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MUSEUM OF NEW MEXICO

OFFICE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDIES

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROCEDURAL MANUAL

Public Archaeology Programs


Standardization Committee

ARCHAJ3OLOGY NOTES 24a

SANTA FE 1994 NEW MEXICO


CONTENTS

Prefield Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Definition of the Project Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Permits and Permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
AdvanceNotice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Records Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Fieldwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Survey Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Cultural Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Recording Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Postfield Activities .................................................. 18

The Survey Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


Administrative Summary (Abstract) and Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Proposed Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Project Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
FieldMethods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Culture History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Survey Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
SummaryandRecommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Attachments, Data Compendia,andAppendixes ........................... 22
General Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Appendix 1: Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


Appendix 2: Summaries of Legislation Affecting Cultural Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Appendix 3: Survey Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Appendix 4: Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

1 . Example of an inappropriate field map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


2 . A better and more complete tield map of the site shown in Figure 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3 . A well-mapped historic site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4. General UTM information in USGS topographic quadrangle legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5. Section of USGS quadrangle showing locational
markings ........................ 14
6 . Templates for measuring UTM coordinates and quartering sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual iii


INTRODUCTION

This manual is providedas a basic guide to CRM project an archaeologist agrees to provide
survey techniques, procedures, and report informationneeded by the client to fulfill the
preparation. Surveys are the first phase of requirements of historic preservation laws, This
archaeological fieldwork and are designed to locate includes completing fieldwork and reporting in a
and properly documentarchaeological sites and timely manner, and providing information needed
other cultural resources within a project area. by the client. Done properly, the product should
Archaeological surveys can be oriented toward be clear and concise. The objective of CRM work
cultural resource management (CRM) or can be istodocumentcultural resources as fullyand
conducted for research purposes. All cultural accurately as possible, identify their importance,
properties encountered during survey should be and determine how the resources relate to the
recorded on appropriate forms, including sites, proposed undertaking while at the same time
historic buildings, and irrigation canals, as well as providing
documentation
that meets the
whatever else the client or research design requirements of the various review agencies.
requires, A CRM survey is initiated by a client, Hence, itisimportant to pay close attention to
who defines the project area and the types of land- every detail to minimizeimpacts
to
cultural
altering activities that will occur. When a survey properties and prevent costly delays and
is conducted for research purposes the project area unnecessaryexpenses for the client. Research-
should be defined in the research design. During oriented surveys must balance their data
both CRM and research-oriented surveys, the requirements with those of land managing
archaeologist must operate within a legal agencies. While this type of survey is rarely aimed
framework dictated by a mix of local, state, and at gathering resource management data, that
federal regulations and guidelines. Summaries of information is needed and often required by land
some of the pertinent regulations are included in managers. Similarly, while research oriented
Appendix 2. surveys do notusually operate under the same
time constraints as CRM surveys do, report
No matterwhat type of survey is being requirements are generally the same. A full report
conducted, an archaeologist must work within the of survey activities and results is usually required
guidelines of pertinent historic preservation within a certain amount of time after completionof
regulations. Aspects that might be regulated fieldwork, whether the survey was CRM-oriented
include types of data recorded, collection policies, or not.
and deadlines for reporting results. In accepting a

Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 1


PREFIELD ACTIVITIES

Several steps must be completed before provided. Land ownership must be determined
fieldwork can begin. Various land managing before beginning a survey, and permission to
agencies have requirements for prior notification, conduct an archaeologicalsurvey should alwaysbe
survey
techniques, and reporting. The obtained from landowners or land managing
archaeologist should know whatthese requirements agencies before fieldwork begins.
are before beginning a survey. It is also necessary
toknowwhether or not sites were previously
recorded in the project area, Failure to follow Permits and Permission
proper procedures can cause problems with
federal, state, and tribal officials, and at worst can
result in permit forfeiture. Each survey project, no Land ownership and regulatory authority
matter how large or small, should follow the same determine the kind of permission that is required
steps in preparing for fieldwork, before a survey can begin. Two types of
permission are required for survey projects--
written or verbal authorization to conduct the
Definition of the Proiect Area survey from the landowner or managing authority;
and valid permits from all federal, state, local, or
tribal regulatory agencies that are directly involved
The project area is the zone that will be with the project. It is always best to get written
examined by a survey. In CRM work it is the area permission to work on a parcel of land, if
in
which construction or other land-altering possible, to prevent future legal problems.
activities will occur and is defined bythe client. In
research surveys the project area is defined by the Land ownership is normally straightforward.
interests of the archaeologist or the requirements Archaeologists conducting research-oriented
of the research design. surveys are responsible for determining land
ownership and obtaining permission toconduct
When conducting a CRM survey, additional their fieldwork. In CRM surveys, the client should
land is sometimes examined around the perimeter provide an accurate list of all private owners and
of a project area to determine whethercultural landmanaging agencies, Permission toconduct
resources occur just beyond project boundaries. surveys on private land is usually, but not always,
This area should be
labeled
and referred to obtained by the client. Supervisors should check to
separately. Jointly, the project
area
and
any make sure this has been done. If not, it will be
additional survey areas can be referred to as the necessary to contact the owner(s) for permission to
inventory or survey area. Be specific in defzning be on their land. If part or all of any survey area
these zones. Carelessly worded descriptions could is managedby federal, state, or tribal agencies,
be taken as permission toconduct land-altering theymustalsobe contacted. Simply obtaining a
activities outside the project area. The client permit to work on these lands is seldom enough;
should provide engineering plans or USGS land managers want to know when and where you
topographic quadrangles showing the project area. will be working on their land.
Project supervisors should acquire the latest
editions available and the appropriate USGS Many federal, state, and tribal landmanaging
topographic quadrangles. agencies have permitting systems and procedures
in place. Archaeologists conducting or supervising
Project boundaries should be clearly defined and surveys should obtain a copy of all pertinent
marked on engineering plans or USGS topographic permits andreadthem thoroughly, paying strict
quadrangles for both CRM and research surveys, attention to time frames for preliminary and final
and land ownership information must always be reporting. n e project supervisor should make sure

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 3


his or her name is on the permit and carefully note Records Checks
expiration date, general and special stipulations,
and other guidance information. If your name is All survey permitsand most agency report
not on a permit, you cannot supervise work guidelines require information on sites that have
conducted under that permit. Itisimportantto been previously recorded in or near a project area.
note that not allpermits are alike, even if the same This means that the National Register of Historic
agency is involved. For instance, many Bureau of Places (NRHP), the State Register of Cultural
Land
Management districts havedifferent Properties (SRCP), and the New Mexico Cultural
requirements. Make sure you possess andhave Resource Information System (NMCRIS) must be
examined all applicable permits. If your name does consulted before a survey begins. NRHPand
not appear on a permit or you are unsure whether SRCP records are on file at the Historic
you have the right permit for a certain area, ask Preservation Division (HPD) in Santa Fe.
your supervisor or contact the land managing NMCRIS files are stored at the Archeological
agency. In some instancesagency officials will Records Management Section (ARMS), a division
waive requirements or otherwise allow deviations of HPD housed atthe Laboratory of Anthropology
from the stipulations. Such deviations mustbe inSanta Fe. Bothofficescan be contactedin
worked out and approved in advance (preferably person or bytelephone. In addition, ARMShas
in writing) through consultation
with the developed an online computer access system that
appropriate official. Unless otherwise arranged, willallowrecordchecksto be completedby
supervisors should ensure permit that
all modem. Some land managing
agencies
also
requirements are strictly observed, because failure stipulate a records check at agency or resource-
to do so can result in serious delay or forfeiture of area offkes; consult your permit(s) to determine
the permit. whether this is necessary. When working on
NavajoNation land, the Navajo Nation Historic
When working on tribal lands, written Preservation Department must be contacted during
permission from the tribal government is needed in the prefield check.
additionto a Bureau of IndianAffairs permit.
Not@cation of the Bureau of Indian Aflairs will The breadth of the prefield check varies among
not suflce; tribal governments must be notsed as land managing agencies. Some require a listing of
well. Also, when workingon Navajo Nation lands, only those sites within the project area, while
it is necessary to determine what specific types of others want lists of all previously recorded sites
land
will
be surveyed. This information
is within a certain distance of the project area. A
available in Crownpoint or Window Rock at the good rule of thumbis to include all previously
Bureau
of Indian Affairs Real Property recorded sites within a mile of the project area.
Management, Navajo Nation Land Administration These locations can be obtained from ARMS, and
Department. itis a good ideatoplotthem on field maps to
prevent the accidental assignmentof new numbers.
Whenit does notadd to costs or cause time
Advance Notice delays, ARMS requests that previously recorded
sites near a project area be revisited to provide an
Some federal, state, and tribal agencies require update of their records (be sure you have
advance contact before fieldwork can begin. permissiontoenter these properties). This will
Consult yourpermits and area office regulations to allow documentation of changing site conditions
determine whether this is necessary. The Navajo such as damage by vandals or erosion, as well as
Nation requires advance notification to determine the presence of features or diagnostic artifacts that
whether a previously identified traditional cultural were notnoted or fully described during initial
property such as a shrine, sacred area, or other recording. Previously recorded sites within project
use-area is within project boundaries. The areas should always be revisited and their records
appropriate agency should be contacted for details updated.
of this procedure.

Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 4


FIELDWORK

Specific field techniques andground coverage in 15 m is recommended as an acceptable maximum


research-oriented surveys are generally determined spacing between individuals. This is the maximum
by the archaeologist and should be discussed and allowed
by
manyland
managing agencies.
justified in the research design. CRM surveys However, there are exceptions. Check yourpermit
require archaeologists to examine all of the ground to determine whetherany restrictions apply. If
surface within a project area (100 percent trees, brush, or heavy grass cover are present, the
coverage) unless otherwise stipulated. Most intervalshould be shortened. Special attention
agencies require a pedestrian survey and with few should be given to open spaces within areas of
exceptions disallow survey from vehicles. The heavy vegetation, backdirt piles at the entrances to
intent is that all sites and other cultural resources rodent dens, and drainages.
that may be protected under law be found, plotted
on maps, andrecorded on appropriate forms. Additional areas are sometimes examined
Permits should be consulted for guidelines around the perimeter of a project area, particularly
concerning permissible survey techniques. In some inCRM work. These zones may be required by
cases, agencies have special requirements land managing agencies andare rarely included on
concerning the field recording of sites and other engineering plans. However, they must be
cultural resources that may include how cultural discussed
and described when applying for
resources are defined, howthey are marked, permits. Additional survey areas should be
artifact collection policies, and treatment of described and their acreage calculated separately
previously recorded sites. Again, permits should from the project area to make it clearthat they are
be consulted for all surveys to determine whether not part of the proposed undertaking. If land
there are special requirements. If permit ownership changes at the edge of a project area,
stipulations seem unclear, contact the land you must have permission from the landowner or
managing agency for clarification. land managing agencyto work in that area. Unless
specifically stipulated in a permit or contract there
Ifyou are conducting a CRM survey and is no standard widthfor additional survey areas. A
engineering plans are not provided, or the project rule ofthumbis 15 rn (50 ft) to either side of
area is not clearly marked on the ground, do not linear rights-of-way (roads, pipelines); 30 m (100
guess its locution. Contact the client, their local ft) to either side of powerline rights-of-way,
representative,
your
supervisor
or for borrow pits, and mining features or waste piles;
supplementary information. and 0.8 km ( O S miles)at the ends of linear
projects. Since CRM firms often have internal
policies governing the survey of additional areas,
Survev Techniques your supervisor should be consultedabout this
before the survey begins. If there are no specific
requirements for the survey of additionalareas (for
The preferred survey technique is the linear example, when private land is involved), be sure
transect. If a survey is conducted by one to obtain the client’s permission to conduct this
archaeologist, transects may need to be walked in extended coverage.
a zigzag fashion to visually examine as much of
the ground surface as possible. Depending on the Simply because a site is outside project
width of the area being surveyed, several linear boundaries doesn’t meanit should notbe recorded.
transects mayneed to be walked. If a survey is A site that is directly adjacent to but outside
conductedby more than one archaeologist the project boundaries shouldbe recorded, if possible.
interval between individuals should be adjusted to Those that are a good distance beyond project
the terrain and surface visibility. An intervalof limits may or maynotneed to be recorded,

Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 5


depending on the type ofland altering activity consistent in applying those definitions. Note
planned, time and budgetary limitations, and land whether you have used agency defined criteria or
ownership, Use your best judgment in these types your own definitions for cultural resources in the
of cases. survey report. In either case, the definitions should
be presented.
At times a CRM contractor will be requested by
the client to identify alternate routes or minor The creation of archaeological sites is a
relocations to avoid any archaeological sites that continual process as humans occupy and abandon
might be found. This is most common in well pad parts of the landscape, Because sites and 10s are
and pipeline surveys. This can be done as long as constantly forming, federal, state, and local
the client has requested it and the landowner or regulations usuallyspecifyhow old a cultural
land managing agency does not object; however, resource should be before it is recorded. Sites
itis still necessarytorecord the sites that are older than a specific age are recorded, while those
identified at the original location. Make sure your that are younger require less formal treatment.
recommendations are coordinated with the client Consult the appropriate guidelines for these
and are consistent with their operating procedures requirements. For example, the NavajoNation
and standards. uses a slightly different approach thanthat outlined
here, requiring a formal recording of any site
While surveys are generally restricted to an found, regardless of age (unless it is still in use).
examination of surface cultural remains,limited If you are not sure whether a cultural resource is
testing may be permissible in some instances. old enoughto be documented, go ahead andrecord
However, it should be remembered that limited is it anyway (unless it is still being lived in). Bear in
the operative word. Some permitsallowlimited mind that this is an evolving process, and more
subsurface trowel or auger tests toexamineand and more properties are requiring treatment.
better define the extent of remainsat a site. Always check to see what kinds ofproperties need
Formal site testing requires diferent permits and to be recorded,
is rarely allowed during survey. Checkyour
permits to determine whetherlimited subsurface
probes are allowed. Be sure to discuss any Recording. Procedures
subsurface investigations in the survey report.

The Laboratory ofAnthropology (LA) Site


Cultural P r o D m Record Form is the standard for recording
archaeological sites in New Mexico. While ARMS
does not require this form for each site, many state
Many land managing agencies, area and district andfederal
landmanaging agencies
do. For
offices within those agencies, and
review instance, the New Mexico Historic Preservation
authorities have specific guidelines concerning Division alwaysrequires the LA Site Record Form
what constitutes cultural remainsandhowthey or an equivalent. The categories-included in the
should be recorded. Most recognize two types of site record represent the minimzim amountof
cultural properties--sites and isolated occurrences informationconsidered necessary for making
(IOs), but definitions vary according to agency. management decisions about a site. Other forms
Consult the appropriate guidelines for these may be used,buttheyshould contain the same
requirements. Cultural resource definitions may categories as the LA Site Record Form in addition
also be specified in the research design of a non- to other information desired by the archaeologist
CRM project. If no specific criteria are furnished conducting the survey. Whether you are recording
by a regulatory agency or you are surveying on a site for the first time or examining a previously
private land, be sure to have a goodworking recorded site, always remember that this
definition ofwhat constitutes a site or isolated information may be used by someone who will not
occurrence before you begin fieldwork. Be be able to visit the site. Record everything you

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 6


think is important. As noted above, the LA Site Step 2: Where Is It Located and How Big Is It?
Record Form requests the minimumamount of
information necessary for makingmanagement The location of a site andhowmuchlandit
decisions. You do not have to limit yourself to covers are critical to management decisions. While
these categories. General recording procedures are mistakes happen, it is important to be as accurate
discussed below. Again, always
check
your as possible. The locations of all cultural resources
permits and consult your supervisor concerning recorded during survey should be plotted on USGS
specific procedures required by a land managing topographic quadrangles or engineering plans. If
agency or CRM firm. For example, the Bureau of possible, it is desirable to locate cultural resources
LandManagement has additional information on both. Topographic quadrangle locations are
requirements, andmany USDA Forest Service necessary for site registration withARMS, and
districts require use of their own site survey both the topographic quadrangle and engineering
forms. The LA SiteRecord Form and other forms plans (if available) are required for consultations
that might be required are shown in Appendix 3. with HPD in CRM surveys. Discuss in general
terms how the site was located; for example,it
It should be noted that a LA Site Record Form was triangulated, a global positioning system
may not be required for allcultural properties (GPS) was used, or the location was estimated. If
found during a survey. For example, a structure a GPS was used, note how its location was plotted
that is still in use may be documentedusing a on the topographic quadrangle. Was the GPS
Historic Building Inventory Form or narrative location transferred to the map, or was it plotted
description without being recorded as an by local topography? Remember, both GPSs and
archaeological site or assigned a Laboratory of topographic quadrangles can be wrong, so it might
Anthropology (LA) number. While it is important be best to use both methods, if possible.
to identify all cultural properties within a project
area, theymaynotallneedto receive the same It is often useful to note the relationship of a
degree of documentation. Again, this may vary site tophysical or cultural features that will
according to regulatory agency, so be sure to probably remain unchanged for a long time, for
checkyour permit requirements to determine example, roads, highway mileage markers, wells,
whether and how to document structures that are transmission line structures, distinct trees or hills,
currently in use. cliffs, and rock formations. When possible, these
should be included on site maps. If you are tying
a site in to a distant feature, include distance and
Step 1: What Have I Found? bearing to the feature and its description on both
the LA Site Record Form and the site map.
When artifacts or a cultural feature are located
by a member of the survey team, STOP! Carefully An accurate definition of site boundaries is very
walk over the surrounding area to define the extent important, particularly to the client and land
of the manifestation,payingspecialattentionto managing agency
CRM
in surveys. Simply
potential features and diagnostic artifacts, knowing where a site is located is not enough; an
Determine whether the manifestation fits the accurate idea of the amount of land the site covers
definition of a site or an IO; if so, fill out the and its relationship to project boundaries are also
appropriate form. Ifyou have any doubts about its critical to the review process. Thus, knowhow
nature or age and it otherwise meets the definition large a site is before you start recording it.
of a sire, record it! Discuss your doubts on the LA Carefully walk over the surrounding area, looking
Site Record Form, but do not simply ignore the for related features or a continuation of the artifact
manifestation. Previously recorded sites mustbe scatter. When engineering plans are available,
reexamined in light of the current project, noting locate site boundaries and features on them.
any modifications of the original description and Always describe how you defined site boundaries
how the site relates to the boundaries of the on the LA Site Record Form. Boundaries can be
current project. estimated if a site extends into a parcel where you

Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 7


do not have permission to work, but note this on the topographic or modern cultural features have
the LA Site Record Form. names or numbers, use them on the map. These
features can be very helpful in relocating a site.
An inappropriate field map is illustrated in Figure
Step 3: What D m the Site Contain? 1, while Figures 2 and 3 are welldrawn field
maps. Remember,different agencies have different
Examine the surface of the site for structures, requirements for what should appear on a field
features, diagnostic artifacts, and artifact clusters. map, so remembertocheck before beginning a
Mark their locations with pinflags, flagging tape, survey.
or whatever else you have available. Eachof these
categories should be shown on the site mapand
describedin the LA Site Record Form. When Step 5: Record It
diagnostic artifacts are present butcannot be
identifiedby a survey teammember, draw or The descriptive part of the LA Site Record
photographthem.Evenwhen diagnostics are Formshould be completelyfilled out while the
identified in the field it is usually good to drawor surveycrewis still at the site. However, some
photograph them. Ifyou are uncertainwhether kinds of information, such as locational data and
something is a structure or feature, record and distance to nearest drainage, are more easily and
fully describe it; don’t ignore it. accuratelyderived in the laboratory andcan be
recorded later, While the LA Site Record Form is
the standard for New Mexico, some land
Step 4: Map It managing agencies require use oftheir own forms.
Again, always check the requirements of the land
A mapmustbe drawn for each site that is managing agency before beginning _fieldwork.In
recorded. It is not necessary to draw a sketch map additionto the LA Site Record Form, HPD
of IOs, but their locations must still be plotted on requires that a Historic Building Inventory Form
engineering plans or a topographic quadrangle. be completed for each standing structure on
Site maps should accurately depict what was seen historic sites or within project limits. Manuals for
in the field. They should show the locations of all these forms are availablefromARMS(LA Site
structures, features, diagnostic artifacts, and Record Form) and HPD (Historic Building
artifact clusters observed at the site, as well as the Inventory
Form)
and
should be consulted.
site boundary. A north arrow, a key to any Depending on agency guidelines, it may be
symbols used, and a scale must be included. Note necessary to record 10s on standard forms as well.
whethermagnetic ortrue northwasused as a Be sure you know whetherthis is necessary before
reference. The mapshould also be labeledwith beginning a survey. A site form must be filled out
site number, project name or number, mapper’s for every site visited. At a minimum, the first two
name, and the date it was drawn. Structures and pagesof the LA Site Record Form should be
features should be drawn to scale. The method completedtoupdate information for previously
used to measure distances (taped,paced, etc.) recorded sites.
should be noted on the map, the LA Site Record
Form, or both. If the site is located near the edge Because step-by-stepprocedures for completing
of the project area, show that boundary on the site the LA Site Record Form are presented elsewhere,
map or indicate distance and direction to the they will not be discussed in detail here, Instead,
nearest boundary. Also include project features a few high points of the recording process will be
suchascenter line, survey markers, etc, Show reviewed.Rarelyisit possible to create a form
drainages, hills, rock outcrops, cliffs, or other that is both general and comprehensive. Thus, it
natural topographic features that fallwithin site cannot be stressed enough that if you note
boundaries or are located nearby. The same something important that is not asked for on the
applies to modern cultural features such as roads, recording form, discuss it anyway.
signs, buildings, bridges, section markers, etc. If

Archaeological Survey Procedurnl Manual 8


CONTINUATION SHEET

Figure I . Example of an inappropriatefield map.

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 9


Figure 2. A better and more complete Jeld map of the site shown in Figure 1.

Archaeological SurveyProceduralManual 10
MUSEUM OF NEW MEXICO CONTINUATION SHEET

Figure 3. A well-mapped historic site.

Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual I1


Site Number. If you assign a fieldnumberto a along quadrangle edges (Figs. 4 and 5).
site, include thatnumberonallpaperworkthat
pertains to the site (maps, artifact inventory forms, To assign a UTM location to a site or IO, draw
photo data sheets, etc.). Thoughan LA number lines connectingeasting and northing ticks,
will be assigned after fieldwork is finished (this is dividing the area of interest into a grid of 1 sq km
discussed later), any Jeld numbers used must be cells. Measurements must originate at the
recorded on the LA SiteRecord Form. This is southwest corner of a cell. The easting is measured
especially necessary if a markercontaining the from the nearest vertical line west of the site, and
field number was left at the site during fieldwork. the northing from the nearest horizontal linesouth
If a site was recorded in the past, always use the of the site. The blue ticks along the outside edge
previously assigned number. Avoid assigning of the quadrangle are in 100,OOO m increments;
multiple LA numbers to sites. thus, a northing of *12 translates to 4,012,000 m
north of the equator. The location of a site situated
Site Marker. It is often desirable to mark a site in 100 m north and 100 m east of the intersection of
the field. A recommendedmethodistouse a the &12 northing and 445 easting lines in Zone 13
capped rehar. Wooden stakes can also be used but would be: Zone 13, E445100 N4012100.
are less permanent. Be sure to affix the field Templates are available for
measuring exact
number to anymarkersleftat a site. Some locations (Fig. 6).
agencies may have regulations or policies
concerning whethermarkers may beleftatsites UTMcoordinates should describe the
and the methods that can be used to mark them, geographical center of all sites. If the site is larger
Checkyourpermitsto determine whetherany than 10 acres, locate a minimum of four additional
special stipulations apply. Also he sure to obtain points aroundits periphery, listthosepointsby
landowner permission to leave markers at sites on their location, and plot them on the site map. Note
private property. When markers are left at sites, which UTM datum was used (NAD83 or NAD27).
plot their locations on site plans. The datum number is in the lower left-hand corner
of quadrangles prepared after1983; those prepared
Locational Information. Twotypesoflocational before 1983 are unlabeledbutuse the NAD27
information are usually required:
universal datum (see Fig. 4). Only provisional quadrangles
transverse mercator (UTM) coordinatesand a are currently labeled,andthe NAD27 datumis
location description. As long as anaccurate site still in use. While the switch to the NAD83 datum
location has been plotted in the field it is usually is still in the future, itisnecessary to list this
easier to obtain this information back at the office. information.
While UTM coordinates are available for most of
New Mexico, location descriptions are not. Many Location
descriptions
are
based
the
on
land grants werenever platted, as publicand township-and-section system, which divides most
private lands were. lf your survey area has not of the western United States into blocks of land, or
been platted. do not project location descriptions townships, that are 6 miles on a side. The origin
unless it is required by the land managingagency. point for this system in New Mexico is east of San
Acacia in the Rio Grande Valley, and the state is
The UTMlocationalsystem divides the earth divided into quarters by north-south (New Mexico
into a grid of 1 s q km cells originating at the PrincipalMeridian)andeast-west (New Mexico
intersection of the equatorand a point 500 km BaseLine)linesrunningthroughthatpoint.
west of the central meridian. There are 60 north- Location descriptions are referenced by township
south zones, each 6 degrees wide, but only Zones and range, wheretownshipis the number of
12 and 13 occur in New Mexico.Locations are blocks a locale isnorthorsouth of the origin
referenced by zone and distance east and north of point, and range is the number of blocks a locale
the origin point. Zones are listed in the lower left is east or west of the origin point. Townships and
corner of USGS topographicquadrangles, and ranges are listed in red lettering along the outside
eastings andnorthings are marked as blueticks edges of topographic quadrangles (see Fig. 5).

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 12


+.
Mapped, edited, and published by the Geological Survey
Control by USGS and USC&GS
.
Topography from aerial photographs by photogrammetric methods

-
Aerialphotographstaken 1955. held check 1957
Fblyconic projection. 1927 Nwth American Datum
- -< NAD 2 7
24OMlW
10,000-foot
grid based on New Mexico coordinate
system, 26"
west zone
1000-meterUniversal Transverse Mercator grid ticks,
zone 13. 'shown in blue urn zone
UTM GRID AND 1957 MAGNEW NORTH
Dashed land lines indicate approximate locations DECLINATION AT CENTER OF SHEET

Uncheckedelevations
are
shown in brown NAD83 There may be privateinholdings within thoboundaries
of the National 01 State reservations shown onthis map
To place on the predictedNwth American Datum
mow the projection lines 1 meter
south and ~ Map photoinspected 1978
54 meterr east as shown by dashed m er ticks No major culturear drainage changes observed

VERtlcAL DATUM NATIONAL GEODEllC VERTlUL DATUM'OF 1929

-To place on the predicted North Amerlcan Datum of 1983.


the projection lines as shownby dashed corner ticks
(4 meters south and 4d metem east)
There may be private Inholdings within the boundaries qf any
=
HORIZONTAL DATUM ...l..r_..._..I.....___._lfl. 1927 NORTH AMERICAN D A T I J M ~7 ~ 2

NAD83 PROVISIONAL MAP


Produced from original
manuscript drawings. Infor-
Federal and State Reservations shownon this map mation shown as of date of
field check. 2

Figure 4. Gene& UTM informution in USGS topogmphic quadmngle legend. The upper Legend is
from a current q d r a n g l e , and the lower legend is from a provisional quadrangie,

Archaeological Survey ProceduralManual 13


UTM Eosting ticks (blue)
Range
designotion

Figure 5. Section of USGS quadmngle showing locntional markings.

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual I4


Each township block is further divided into 36 1 horizontaldimensions (e.g., 1 0 0 by 55 m)and
sq mi sections. Sections are numbered between 1 extent (e.g., 5,500 square meters). Discuss how
and 36, and are labeled in red lettering near their site boundariesweredefined and whetherthey
center on topographic quadrangles. For locational seemed accurate. For example, if an artifact
accuracy, sections are divided into 10 acre squares scatter seems to disappear into a sand dune, note
byrepeated quarterings (sectionisdividedinto that the site boundary might not be accurate and
quarter sections, quarter sections into quarter that the scatter may extend
under the dune.
quarter sections, and so on). Templates that divide Sometimesarchaeologists are restrictedto the
sections to this level are available, easy to use, and projectarea and are unable to examineland
accurate (Fig. 6 ) , There is no standard method for outside thatzone. Be sure to discuss any such
quartering irregularly shaped sections; if one is restrictions on the LA Site Record Form and note
encountered, simply note how you subdivided it. that
your
dimensionalinformation and site
description are incomplete.
Site Descrintion. Providing an accurate description
of a site is a criticalaspect of the recording Itisessentialtonote the relation of site
process. Unless a site is excavated Or revisited, boundaries to project boundaries in CRM surveys.
this may be the only time it is described. Discuss While this information is not required by ARMS,
what you saw at the site in detail, and he sure to is
itneeded by boththeclientand the land
address the criteria usadto assign any typeand managing agency. Detail is necessary, so specify
function designations. For example, if a site is how much of the site is within project boundaries
typed as a lithic artifact scatter of unknown date, and list the structures and features that are
note that the assemblagecontains only chipped and included. Ifproject boundaries are near or cross
ground stone artifacts and lacks diagnostics. the site, show them on the site map.

