 640 kg of water. The remaining solution is cooled to

20oC. Calculate the amount and the percentage yield of K2Cr2Or crystals produced.

Solubility of K2Cr2Or at 20oC = 0.390 kmole per 1000 kg H2O

Water = 870 kg

K2Cr2Or = 130 kg

Water remaining after concentration = 870 - 640 = 230 kg

230

= x 0.390 = 0.090 kg.mole or 0.090 x 294 = 26.4 kg

1000

103.6

% yield = = 79.7

130

03. An aqueous solution of sodium surface is saturated at 32.5 oC. Calculate the temperature to

which this solution must be cooled in order to crystallize 60% of the solute as Na 2SO4

10H2O.

Basis: 1000 kg of initial solution.

Mol.wt .ofNa 2 SO 4

Weight fraction of Na2SO4 in 10 H2O crystal =

Mol. wt. of Na 2 SO 4 10 H 2O

04. A solution of ferric chloride in water contains 64.1% FeCl3 by weight. Calculate the

composition and yield of the material crystallized from 1000 kg of this solution if it is so

cooled as to produce the maximum amount of crystallization from a residual liquid.

162.2

% FeCl2 in FeCl3 6H2O = = 60.0%

162.2 108

(1000) (0.641) = (1000 y) (0.683) + 0.600y

05. A solution of sodium sulfate in water is saturated at a temperature of 40 oC. Calculate the

weight of crystals and the percentage yield obtained by cooling 100 kg of this solution to a

temperature of 5oC.

Basis: 100 kg of original solution, saturated at 40oC

142

% Na2SO4 in Na2SO4 10H2O crystals = = 44.1%

142 180

0.326 (100) = 0.057 (100-y) + 0.441y

70.05x 0.441

1% yield = x 100 = 94.76%

32.6

06. The waste acid from a nitrating process contains 23% HNO 2 57% H2SO4 and 20% H2O by

weight. This acid is to be concentrated to contain 27% HNO 3 and 60% H2SO4 by the

addition of concentrated sulfuric acid containing 93% H2SO4 and concentrated nitric acid

containing 90% HNO3. Calculate the weights of waste and concentrated acids that must be

combined to obtain 1000 kg of the desired mixture.

Basis: 1000 kg of final mixture.

y = weight of concentrated H2SO4

z = weight of concentrated HNO3

x + y + z = 1000 (1)

H2SO4 Balance

0.57 x + 0.93 y = 1000 x 0.60 = 600 (2)

HNO3 Balance

y = 390 kg concentrated H2SO4

z = 192 kg concentrated HNO3

These results may be verified by a material balance of the water in the process:

Since the final solution contains 13% H2O, this result verifies the calculations.

8. Mind Map

9. Readings:

1. Hougen, Olaf A., and Kenneth M. Watson. "Chemical Process Principles-Part 1: Material

and Energy Blances." (1948)

2. Himmelblau, David Mautner, and James B. Riggs. Basic principles and calculations in

chemical engineering. FT Press, 2012

3. Bhatt, B. I., and S. M. Vora. Stoichiometry:(si units). Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co., 1996

10. Questions:

Remember:

1. Define the fallowing: chemical Process, system, extensive and intensive properties, mole,

Stoichiometric coefficient

Apply:

1. Leather containing 100% of its own weight of water is dried by means of air. The dew

point of entering air is 40C while that of leaving air is 130C. If 1000 kg of wet air is

forced through the drier per hour, how many kg of water is removed per hour. Total

pressure is 750 mm Hg. Vapor pressure of water at 40C = 6.3 mm Hg and at 180C = 11

mm Hg.

2. By adsorption in silica gel you are able to remove all the water (0.93 kg) of water from

moist air at 150C and 98.6 kPa. The same air measures 1000m3at 200C and 108 kPa

when dry. What was the relative humidity of the air?

3. A crystallizer is charged with 7,500 kg of aqueous solution at 1040C containing 29.6%

by weight of anhydrous N a2SO4. The solution is then cooled to 200C. During this

operation 5% of water is lost by evaporation. Glauber salt crystal- lizes out. Find the

yield of crystals. Solubility at 200C = 194 g N a2SO4/100 g water Molecular weight of

Glaubers salt (N a2SO4.10H2O) = 142+180 = 322.

11. Self Practice problems :

01. A solution of naphthalene in benzene contains 9.5 kg.moles of naphthalene per 1000 kg of

benzene.

(a) Calculate the temperature to which this solutions must be cooled in order to crystallize

70% of the naphthalene.

(b) Calculate the composition of the solid product if 90% of the naphthalene is

crystallized.

02. A batch of saturated Na2CO3, solution, weighing 1000 kg, is to be prepared at 50oC.

(a) If the monohydrate (Na2CO3H2O) is available as the source of Na2CO3,, how many

pounds of this material and how many pounds of water would be needed to form the

required quantity of solution

(b) If the decahydrate (Na2CO3H2O) is available as the source of Na2CO3, how many kgs

of this material and how many kgs of water would be required ? By means of a sketch,

show how the solubility chart was used in solving the problem.

03. A solution containing 35% Na2CO3, weighs 5000 kg.

(a) To what temperature must the system be cooled in order to recover 98% of the Na 2CO3 ?

(b) What will be the weight of the crystals recovered and of the residual mother liquor n?

By means of a sketch, indicate how the solubility chart was used in solving the problem.

04. A solution of ferric chloride in water contains 15 g-moles of FeCl2r 1000 grams of water.

(a) Calculate the composition of the resulting crystals in percentage of each hydrate formed

when this solution is cooled to 0oC. (b) Calculate the percentage of eutectic crystals

present in the total crystal mass.

05. In the manufacture of soda-ash by the LeBlanc process, sodium sulfate is heated with

charcoal and calcium carbonate. The resulting black ash has the following composition:

Na2CO3 42%

Other water soluble material 6

52

Insoluble material (charcoal, CaS, etc.)

100%

The black ash is treated with water to extract the sodium carbonate. The solid residue from

this treatment has the following composition:

Na2CO3 4%

Other water-soluble salts 0.5

Insoluble matter 85

10.5

Water

100%

(a) Calculate the weight of residue remaining from the treatment of 1.0 ton of black ash.

(b) Calculate the weight of sodium carbonate extracted per ton of black ash.

06. A contract is drawn up for the purchase of paper containing 5% moisture at a price of Rs.50

per kg. It is provided that, if the moisture content varies from 5%, the price per pound shall

be proportionately adjusted in order to keep the price of the bone dry paper constant. In

addition, if the moisture content exceeds 5%, the purchaser shall deduct from the price paid

to the manufacturer the freight charges incurred as a result of the excess moisture. If the

freight rate is Rs.5 per kg, calculate the price to be paid for 3 tons of paper containing 8%

moisture.

07. A laundry can purchase soap containing 30% of water at a price of $6 per 100 lb of f.o.b.

the factory. The same manufacturer offers a soap containing 5% of water. If the freight rate

is 60 cents per 100 lb, what is the maximum price that the laundry should pay the

manufacturer for the soap containing 5% water ?

08. The spent acid from a nitrating process contains 33% H 2SO4, 36% HNO3 AND 31% H2O by

weight. This acid is to be strengthened by the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid

containing 95% H2SO4 and concentrated nitric acid containing 78% HNO3. The

strengthened mixed acid is to contain 40% H2SO4 and 43% HNO3. Calculate the quantities of

spent and concentrated acids that should be mixed together to yield 1500 kg of the desired

mixed acid.

12. Key Words:

Stoichiometric coefficient

Mole

Avogadros Number

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