If a structure, feature, artifact cluster, or ArtifactAssemblage. It isnotenoughto simply


diagnostic artifact is important enough to
be discuss the diagnostic artifacts found at a site; the
plotted on the site map, it is important enough to entire assemblage should be described. A detailed
be discussed in the LA Site Record Form. Fully inventory and analysis of all cultural materials is
describe all structures and cultural features, not required (unless specified by client or agency),
including their dimensions (both
vertical and but a basic description of assemblage content and
horizontal). If information on construction size is necessary.Listthetypes of artifacts
technique and materials is available it should also observedandhowmany are present. Discuss the
be furnished. Provide an estimate of the number of method used to arrive at the count. For example:
individual structures present and how many rooms an estimated 2004- pieces of debitage and 100"
are includedin
each.
Noteany
evidence of sherds; or, all visible artifacts were pinflagged and
vandalism or other types of damage. The criteria included 30 flakes,fourcores, andtwo biface
used to define artifact clusters shouldalsobe fragments.Note lithic raw materialtypesand
discussed; for example, were they physically pottery
types
present at the site, if known.
separated from other clusters, or did they differ in Describe the lithic materials or pottery types you
material content? don'trecognize,but don'tguess! If you don't
know what they are, say so and provide accurate
Artifacts used to provide a date for the site descriptions.
should be individually described, particularly if
they are shown on the site map. Diagnostic Slone. Asnect. and Exposure. Provide information
artifacts thatcouldnotbeidentified in the field on slope, aspect, and exposure.Whatkind of
should alsobe fully describedandsketched or slope is the site located on, and in which direction
photographed. does it trend? For example: the site is located on
a gentle(lessthan 5 degrees)northeast-trending
Site Size. Limits, and Relation
Pro-iect
to slope. Aspect refers to the directional orientation
Boundaries. Provide information on site size, both of the site and can he given in two forms: compass

Archaeological Survey ProceduralManual 15


Archaeological Survey ProceduralManual 16
direction or compass bearing (e.g+,northeast or 45 Collections, Collections and the decision whether
degrees). Sites in flat areas or on hilltops have an or not to make them are very important to the site
aspect of 360 degrees. Site exposure and shelter recording process. Most permits are very explicit
should also be described. For example: the site is as to whether collections are allowed, the
exposedto the east, with a lowmesa providing procedures that must be followed if they are, and
some shelter to the west. how the artifacts must be curated. Be thoroughly
familiar with permit st@ulationsapplicable to your
Site Interpretation. Interpret the site. This is your project before you enter theJeld. In general, most
only chance to discuss its function, date, relation land managing agenciesdo not allow collections to
to other sites in the area, how different be made. On private land, artifacts should only be
components are related, what the distribution of collected withthe landowner’s written permission.
artifacts means, if there is danger from erosion or Artifacts should not be collected if the
vandalism, etc. If you assigned a function to the archaeologist does not have a curutorial
site, discuss the evidence that led youto that agreement with a repository.
conclusion. Remember, in many cases this is the
only time the site will be visited, so provide any PhotomPhs. At least one and preferably two or
information that seems relevant. more black-and-white photographs (normally 35
mm) shouldbetakenofeach site found or
The information potential of the site should also relocated. Some land managing agencies may also
be discussed. Note the integrity of materials and require color slides and photos of site details like
whether or not structures or features havebeen features and structures. These photos are a
vandalized or eroded. Do not assign an importance valuable part of the site records and are required
to the site that cannot be clearlysupported by for all survey projects by mostlandmanaging
available information. Sites containing structural agencies.Intaking photographs, care mustbe
remains, intact features, or deep midden deposits taken to ensure that definitive aspects of the site
have obvious information potential. The research are shown, such as the mounds of ruined pueblos,
potential of an artifact scatter lacking visible pithouse andkiva depressions, refuse areas, and
structures and features is difficult if not impossible close-ups of surface artifacts. It will take
toassess from surface indications alone. In the considerable forethought and a lot of practice to
former case, assessments of research potential can learn what angles are the best for bringing out the
clearly be supported, while theycannot in the features of interest. Good photographs also include
latter. If you are unsure about the research unique aspects of the surrowding landscape (such
potentialof a site, say so. If necessary, its asmountainpeaks, buildings, highway bridges,
potential can be investigated at a later date using etc.) that will be useful in helping to relocate the
other research methods, site, Needlessto say, a numeric and descriptive
catalog of shots must accompany your photos. A
scale andmenuboardshouldalso be used, if
possible.

Archaeological Survey ProceduralManual 17


POSTFIELD ACTIVITIES

Each newly recorded site must be assigned an


LA number. LA numbers are obtained from Forest Service land, check with the district office
ARMS personnel after a survey has been to determine whether this is required. These forms
completed. 10s and modern sites are not assigned are shown in Appendix 3.
LA numbersexcept under certaincircumstances
(andin consultation with ARMS). Documented All collected materials and site records must he
portions of linear sites (railroad grades, trails, submitted for curation at the end of a project.
acequias, etc.) can he assigned a single number. Generally, this willnot occur until the report is
LA numbers can
also be assigned to
areas finished
and
accepted
by the land managing
containing high artifact densities that are defined agency. While the archaeologist usually is
during distributional surveys, or to negotiated site responsible for submitting collect& materials for
definitions developed in cooperation with the land curation, the responsibility for submitting site
managing agency I records varies with the land managing agency, If
uncertain where the responsibility lies, check with
An LA Project Record Form must be completed your supervisor or the land managing agency.
when a survey is fznished. This form provides a
summary of the project and indicates whether or Rememberthatmostlandmanagingagencies
notany sites were located. In addition, most have explicit information requirements. Before
USDA Forest Service districts require completion beginning the survey report, check the regulations
of their own forms, which must be submitted with and guidelines
spec@ed in your permit to
the survey report. If your survey crossed USDA determine what information must be included.

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 18


THE SURVEY REPORT

The survey report must include, at a minimum, conducted the survey, date of the survey, name
the following sections: Administrative Summary, and mailing address of the client (if applicable),
Introduction, Proposed Actions, Project Area, client project number (if any), general location of
Field Methods, Environment, Survey Results, the project area (including county), amount of land
SummaryandRecommendations, site maps,and examined,who owns the land, results of the
project area maps. The terms used to label these survey, and a summary of recommendations(if
sections are not important, but the various applicable). This section should stand alone, so do
categories are. Each section of a survey report is not refer the reader to other parts of the report for
described below. While reports for federal specific information. If it is important enough to
agencies will generally include the same sections, be referred to, then it should be discussed. The
there may be differences in the requirements of same information should be covered in the
various agencies. Check your permit requirements Introduction, but in greater detail. The
to make sure you have included all of the required Introduction should also contain a list of project
information and followed the proper reportformat. personnel and a discussion of all cultural
Information on checks of previously recorded sites properties within project limits, includingnewly
should be included in the introduction, the culture and previously recorded sites. Brietly summarize
history, or as a separate section. Site forms survey results and any recommendations you may
(including newly recorded and documentation on have concerning culturalthe properties
previously recorded sites) must be included with encountered. The numberand expiration date of
copies of the survey report sent to review all applicable permits mustbeincluded in both
agencies. sections. Only reference permits that are relevant
to the project being reported, anddonot cite
Authors of CRM reports should remember that federal, state, or local laws that do not apply.
they are preparing an account of the survey for
their client aswell as for offcial review. Show
some sensitivity andavoid words andlanguage Proposed Actions
that make the client look bad or suggest they are
going toworkin violation of the law. For
example, do not suggest that their activities will The actions proposed for the project area must
damage or destroy a site--you have
been be fully described for CRM surveys. What does
contracted to prevent that from happening. the clientplantodo? Discuss the extent of the
Remember, the most extensive impactto sites project, the size of the project area, size of any
within construction zones comes from the additional survey outside the project area, and the
archaeological investigations carried out before type ofconstruction that will occur. Distinguish
construction canbegin. You would
object to between the project areu and the survey area,
having
your
careful
excavation described
as especially if additional acreage wasinspected
destruction of a site, and such terms reflect equally around project boundaries. Be specific! Use these
badly on your client. or similar terms to describe the various parts of
the area thatwasexamined. Do not forget to
mentionanyaccess routes that were inspected.
Administrative Summary (Abstract) and This sets the stage for discussion of the cultural
Introduction resources found during survey and your
recommendations.Both the client and HPD will
want to approach a site that will not be directly
The Administrative Summary (Abstract) should affected by land-altering activities differently from
provide a brief synopsis of the project. Topics that the way they will one that is. For example, a site
must be covered include the name of the firm that located within project boundaries but outside the

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 19


construction zone may be avoided and a temporary etc.), andnote
howmany person-days were
fence built to protect it from disturbance, while a required to complete the survey. Discuss the types
site within the construction zone will have to be of records prepared for each cultural resource. Did
examinedin more detail. In order to make these you fill out a Laboratory of Anthropology Site
decisions, HPD needs detailed information about Record Form, or was a different recording format
the project. used? If the latter, it is helpful to include a copy of
your form. Provide information on the typesof
data recorded at sites and 10s. If a field analysis
Project Area wascompleted,detailanysampling techniques
used, the attributes that were analyzed, and
generalanalysistechniques(was pottery temper
The project area mustbe fully described by examinedwith a 10 powerhand lens, did you
UTM coordinates andlocation description. Any clean artifacts, were any photographed?). How
additional survey areas that were examined should were sites examined and
mapped? Were
also be includedand clearly labeled as such on dimensionstaped or paced? Were all visible
project maps. Separately describe the dimensions artifacts pinflagged, or did yourun transects
of the project area and any additionalsurvey areas, across the scatter to determine assemblagesize?
andcalculate the acreage containedin both. For Note where survey records (including site forms
linear surveys atleasttwopoints--thebeginning and photographs, field journals, andmaps) are
and end of the project (BOP and E0P)--must be curated.
described by their UTM coordinates, More points
are helpful on long linear surveys, particularly if
theychange direction several times.Location Environment
descriptions are also needed for eachparcelof
land traversed by a linear survey; list each % '/4
or 1/4 5/4 1/4 section that was crossed. The UTM A general discussion of the local environment
coordinates of at least four points (the corners) are helpslandmanagingagenciesand HPD assess
needed for quadrant surveys. Thus, a survey of survey results. A detailed reconstruction isnot
several thousand acres would be described by at expected. Rather, they need to know the general
least four points, and more if the parcelwas topography of the project area and the types of
irregularly shaped or discontinuous parcels were soils and vegetativecommunities that are found
examined. Again, if additional acreage was there. Where a few artifacts on the surface of a
examined around the edge of the project area, list deepalluvialsoil may suggest the presence of
the UTM coordinates of eachzone separately. You subsurface deposits, the same materials onthe
should also provide information on land surface of a shallow soil on top of a mesa would
ownership, If there was more than one landowner, not, A few dozen artifacts in an area covered by
provide location descriptions for each owner's heavyvegetationmight bejustthe tip of the
parcel. This section can be combined with iceberg, while that many artifacts on a hardpan
Proposed Actions. A USGS topographic probably representsthe extent ofcultural materials
quadrangle (or copy thereofi showing the survey present. Scale the environmental discussion to the
areaand allculturalresourceswithin project scope of the survey project and the number of sites
limits must be submitted with the report. found. If you examined a well pad and found no
cultural resources, a paragraph or two should be
sufficient. Conversely, if youexamined several
Field Methods thousand acres encompassing diverse topographic
zones
andvegetative
communities
and
found
numerous sites, a very detailed discussion may be
Field methodsmustbeexplicitly described. necessary.
Discusscrew size, spacing between transects,
survey conditions (ground visibility, weather,

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 20


Culture History considered important to understanding or
managing the site. When large numbers of sites
have beenrecordedand revisited it may be
A detailed discussion of regional culture history preferable to present site information in a different
isnot a mandatory section andmaynot be format, such as tables. However, this should only
necessary in all survey reports, thoughit is be done in consultation with the appropriate land
required by some agencies. This sectionshould managing agency.
also be scaled to the amountofwork done, A
quarter-mile pipeline survey that located no sites From HPD’s point of view, two critical pieces
does not justify a thirty page culture history; a few of data in CRM survey reports are site integrity
paragraphs will be sufficient. On the other hand, and information potential. Note any damage tothe
a 5,000 acre survey which recorded 200 sites may site, both cultural and natural. Was it badly eroded
require a detailed culture history to place the or damaged by mechanical equipment? Was there
resources in perspective. Ask your supervisor if any evidence of unauthorized digging, or did it
you’re not sure how much detail to include. seem intact? It is usually obvious that a site
contains subsurface cultural deposits when
structures or features are present. However, it is
Survey Results impossible for someone who has never seen a site
to assess its potential when they are lacking. So
give themsome clues. Notewhetheryousaw
All cultural resources identified within project buried deposits in a gully wall or the site did not
limits during a survey must be described in this seem badlydeflated. Even if it’s just a gut feeling,
section. Descriptions must be as specific as you must discuss the site’s potential for containing
possible, andeach cultural resource should be intact subsu~acedeposits. If there is nogood
treated as though this is the only time it will be basis for determining whether or not subsurface
recorded, Descriptions of previously recorded sites deposits are present, say so and indicate that
that were revisited should be equivalent to those of further investigation is necessary. Also remember
newly recorded sites. 10s need locations (UTM that subsurface deposits neednot be present to
and location descriptions) and a description. Data make a site important, For example, a Paleoindian
that must be provided for sites includes LA site will almost always be considered important,
number(andfieldnumber if a markerwas left whether it is surficial or not. However, a surface
behind), location (UTM and location description), scatter containing a few lithic artifacts may have
elevation (in meters and feet), land ownership, site little research potential.Be specflc about the site’s
description and dimensions, and a site map, research potential. Make sure youcan clearly
Remember that cultural resources are not subject support yourassessment.It is notenoughto
to provisions of the Freedom of Information Act, simply say you think a site has research potential;
and their locations cannot be releasedto the discuss how and why you came to that conclusion.
general public. Ifyour report will be releasedinto
general circulation it is wise to place site location InCRM surveys itis also very important to
information and maps in an appendix that can be note the locationof a site in relation to project
removed from copies that arenotsubmitted to boundaries. it Is entirely within project
reviewagencies or other archaeologists, Also boundaries, outside them, or partially within? Be
remember that most of the people who read your specific. Notewhich structures or features are
report will nothaveaccess to the Site Record inside or outside the project area. If project
Form, so provide as complete a description as boundaries cross a site be sure they are marked on
possible. Youshould include dimensions, date, the site map and discussed in the site description.
cultural affinity, descriptions of structures and Site mapsshould be clear and complete, andas
features (including dimensions), a discussion of the readable as possible, such that legible monochrome
artifact assemblage (including total or estimated photocopiescan be made.Mechanicallylabeled
numberof artifacts), andany other information maps are strongly encouraged.

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 21


Summarv and Recommendation8 rather than on assigning these words. Similarly,
we cannot give clientspermission to proceed with
construction and must be careful to avoid wordsor
The final section of a survey report contains a phrasing that might be construed as authorizingit.
briefsummaryof the project, its findings, and Project approval is issued by federal, state, local,
recommendations. The latter are especially and tribal authorities only after the review process
important in CRM reports. Recommendations must has been completed.
be site spec@c, and all cultural properties within
project limits (both new and previously recorded)
should be treated equally. Simply suggesting that Attachments. Data Compendia. and Appendixes
all sites within a right-of-way be testedisnot
enough; list them!When a site does notfall
completely withinproject limits specify howmuch Attachments, data compendia,. qnd appendixes
of it is withinthe project area and which structures contain sensitive information, and these sections
or features fall within project boundaries. Both the will be removedfrom copies distributed to the
client and the land managing agency wantto know public. This can include site location information,
exactly how much work will need to be done in the traditional cultural property data, and other
future. The more specificyou are,the better. sensitive or classified information, Check with the
Include a table or narrative discussion of site land managing agency to determine what types of
evaluations and qualify those evaluations. For sensitive information may be required and whom
example, if a site extends a short way into the they need to be released to. A data compendium
right-of-way but you don't think any further shouldalso be included, containing copies of
investigations are warranted in that area, discuss project and site forms, site photos (if required),
your rationale for that opinion. Also, coordinate and other pertinent information.
your recommendations withthe client so they will
reflect the actual treatment plannedfor the cultural
resources found during a survey. Do not General Observations
recommend project changes or management
options without consulting the client.
The wording and subject matterof survey
Be aware that certain words and phrases should reports must reflect a number of legal as well as
be avoidedin CRM reports unlessyouwere archaeological concerns, particularly in CRM
specifically hired to provide those sorts of work. Survey reports are readby a numberof
management information. Know the legal authorities, notallofwhom are archaeologists.
implications of these words if you use them. For Thus, the reports should be written in a
example, "significant," "significance," "mitigate," straightforward style using as little archaeological
"mitigation," "no effect," "no adverse effect," and jargon or slang as possible. It is important to
"adverse effect" have legal connotations that can communicate information inreports to everyone in
cause problems in the review process if they are a professional and positive way.
used incorrectly. Discussion of the project's effects
on cultural resources should only be prepared by Aside from the IegaMocational requirements,
the agency completing the consultations that are the purpose of the report is to describe cultural
required by historic preservation laws and not by resources. Do not give the artifacts and sites short
the archaeologist conducting the survey unless they shift. This may be the only time they will ever be
were specifically requested to do so by the client. visited, so you must provide as much information
Archaeologists
can
make observations and as possible within the constraints of time and
recommendations,but
they do not
actually budget. Describe the site and its features to the
determine the significance of cultural resources. best of your ability. No site is "typical," each site
Concentrate on describing whatiswithin the is unique. If you take the time to describe it, this
project area and on theimportance of the materials will be apparent to the reviewer. This philosophy

Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 22


appliesequallyto 1 0 s . If itisworth recording, of the most important things we do as
then spend a few extra minutes writing a complete archaeologists. Accurately locating and describing
description. sites is the first step in any
archaeological
endeavor. Interpreting surface remains and
It is also critical to produce clear, accurate maps descriptively disseminating that informationis a
of sites that were recorded or revisited during learned talent, the importance of which cannot be
survey. Site maps are important for two reasons. overestimated. Too often survey reports contain
First, they visually represent what you saw at the site descriptions that are briefto the point of
site when it was recorded. As such, they inadequacy. For example, a lithic artifact scatter
supplement and expand the narrative description. may be described asmeasuring about 8 by 4
Second, they show the modern setting of the site meters, containing a light scatter of obsidian and
and can be used to help relocate it. So be sure to basalt flakes. This tells us very little. The
place modern features on the map in addition to dimensions are unspecific. What constitutes a
those related to occupation of the site, particularly "light" scatter, and arethe artifacts really all
if they can be used to help find it again at some flakes? Concentrations of artifacts should be
time in the future. Make sure that everything discussed; counts or estimates of pottery, debitage,
placed on a map is clearly labeled! and tools should be given; other possible surface
features discussed; material types described; etc.
Archaeologists occasionally treat survey as a A few additional sentences will give the reviewer
poor relation because the information recovered is a much clearer idea of what the site actually looks
minimalwhencomparedto testing and data like.
recovery, This is unfortunate, since survey is one

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 23


APPENDIX 1: GLOSSARY OF TERMS

additional survey area Land examinedaround the perimeter of a project area to determine
whether cultural resources occur beyond project boundaries. Sometimes
referred to as a buffer zone,

ARMS Archeological Records Management Section, a branch of the Historic


Preservation Division.

client In CRM work, the person, company, or agency for whom a survey is
completed.

CRM Cultural resource management; also sometimes referred to as contract


archaeology.

cultural properties Areas containingculturally produced artifacts, features, or structures that


can be categorized as sites, isolated occurrences, or historical structures.
Definitions for these categories will vary between agencies.

data recovery The final step in the treatment of cultural resources in the field. Data
recovery is the excavation of sites that have been determined byHPD in
consultation with other interested parties to be important or have the
potential to yield important information and cannot be avoided by land-
altering activities.

HPD Historic Preservation Division; makes decisions concerning the


significance of cultural resources and whether a more intensive study
should be completed,and coordinates meeting the requirements of
historic preservation legislation.

inventory area The entire area examined by a survey, including the project area and any
additional survey area. Also referred to as survey area.

LA number The LA number is a unique designation assigned to each site registered


with ARMS,

land managing agency Federal, state, tribal, or local entities that own, control, or hold land in
trust for the public.

location description Description of a location using the township and section system of land
division.

NMCRLS New Mexico Cultural Resource Information Section. The statewide


cultural resource data base administered by ARMS.

NRHP National Register of Historic Places.

project area The zone that will be examined by a survey; the right-of-way or
construction area in CRM work.

Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 25


SRCP State Register of Cultural Properties.

survey The first phase of archaeological fieldwork, inwhich sites and other
cultural resources are located and documented.Also known as inventory.

testing Testing can range from limited useof a trowel or soil auger to assess the
potentialof an areatocontain subsurface remains, to more formal
programs to assess the extent, nature, andimportance of cultural
resources.

USGS topographic Topographic maps produced at scales of 1:24,OOO,1:25,OOO,


quadrangle 1:62,500, and 1:1oO,OOO by the U.S. Geological Survey.

UTM coordinates Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system; divides the earth into
a series of 1 krn square cells, each numbered separately by its distance
from the origin point of the grid system,

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 26


APPENDIX 2: LEGISLATION AFFECTING CULTURAL RESOURCES

There arethree basic levels oflawsand 666; U.S.C. 461 et seq.). This law declares it a
regulations affecting cultural resource surveys: national policy to identifl and preserve for public
federal, state, and local. Federal regulations affect use historic sites, buildings, objects, and
all projects conducted on lands administered by a antiquities of national significance for the
federal agency, in which federal funds are used, or inspiration and benefit of the people.
that have any other federalinvolvement. Thus,
work done on BLM or USDA Forest Service land Native
American
Graves
Protection
and
is covered by federal regulations, as are surveys RepatriationAct (NAGPRA) (P.L. 101-601).
on private landwhen a road is to be built or This act provides for the protection of Native
reconstructedwith
Federal
Highway American graves, human remains, funerary
Administration funds. Most state regulations objects, sacred objects, and cultural patrimony.
pertain only to projects conducted on state-owned The act discusses ownership, excavation of
land or to state agencies sponsoring state-funded remains, emergency discoveries, museum
undertakings regardless ofland ownership. An responsibilities, and repatriation.
exceptionto this is the NewMexicoUnmarked
Burial Statute, which applies to both state and National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (P.L.
private lands. Finally, local statutes havebeen 89-665; 80 Stat. 915; 16 U.S.C. 470), as amended
enacted in areas to protect cultural resources. (P.L. 94-422;90 Stat. 1313 and P.L. 94458; 90
Included in this category are such regulations as Stat. 1939). This act expands the national policy
the Navajo Nation Cultural Resources Protection toward cultural resources to include those of state
Act, which applies to lands controlled and owned andlocalaswell as national significance. These
by the NavajoNation(inaddition to federal resources should be preserved as a living part of
regulations). our community life and developed to give a sense
of orientation to the American people. It also
establishes the National Register of Historic
Federal Legislation Places, the Advisory Council on Historic
Preservation, state historic preservation oEcers,
and a matchinggrants-in-aid program for the
Antiquities Act of 1906 (P.L. 59-209; 34 Stat. National Trust. Section 106 directs allfederal
225; 16 U.S.C. 432, 433). This is the basic agencies to take into account the effects of their
legislation for the preservation and protection of actions on properties includedin or eligible for
antiquities on all federal land. It provides penalties inclusionin the NationalRegister of Historic
for those who excavate or appropriate the values Places and affords opportunities for the Advisory
without secretarial permit; provides for the Council on Historic Preservation to comment on
establishmentby presidential proclamation of the proposed actions and their effects. The
nationalmonuments from the publiclands;and procedures for completing these requirements and
provides for permits for investigation of cultural for assessing effect are included in 36 CFR 800.
and scientific resources to be issuedto public, The procedures for determining if properties are
scientific, and educational institutions. important and, as a result, require consideration
under the act are included in 36 CFR 60 (this
Uniform Rules and Regulations (43 CFR Part 3 establishes the National Registerof Historic Places
and DM Part 310.7.6). These rules were issued by andincludes the criteria usedto determine if a
the secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, and property is important).
War (now Defense) to carry out the provisions of
the Antiquities Act. It is important to realize that this act applies to
federal lands and undertakings that utilize federal
Historic Sites Act of 1935 (P.L. 74-292; Stat.
49 funds. Agencies such
as the Department of

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 27


Transportation, whoseactions may involve no quality of scientific, . . . historical, . . . [and]
federally ownedlandsat all, must still comply. environmental . . . resourcesandarchaeological
The acthasbeenamendedto provide for the values," and that, where appropriate, will preserve
withholding from disclosure to the public any andprotectcertainpubliclandsin their natural
information relating to the locationof sites or condition. The act authorizes the disposition,
objects listed on the National Register of Historic exchange,andacquisitionof land; requires the
Places if the disclosure of specific information inventory of public land; provides for long-range,
would create a risk of destruction or harm to such comprehensive resource planning; authorizes the
sites or objects. secretary of the interior to make rules and
regulationspertaining to the public lands; and
Section 4(f). This is a procedure included in the provides for the enforcement of public land laws
Department of Transportation Actof 1966. It and regulations.
requires the agencies in the Department of
Transportation toconsiderprudentand feasible Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979
alternatives to transportation undertakingsthat and as amended 1988 (ARPA): This law defines
have significant impacts on certain historic archaeological
resources
and
establishes
properties (or other defined properties), It does not procedures for conducting investigations. Italso
apply in situations where historic properties that sets penalties for unauthorized collection, removal,
are important only for their information potential or defacement.Felonychargesmaybeimposed
have been identified. when damage exceeds a value of $500.

National Environmental Policyof 1969 (P.L. 91- Onshore Oil and Gas Order No. 1 (OOGO#1)
190; 83 Stat. 852; 42 U.S.C. 4321). This law (43 CFR Part 3160). This order revises Notice to
establishes a national policy for the protection and Lesseesand Operators of Federal and Indian
enhancementof the environment. Part of the Onshore Oiland Gas Leases No. 6 (NTL-6). It
function of the federal government in protecting also
reflects
changes resulting from the
the environment is to "preserve important historic, consolidation of all onshore mineral leasing and
cultural, and natural aspects of our national operational functions in the Bureau of
Land
heritage.'I Management.

Executive
Order 11593 ("Protection and 43 CFR Part 7. This provides conditionsand
Enhancementof the Cultural Environment," 36 procedures for permitsto be issued for
C.F.R. 8921, May 13, 1971). This order directs archaeological work under ARPA.
allfederalagenciestoinventory their cultural
resources; to submit to the National Register of Curation of Federally Owned and Administered
Historic Places allqualified sites meeting the ArchaeologicalCollections(36 CFR Part 79).
criteria; to protect allnominated sites; and, in This law establishes standards and guidelines for
consultation withthe Advisory Councilon Historic the curationofmaterialremainsandassociated
Preservation 16 (U.S.C. 470i), to institute records recovered in association with federal
procedures to assure that federal plans
and projects and programs. It ensures that those
programs contribute to the preservation and collections are stored in facilities with adequate
enhancementnonfederally
of owned sites, long-term curatorial capabilities.
structures, and objects of historical, architectural,
or archaeological significance.
State and Local Legislation
Federal Land PolicyandManagementAct of
1976 (P.L. 94-579; 90 Stat. 2743; 43 U.S.C.
1701). This act directs the Bureau of Land Navajo NationCultural Resources Protection
Managementtomanage lands on the basis of Act (Tribal Council Resolution CMY-19-88). The
multiple use and in a manner that will "protect the agency responsible for protection, preservation,

Archaeological Survey Pmceduml Manual 28


and management planning for the Navajo Nation’s New Mexico Prehistoric and Historic Sites
cultural resources is the Navajo Nation’s Historic Preservation Act. This law is modeled after the
Preservation Department within the Division of Department of Transportation Act of 1966 4(Q.
Resources. This act establishes a permitting However, it applies only to projects that utilize
system: Class A,casual visitation of cultural state moneyand that affect properties already
properties; Class B, cultural resource inventory listed on the State Register of Cultural Properties
activities not involving collection or disturbance; or the National Register of Historic Places. It is
and Class C, cultural resource investigations notrelated to any federal historic preservation
involving collection, excavation, and ethnographic laws.
research.
New Mexico Unmarked Burial Statute, This law
New Mexico Cultural Properties Act, This is the protects human remains in unmarked burials on
state law that protects cultural properties. It state or private land. Like the federal act, it
requires that a permit be obtain4 to excavate a applies to the organization that finds them and not
cultural resource and requires state agenciesto to the sponsoring agency or the undertaking. The
consider, in consultation with the Historic statute includes a process to be followedwhen
Preservation Division, the effectofproposed human remains are encountered and
includes
undertakings on registered cultural properties, permit and penalty provisions.

Note: Parts of this appendix are excerpted and


revised from the Farmington ELM Procedures for
Compliance.

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 29


APPENDIX 3: SURVEY FORMS

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 31


LABORATORY OF ANTHROPOLOGY SITE RECORD FORM
LABORATORY OF ANTHROPOLOGY SITE RECORD
- 1. IDENTIFICATION8 OWNERSHIP
1

Number: I I I I I I I (call ARMS for sile registratian) 0 Site Update? (complete at lemt pp. 1-2; see Usetr Guide)

Site Name(s):
Site Other Numbers: Assigning
*Agency Number:

“Current Site Owner(s):

* aovernmem entitles: enter agency name& udminislrative unit; Private owners: emer w n e r name(?,) 8. address (if known); Land grants: enter grant
name.

- 2. RECORDING INFORMATION

NMCRIS Activity No.: I I I I I I , (assigned


during sire registration)

SiteField Number: Site Marker? no


(specify
yes ID#):
Recorder(s):
Agency: Recording Date: I I I I ,-, I I I I
(e& 12-APR-1994) day month year

Site
Accessibility 0accessible 0buried (sterile overburden)
(choose one): flooded urbanized 0notaccessible
Surface Visibility (% visible; choose one): 0 0 % 0 1 - 25 0 26 50 YO 0 51 - 75% OO
/ I -
76 99 YO 100 oi0
Remarks:
e o r d i n g Activities: 0photography
sketch mapping [3 shovel or trowel tests; probes
0 instrument mapping (e.g., plane table mapping) test excavation (forNR Eligibility, determinationof effect)
surface collection (controlledor uncontrolled) 0 excavation (data recovery)
c]in-field
analysis
artifact (specify):
activity
other
Description of Analysis or Excavation Activities:

Photographic Documentation:

Surface
Collection (choose one): surface
no collections controlled
surface
collections
(sample: <loo%)
uncontrolled surface collections 0controlled surface collection (complete:1000/0)
17 collections of specific items only other collection method (describe below)
Surface Collection Methods:

s o d s Inventory: 0sitelocationmap 0excavation,collection,analysis records fieldjournals,notes


0sketchmap@) 0photos,slides,andassoc.records 0 NM HistoricBuildingInventoryform
0instrumentmap(s) 0otherrecords(specify):
Repository for Original Site
Recorda:
Repository for Collected Artifacts:
- 4. RECOMMENDATIONS

*National
Register
Eligibility (choose
one): 0eligible 0
eligible
not 0 not sure
*Applicable
Criteria: 0important
assoc.
w/events
(a) distinctive
architectural style,(c)
etc.
assoc.
important
w/ persons (b) information
potential
(d)
Basis for Recommendation:

**Assessment of Project Impact:

~~ ~~~~ ~~~

"Treatment Recommendations:

'recordets OPINION only --this is NOT an officlal dsterminalionof NR sliglbillty "* pehormlng agency: consult wnh sponsorlng agency beforecompleting these data l t m s

- 5. SHPO CONSULTATIONS (for SHPO use only)


SHPO Determination (choose
one): eligible [7 not
eligible 0notdetermined Criteria: 0a. 0b. c. 0 d.
Date:
HPD staff: 1 I I-L 1 I 1-1 I I I I HPD Log NO.:
(e.g.,12-APR-1994) day month year

Register
Status: listed on National
Register 0 listed on StateRegister [7 formal
determination of eligibility
State RegisterNo.:
Remarks:
LA Number: I I I I 1 I Field Number:

-6. LOCATION 3

e r c e Graphics:
[7 USGS 7.5' topographic maps rectified
aerial
photos
Scale:
0other topographic
Scale:
maps 0unrectified
Scale:
photos
aerial
0GPS Unit 0other sourcegraphics(describe):
UTM Coordinates (center of site): Zone: I I I Eul I I I I , O l N, I I I I l~ I 1 0 ,
Nearest Named Drainage(name, dist., & dir.):

Nearest NumberedRoad (name, dist., & dir.):


In highway R-O-W? TT)
Directions to Site:

Town (if in city limits): State: County:


USGS Quadrangle Name and Date: USGS Code:
-
I I I I I 1-
-
I I I I I 1 -

Unplatted
Meridian Township Range Section Protracted
114 Sections
1 I I I N S I I 1 I E W 1 I I I - - ~

- 7. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
Dimensions:
Site X meters Basis for Dimensions (choose
one): 0estimated 0measured
ma%. length max. width

Site Area: sq m Basis for Area (choose one): estimated 0 measured Elevation: I I I I 1 I feet

SiteBoundariesComplete? (choose
one): yes no (explain):

Basis for SiteBoundaries: distribution of archeologicalfeatures & artifacts 0 modernfeatures or grounddisturbance


0topographicfeatures property
lines 0other criteria (specify):
DepositionalErosional Environment: 0alluvial aeolian 0colluvial 0residual 0 notapplicable (on bedrock)
r] other process (describe):
Stratigraphy & Depth of Arch.Deposits (choose one): 0unknownhot determined 0 no subsurfacedepositspresent
subsurface
deposits
present [7 stratified
subsurface
deposits
present
Estimated Depthof Deposits:

a i s for Depth
Determinations: 0 estimated shovel or trowel
tests 0core/auger tests 0excavations
road or arroyo cuts rodent
burrows other
observations
(Specify):
LA Number:

-
I I I

7. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION (cont.)


I I I

Observations on Subsurface Archeological Deposits:


I Number:
Field

. . . ...
4

NearestWater Source (chooseone): 0spring/seep [II perennialstream/river intermittentstream/arroyo 0 perenniallake


km Site:
lakelplayafromDistance
intermittent (specify): 0
source other
Local Vegetation (list observed plantsin decreasing order of dominance):
Overstory:

Understory:

". ..

Vegetation
Community
(choose
one
two):
or 0forest 0woodland r] grassland 0scrubland 0desert
scrubland
0marshland 0othercommunity(specify):
Topographic Location: bench 0dune 0low rise 0ridge
0blowout 0flood plain/valtey 0mesa/butte rockshelter

arroyolwash canyon rim 0foothill/mountain front mountain saddle

badlands 0cave hill slope 0open canyon floor talus stope


0base of cliff cliff/scarp/bluff hill top 0terrace
base of
talus
slope 0constrictedcanyon 0lavaflow(malpais) 0playa
other location (describe):
Observations on Site Setting:

- 8. ASSEMBLAGE DATA
Assemblage
Content (all components):
Prehistoric
Ceramics 0 diagnostic
ceramics
Lithics wholeceramic vessel 0 otherhistoricceramics
0 lithicdebitage 0 diagnosticceramics Other Artifacts and Materials
0 chipped-stonetools otherprehistoricceramics 0 bonetools
r] diagnosticprojectilepoints Historic Artifacts 0 faunalremains
0 non-locallithicmaterials diagnosticglassartifacts 0 macrobotanicalremains
0 stone tool manufacturingitems other glass artifacts architecturalstone
(cores, hammerstones, etc.)

ground-stone
tools 0
diagnostic
artifacts
metal
metal
artifacts
other
burned
adobe
firecracked rocklburned
caliche
0
whole ceramic vessel
0 otheritems(specify):
Number:
LA I I I I I J Number:
Field

- 8. ASSEMBLAGE DATA (cont.)


5
‘please provlde rough counts (t/-10 items) If estimaed frequency is less than 100 hems.

w m b l a g e Size (all components):


estimated
frequency
0 1s 1os 100s 1,000s ~10,000 *counts (if c: 100)
lithic artifacts (chooseone):
(incl. debirage)
0 0 0 a
prehist. ceramics (choose one): 0 0 0 0 0
historic
artifacts
(choose
one): 0 0 0 a
total assemblage size (choose one): [7 0 0 0 0 0
Dating
Potential: 0 radiocarbon dendrochronology 0 archeomagnetisrn 0 obsidian hydration
r] relativetechniques (e.g., typeseriation) 0 othermethods(specify):
Assemblage Remarks:

- 9. CULTURALmEMPORAL AFFILIATIONS
(attach continuation sheets for component #3 and greaier)
Total Number of Defined Components:

Component #1 (earliest) (‘See NMCRIS Guidelines for valid pencds, defauk


occupation dates, and phasdmplex names)

Cultural
Affiliation
(choose
one): 0 Paleoindian 0Archaic 0Anasazi r] Mixed Anasazi - Mogollon 0Mogollon
0Casas
Grandes 0Hohokam Plains
Village 0Plains
Nomad
Navajo Apache 0 Ute n Pueblo
Hispanic 0Anglo/Euro-American unknown affil. 0other affiliation(identify):
BasisforTemporalAffiliations(chooseone): 0not applicable basedonassociatedchronometricdataorhistoricrecords
0based on associated diagnostic artifact or feature types 0based on analytically derived assemblage dataor archeological experience
‘Period Date
Earliest Period: -
Period Latest (if any): (leave blank to use defauil omupatm dates)

Dating
Status: 0 radiocarbon 0 dendrochronology 0 archeornagnetism obsidian
hydration
relativedatingmethods(e.g.,typeseriation) othermethods(specify):
Basis for CuRuralTTemporal Affiliations:

SitelComponent
Type
(choose
one): Simple Feature@) 0Artifact
Scatter Artifact
Scatter w/ Features
0 Single Residence 0 MultipleResidence ResidentialComplex/Community r] Industrial
Military 0 RanchinglAgriculturaI 0 Transportation/Communication
c]Other Type (specify type and explain in Remarks):

*Ass=. PhaselComplex Name(s):


LA Number: I 1 I I I I Number:
Field
- 9. CULTURALflEMPORAL AFFILIATIONS (cont.)
6

Component #2
Cultural
Affiliation
(choose
one):
(.See NMCRIS Guldellnes for valid periods,default occupation dates, and p h a s d m p l e x names)

0 Paleoindian 0Archaic Anasazi Mixed Anasazi - Mogollon r] Mogollon


e
Casas Glandes Hohokam Plains
Village [7 Plains
Nomad 0 Navajo 0Apache 0Ute 0 Pueblo
0Hispanic 0AnglolEuro-American 0unknownaffil. 0other affiliation(identify):
Basis for TemporalAffiliations(chooseone): 0 not applicable based on associatedchronometric data or historicrecords
based on associated diagnostic artifactor feature types based on analytically derived assemblagedata or archeological experience
"Begin
*Period of Occupation: Date Date *End
Earliest Period: -
~

Latest Period (if any): (leave bknk to u88 default occupation dRte9)

Dating
Status: 0 0 dendrochronology
radiocarbon archeomagnetism 0 obsidian
hydration
0 relativedatingmethods(e.g.,typeseriation) 0 othermethods(specify): __I,,___II,.,__

Basis for Cultural~emporalAffiliations:

SitelComponent
Type
(choose
one): 0Simple
Feature(s) Artifact
Scatter
Artifact
Scatter
Features
w/
0Single
Residence Multiple
Residence 0 Residential
ComplexlCommunity 0 Industrial
U Military U Ranching/AgriculturaI L!Transportation/Communication
cify Type 0Other in Remarks): 6
Remarks:

"Assoc. PhaselComplex Name(s):

. ."

- 10. FEATURE DATA "Assoc.


*Reliable Component.
No.
Type Feature ID?Feature
Nos.
Observed ID, Notes

* mtnr " ? " foruncertainLdentifications "


.
see sactK)n 9 (Cuhural-Temporal Affiliations) for Component Nmbera; enterzeroforunknowncomponent assodations
SITE RECORD FORM CONTINUATION SHEETS
MUSEUM OF NEW MEXICO CONTINUATION SHEET
PROJECT: SITE: FEATURE: SHEET NO:

5 Squarem 10 the Ccntimeter


0 recycled/acld-free paper
LABORATORY OF ANTHROPOLOGY PROJECT RECORD FORM
‘.73 LABORATORY OF ANTHROPOLOGY PROJECT/ACTIVITY RECORD
- 1. PROJECT DATA
1

NMCRIS Project No.: 1 I I I I Project


Parent No.: e I I I I

(AFMS Prolea Nos. are Pssylned durlng me reglsratmnor prcfiela r m r d s ChcCXS: See NMCRlS USLfJ Guldel

Sponsoring Agency:
Project Name:
Project Dates: I I I-l I I I-l I I I I to , 1-1 I I 1-1 I I I I
day month year day month yew
ProjectType (choose one): cultural resource management
reglonal ortopical overview 0research project
0othertype (specify):
Project Description (optional):

Proposed
Action: [7 materials pit/stockpile a transmission line 2 military target Site 0reservoir/dam
a research project 0 railroad exchange
land 0
seismic
line water system
drill hole 0 road/highway 0fence
management
land
line project
other action (specify):
mining 0buried pipeline/cable 0trail a buildinglfacility
Other Permitting Agencies :

- 2 . GENERAL ACTIVITY DATA


(“s reglsaanonor preAsld rewrds c h e c k : sa* NMCRlS U S R ~
miry Ne$. are asslgnrd dunng 911s Quldd
S
NMCRIS A c t i v i t y No.: I I I I I

Performing Agency :

A c t i v i t y ID: A c t i v i t y Name:
Activity
Dates: I I I I
-I I I i 1 to I 1-1 1 1 - 1
I

day month year day Y month


A c t i v i t y Type: 0research design preparation 0archeological excavation E monitonng/damage assmt.
r] cult. res. overview/lit. review(C1ass 1) 0archeologicalsurvey (Class 2 or 3) 0ethnographic study
0archeologicaltesting 0collections and non-field studies
0other activity (specify):
Activity Description (optional):

Studies & Analyses


Performed: a faunalanalyses c!tree-ring
dating architecturalstudiE
lahic technology human osteology E pollen, phytolith analysis a historic artifact analyses
lithic tool typology arctieomagnetic
dating
macrobotanical analysis 0historic records
studies
ceramic technology obsidian hydrationdating 0site
distribution a soils, stratigraphy, geomorphology
0ceramic typology radiocabon dating
isolated artifact distribution 0geology, lithic material
sourcing
0ethnography/oralhistory other analysis (specify):

- 3. S U R V E Y ACTIVITIES
Surveyed:
AreaTotal acres Total Activity Area (if <1000/ocoverage): acres

Survey
Intensity (chooseone): intensive(BLMC1ass 3; 100%) reconnaissance (BLMClass 2; 4 O O Y o )
Survey
Configuration: totalsurvey units 0block
survey units 0linear survey units
0other survey units (specify):
Survey Scope (choose one): [7 non-selective (allcomponents recorded) 3 selective/thematic (selected componentsrecorded)
Survey Coverage (choose one): 17 systematic pedestriancoverage (e.g., systematic transects) 0other coverage method
Interval:
Standard
Survey meters Standard Crew Size:
NMCRIS A c t i v i t y No.:, . ,
- 3 . S U R V E Y ACTIVITIES (cont.)
~

Source Graphics: 0copies in report 0copies attached to repon or form


0USGS 7.5' topographic maps 0rectified aerialphotos Scale:
0
topographic
other Scale:
maps 0unrectified
Scale:
photos
aerial
a GPS Unit other source (describe)
+

Survey Results: sites discovered


registered:
and total sites visited
sites discovered and NOTregistered: Total isolated occurrences
recorded:
previously recorded sites revisited: I 0 Non-selectiveIO recording?
'Land Ownership: (a~chmnDnuaUonrhsOrnbrsddHronalIandownerg) Surveyed:
Acres
State:

* Governrncnr entiues: enteragencynme & adrnmISiratIvt unrr; Pnvate wnt1t and L & M Grana: mmDme rn!n OnePmatE'grOUP.

CountieslStates Surveyed:
USGS Quadrangles included insurvey (Quad name/Date): (aMcharnonwhonrnaersbraddltionalquads) USGS code:
I I I I I I
-
I I
-

Previously Registered Sites (LAnos.):


New Sites (Mnos.):

-
4 . NON S U R V E Y ACTIVITIES
Investigated Sites (LAnos.):

- 5 . R E P O R T INFORMATION
Document Type (chooseone): 0manuscript 0article in magazine
0report, monograph,
or book volume
report
series
in 0dissertationlthesis
0 title in edited collection 0article
journal
in (7 paper
presented at meeting
other document type (specify):
Year Issued: 0no date [IIdraft? Main Author:
iasf name, drst name mlddlc tnlual

Additional Authors:
R r a namt mldole rnmal 1-1 name. ..other author3 *..

Title # I :

~~ ~~~

Tit le# 2 (addtl. citation data):


Prepared By:
Preparing Agency Report No.:
Published By (publisher, city, state):
Report Recipient:
Other Agency Report Nos.:
Page 1 of 1
NMCRIS ACTIVITY AND SITE REGISTRATION REQUEST
Fax to (505) 476-1320 E-mail to rerrister[a),arms.state.nrn.us

NMCRIS Activity Number: (assigned by ARMS/NMCFUS-LEAVE BLANK)


Name: Today’s Date: 3-May-2002
Fax: Phone: E-mail:
Sponsoring Agency:
Performing Agency:
Report Recipient:
Total
acres surveyed: Tribal
acres surveyed: Total sites visited:
Type of Investigation: 0research design overview 0test excavations
0excavationddata recovery survey/inventory 0collectionshon-field studies
0monitorinddamage assessment ethnographic study
0 other activities (specify):
Activity ID:

Site Information:

* assigned by ARMVNMCRIS-LEAVE BLANK unless a site revisit (sitehas been previouslyassigned LA #)

*x --enter
“Structural”
“Non-structural”
or
--“Structural” sites have “features,” as definedby NMCRIS.
--“Non-structural” sites do not have features.
*x* --enter .‘Prehistoric”, “Historic”, “Prehist/Historic”, o r “Unknown”
--single component sites are either “Prehistoric”,“Historic”, or “Unknown.”
--multicomponent sites are “Prehistoric”, “Historic”, or, “Prehist/Historic”, but NOT“Unknown.”
(Le., ignore “Unknown” components in multicomponent sites)

Use the NMCRISActivitv and Site Repistration Extension Sheet to Reoister


Activities with more than10
FOREST SERVICE SITE INVENTORY FORMS
PROJECT NAME:. '. ' ' .
(Ref: FSM 23,61.7)

a14 t6

USFS
Site Nucnkr

hironmentrl rnd Site Oeseriptive Information faid #2) .


1

LANDFORM + ELEVATION

m:; 22
CULTURAL CLASSIFICATION:
(Reference: FSM 2361) , . ,
, .
. -- I

1. REPORT NUMBER: .. 2 REPORT DATE 3. ROUTING: Copies to


0 District . 0 SHPO
YEAR FOREST NUMBER. SERIES MONTH DAY YEAR 0 RO 0 2360'
0 so:
0 Other:

......
. . , .

lJONltp.2

7. CONSULTAWONICLEARANCE
Am M T
OIN SOF CLEARANCE: 0 NONE (No potentially eligible sites in project area)
0 AVOID sites specified below 0 MONITOR sites specHied below '
0 REWRT new sites to Fomt ArchdoQkt - 0 OTHEWAWmONALCOMMENTS

0 mt p . 2
8. ADOiTiONAL FIELDWORK REQLIIRU): 0 WAUIATE sites specified beW 0 Other:

C REPORTACCEPTED: 0. CLEARANCE RECOMMENDED.


OYES O N 0 - OYES O N 0 O N l A FORESTARCHEOLOGIST DATE
E.EFFECT ON CULTURAL RESOURCES:
0 No E f f d 0 No Adverse 0 A ~ V W S R
~ NIA 0 Benefichi
F. TRANSMlllAl TO SHPO: Consultation on:
Cl Effect 0 Eligibility 0 Info Only
FORESTSUPERVISOR DATE
3 NO .
G. SHPO CONCURRENCE 0 YES 0 YES. par comment below I + .
Comments: (0.Additional Comments attached)

SHPO . DATE

H. CLEARANCEAPPROVED YES a NO
.. . . .. .
. .,

8. RANGER DISTRICT .I I- 1 : 23. PROJECT LOCATION (Surveys only): . ..

9. PROJECT FUNCTION: u T. R. Sec.

10. PRIMARY
ACTIVITY WPE u T. R. SeC.

11. SECONDARY ACTIVITYTYPE u T. R, Sec.

12. PROGRAMMING:
. ,
U T. R. Sec.

1-1
13. TOTAL PROJECT ACREAGE: 24 INSTITUTIONCONWCTING PROJECTSURVEY:
. .
,
,
.
.
14. ACREAGE COMPLETELY Irl
SURVEYED: I 't I I 1 ~ M P L E : II 1% Name of Institution

16.ACREAGE RESURVEYED 1 I I I I 1
25. AVERAGE NUMBER OF
17. TOTALNUMBER OF SITES 18. NEW INOlVlOUAlSUSED: . I I I !;.
INPROJECTAREA: I I 1 I SITES: I I I I
26.AVERAGE INDIVIOUAU
TRANSECTSPACING I I I 1 (Feet)
19. SITES EVALUATED 20.SITESEVALUATED
I
ELIGIBLE I I I NOTELIGISE L I I 1
27. FIELD HOURS
(By ProfessionalCRM Specialist,
' Request SHPO Concurrence) 28. lAB/LIS HOURS.
29.TRAVEL HOURS:
21. SITES INSPECTED, I

30.ADMIN. HOURS:
MONTORED, ENHANCED, ETC.: (RD- SO:-)
(Projects other than survey, evaluation)
31. MILEAGE u
22 RECOMMENDED DflERMINATION 32. PER DIEM RATE U
OFEFFECT: u (Initial: )
33. DAYS OF PER OEM: W
(By USFS Professional CRM Specialist)
1. No Effect
34.COST WEIGHT FACTOR u
2. No Adverse Effect
3.Adverse Effect
. 35.COST(CO0E): LI
4. Not Applicable or
5. Beneficial Effect
36.ACTUAL COST u
37. REMARKS/CONTINUATIONfrom page 1: