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12/13/2011

NFPA 70E ELECTRICAL SAFETY

Presented by:

GTRI REGION 4
Thomas Dean
Steven Owen
Steve Davis

Electrical Safety, Arc Flash/Blast Injury


Prevention for Worker
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 1 2009 Edition

Understanding Electrical Hazards

Shock
This training course was produced under grant number
Over 30,000 non-fatal electrical shock accidents occur
SH-1942-09-06-F13 from OSHA, USDOL. It does not
each year Necessarily reflect the views or policies of the US
Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names,
Over 600 people die from electrocution each year
commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement
Electrocution remains the fourth (4th) highest cause By the US Government.
of industrial fatalities
Most injuries and deaths could be avoided

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

PART 1: INTRODUCTION LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Why Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protection?


Electrical Safety What is electrical safety?
OSHA & NFPA 70E What does electrical safety consist of ?
What does electrical safety look like?
How does electrical safety apply to your
for workplace?
Which standards apply to electrical safety?
Maintenance Techs, Electricians and others How to Recognize Electrical Hazards in the
working on or near exposed energized Workplace
electrical conductors, parts or equipment
operating at 50 volts or more

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Why Electrical Safety & Arc Flash


LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Protection

How to Identify Electrical Hazards in the


Workplace
How to Establish an Electrical Safe Work
Condition
How to Evaluate Voltage & Arc Flash Hazard
Potential - Tables vs. Calculation
How to Properly Select & Use PPE
How to Perform Work on or Near Energized Parts
Electrical Safe Work Practices
How To Properly Measure Electrical Voltage &
Amperage - Meter Safety
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Arc Flash Injuries Severity Factors


Electric shock
Power amount of
Severe burns energy at the arc
Blindness
Distance of the worker
Blast injuries to the arc
Shrapnel wounds
Time duration of the arc
Lung blast injuries exposure
Ruptured eardrums
Pressure wave injuries

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Electric Shock Injury Burn


Electric Shock Injury Burn

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Severe Burns from Arc Flash Blindness


Flash of light is so intense it can damage
vision.

Arc flash up to 35,000F


Sun 9,900F
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Shrapnel Wounds Blast Lung Injury (BLI)


Arc blast can cause inhalation injuries.
For example:
Inhaling high temperature
copper vapor
More than 100 toxic
substances can be found
Material and molten metal in the fumes.
can hit the body at over
700 miles per hour. BLI + Burns = Greater chance of death
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Hearing Damage Arc-Flash

Skin Time of skin Damage caused


Temperature temperature
Arc blast at 2 feet 145 decibels
110 F 6 Hours Cell breakdown
starts

Jet engine at 200 feet 132 decibels 158 F 1 sec. Total cell
destruction
176 F 0.1 sec Curable burn
Pain threshold 130 decibels 200 F 0.1 sec Incurable 3rd
degree burns

Skin Temperature Tolerance Relationship


Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Pressure Wave Injuries


What is Electrical Safety

Arc blast can throw a worker:


Off a ladder
Into nearby walls or equipment.
2000 lbs/ft2 pressure on the body can cause:
Concussion
Collapsed lungs
Other internal injuries

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

What is Electrical Safety What is Electrical Safety

Protecting workers from the unexpected


start-up, or unexpected reenergization of Documented Electrical Safe Work Practices
equipment, circuits, or parts while Programs
maintenance is being performed. Selection, Use, Maintenance, Storage of
Protecting workers from exposure to live Proper PPE
electrical parts Employee Training

Includes overhead and underground electrical


distribution, including systems, equipment,
circuits, and parts.
IT IS MANDATORY!
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Whos Responsible for Safety? Inexperience = Accidents

The Employer is responsible for


OSHA requirements Employees Who
Electrical Safety Program 20% Have Less Than 12
Safety Policies and Procedures Months Experience
Safety Training at a Different or
80%
New Task, Account
The Employee is responsible for For 80% of ALL
Implementing procedures Accidents
The Owner is inherently responsible
for
Note:
Contractors on site
The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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What Does Electrical Safety


Which Standard Applies?
Look Like?
OSHA or NFPA 70E

Dont forget OSHA solicited the services


of the NFPA to establish new rules and
regulations in a standard that OSHA could
choose to enforce. (Mid 1990s).

This became known as NFPA 70E 2000.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Lockout Tagout Gloves

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Leather Gloves
Dated Insulated Gloves

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Voltage Rated Gloves Gloves

CLASS PROOF VOLTAGE COLOR MAX USE Volts 130.7 Personal and Other Protective
OO 1,000 BEIGE 500 Equipment.
O 5,000 RED 1,000 Personal Protective Equipment.
1 10,000 WHITE 7,500 Arc Flash Protective Equipment.
2 20,000 YELLOW 17,000 Leather or FR gloves shall be worn where
3 30,000 GREEN 26,500 required for arc flash protection.
4 40,000 ORANGE 36,000 Where insulating rubber gloves are used
for shock protection, leather protectors
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
shall be worn over rubber gloves.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Voltage Rated Gloves & Tool


Does not meet requirements of
Testing 120.1(5) NFPA 70E

MSHA Requires testing yearly


Federal OSHA Requires testing every 6 month
Tested date is marked on gloves, equipment
and hot sticks
Must be inspected and field tested before
each use (visual and roll-up test)

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Meter Safety-Does meet requirements of


Voltage Rated Tools
120.1(5) NFPA 70E

CAT III-600 V CAT IV-1000 V CAT III-


CAT IV -1000V CAT III-600 V 600 V

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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How Does Electrical Safety


Apply to Your Workplace What Voltages are Present?

120V
480V
4160V

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

What Voltages are Present? What Voltages are Present?

20KV
7.2KV 138KV
13.8KV 345KV
14.4KV 500KV
750KV

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Based on Voltages & Hazards


What Voltages are Present? Present - Establish Procedures
Determine Voltage & Arc Flash
Hazards
Determine Who is Exposed
Determine Protective Measures
Determine OSHA Requirements
Determine What NFPA 70E
Procedures that Will be Followed

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Which Standards Apply? NFPA 70E 2009 Edition

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Which Standard Applies? Standards US National Fire Protection Association


OSHA or NFPA 70E -Standard NFPA 70E

Canadian Standards Association


-Standard Z-462

OSHA Institute of Electrical &


Electronics Engineers
1910.269 Over 600 Volts Canadian Electrical Code -Standard 1584
-Rule 2-306
1910.331-335 600 Volts or Less
1910.132(d) Hazard Assessment
Occupational Health & Safety Act
1910.137 PPE US Occupational Safety & -Applicable regulations
Health Administration
1910.331-335 600 Volts or Less
1910.269 Over 600 Volts
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

How to Recognize Electrical


Hazards in the Workplace What is an Electric Arc?

An electric arc is a short circuit through the air.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Characteristics of an Electric Arc


What Causes Arc Flash?
An electric arc will oscillate and escalate if Dust, impurities, corrosion, condensation, animals
not constrained. Spark discharge from:

A single-phase electric arc can engulf a Accidental touching

second or third conductor in only two cycles. Dropping tools

Over-voltages across narrow gaps


An electric arcs current propels the arc
Failure of insulating materials
away from the power source.
Equipment failure

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Forms of Arc Flash Energy Human Body Resistance


Hand to hand resistance = 1000 ohms
Noise
120 VAC circuit
Expansion
Ohms Law formula;
Vaporization I=E/R
120 / 1000 = 0.120 amps (120 milliamps)
Thermal radiation

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Human Body Resistance


How Can We Get Shocked
Shock
Human body resistance (hand to hand) across the
electricity travels in closed circuits
body is about 1000
shock occurs when the body becomes part of the
electrical circuit
Ohms Law: I = V / R (Amps.)
V = 480 volts / 1000 (1) short circuit
= 0.48 amps (480 mA) (2) ground fault
(3) metallic part of enclosure becomes energized
The National Electrical Code considers 5 mA to
be the safe upper limit for children and adults.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Shock
Current, Not Voltage causes Electric Shock Human Body Resistance
SKIN
outer layer of skin horny layer provides resistance to
electricity but varies from individual to individual
0.5 - 3 mA - Tingling sensations HEART
controlled by internal electrical impulses and disturbed by
3 - 10 mA - Muscle contractions and pain outside electrical impulses causing fibrillation and halting
of pumping action. Death can quickly occur.
10 - 40 mA - Let-go threshold MUSCLE
30 - 75 mA - Respiratory paralysis also controlled by electrical impulses
shock can result in loss of muscular control and lack of
100 - 200 mA - Ventricular fibrillation ability to release an electrical conductor

200 - 500 mA - Heart clamps tight


1500 +Note:
mA - training
The Tissue
Note:Reaction will varyand
materialswith Organs
were frequency
developed andstart
under of to
time 70E
NFPA burn
exposure Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Humans Body Resistance


Human Body Resistance continued.
The Severity of Shock Most common=
affected by: Burns
amount of current Three types of burns
path of the current electrical
length of time arc
The severity of the thermal contact
Electrical burns are the
shock can cause result of current flowing
tremendous damage through the tissues or
bones
than is visible.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

You know about shock, dont Electrical Arc


forget ... Molten Metal
35,000 F

Arc Pressure Waves


arc burns make up a large portion of the injuries
from electrical malfunction
Sound Waves
electrical arcs can occur due to poor electrical
contact or failed electrical insulation
Blast
Copper Vapor: Shrapnel
pressure developed by the near instantaneous Solid to Vapor
heating of the air surrounding the arc an from the Expands by
expansion of the metal as it is vaporized 67,000 times Hot Air-Rapid Expansion

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E


Intense Light
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Electrical Arc Burn Injuries

Occur from high temperature sources


Deep and slow to heal Do You Have Any Equipment
Involve large areas of body Such As
Distance from arc determines severity

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

480V Fused Disconnect Current Limiting Fuse

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

480V Starter Cabinet Current Limiting Fuse

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Do You Have Any Plant or


Construction Electrical Voltage or
Arc Flash Hazards Such As

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

How to Establish a Electrical Safe Best Solution - Take Equipment to a


Work Condition Zero Energy State and Lock it Out

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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The Most Electrical Dangerous


Jobs

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Remove Bolted Cover

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition 12/13/2011

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The Next Level Down

Dangerous Electrical Jobs

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

The Next Level Down

Dangerous Electrical Jobs

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

The Next Level Down

Ge mvgr.jpg

Dangerous Electrical Jobs

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Before Starting Work On or Near


Energized Parts

1.Design Electrical Systems for Safety


2. Use Appropriate Voltage Rated
Insulated Tools
3. Use Appropriate PPE, including FR
Clothing

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Insulated Screwdrivers

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Fuses

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

How to Evaluate Voltage & Arc Before Work Can Proceed On or Near
Flash Hazard Potential Exposed Energized Parts

We Must Perform:

Shock Hazard Analysis


Shock Protection Boundary

Arc Flash Analysis


Arc Flash Boundary

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Flash Protection Boundary (FPB)


Must wear appropriate PPE
Calorie Studies vs. Tables FPB dependent on fault level and time duration.
Equipment

Calorie Studies
Performed by Professionals
Determines Exact Hazards
Costly
Tables
Can be Used Effectively
Must Know How to Navigate Prohibited Shock Boundary: Qualified Persons Only. PPE as
if direct contact with live part
Can Use to Select Proper PPE
Restricted Shock Boundary: Qualified Persons Only

Limited Shock Boundary: Qualified or Unqualified Persons*


* Only if accompanied by Qualified Person

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: Note:
shock Theboundaries dependent
training materials onunder
were developed system
NFPAvoltage
70E level
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Restricted Approach Boundary


Limited Approach Boundary
The limited approach boundary is a A restricted approach boundary is a shock
shock protection boundary to be protection boundary to be crossed only by
crossed by only qualified persons (at qualified persons (at a distance from a live
a distance from a live part) which is part) which, due to its proximity to a shock
not to be crossed by unqualified hazard, requires the use of shock
persons unless escorted by a protection techniques and equipment when
qualified person. crossed.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Default Flash Protection


Prohibited Approach Boundary Boundary *

A prohibited approach boundary is a shock 600 volt systems = 4 feet (Ralph Lee
protection boundary to be crossed only by Formulae)
qualified persons (at a distance from a live Above 600 volt systems = distance at
part) which, when crossed by a body part which 1.2 cal/cm2 (slow clearing time)
or object shall require the same protection Above 600 volt systems = distance at
as if direct contact is made with a live part. which 1.5 cal/ cm2 (clearing time of 0.1
sec or less)
* 2009 Edition
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Selecting Flash Protection


NFPA 70E - 2009
130.3 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis.
1. Calculate incident energy and select
An arc flash hazard analysis shall
PPE based upon that calculation.
determine the ARC Flash Protection
2. Select hazard/risk category based on Boundary and the personal protective
task, then select PPE based upon equipment that people within the Arc
hazard/risk category. Flash Protection Boundary shall use.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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NFPA 70 E NFPA 70E - 2009


The arc flash hazard analysis shall be The arc flash hazard analysis shall take
updated: into consideration:
when a major modification or renovation takes
place. the design of the over-current protective
It shall be reviewed periodically, not to exceed device and
5 years, to account for changes in the electrical its opening time, including its condition of
distribution system that could affect the results maintenance.
of the arc flash hazard analysis.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

NFPA 70E - 2009 NFPA 70E - 2009


130.3 cont. Exception No. 1: An arc flash 130.3 cont. Exception No. 2:
The
hazard analysis shall not be required
where all of the following conditions exist: requirements of 130.7(C)(9),
(1) The circuit is rated 240 volts or less. 130.7(C)(10), and 130.7(C)(11)
(2) The circuit is supplied by one transformer. shall be permitted to be used
(3) The transformer supplying the circuit is in lieu of a detailed incident
rated less than 125 kVA.
energy analysis.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

NFPA 70E 2009

Section 130.3(C)
NFPA 70E NFPA 70E 2009

PPE Selection
Use of Tables Exercise
Arc Flash Hazard
Marking Requirement

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Label Electrical Systems

Arc Flash & Shock Hazard


Appropriate PPE Required
Flash Hazard Category Flash Protection Boundary

Min. Arc Rating (cal/cm2 Limited Approach Boundary

Volt A/C Shock Hazard When: Restricted Approach Boundary

Prohibited Approach Boundary

FLASH PPE SHOCK PPE


Cotton underwear FR shirt Hard hat Leather gloves Class

short - sleeve shirt FR pants Face shield Voltage gloves

Long - sleeve shirt FR coveralls Ear protection Leather shoes V-Rating

Long pants (jeans) Flash suit Safety glasses

Flash hood Safety goggles

Equipment ID: Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Label Electrical Systems Label Electrical Systems

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

How to Select & Use PPE


Label Electrical Systems

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Safeguards for Personnel Protection


1910.335

Use of Protective Equipment 1910.335(a)(1)


Use of insulated rubber gloves
Various Classes
Inspection of Protective Equipment
Inspection Methods
Storage of Insulating Equipment
Leather Protectors
Inspection and Testing of Insulating Equipment

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Voltage Rated Gloves & Tool


Voltage Rated Gloves Testing
Federal OSHA Requires testing every 6
CLASS PROOF VOLTAGE COLOR MAX USE Volts months
OO 1,000 BEIGE 500 MSHA Requires testing every year
O 5,000 RED 1,000 Tested date is marked on gloves, equipment
1 10,000 WHITE 7,500 and hot sticks
2 20,000 YELLOW 17,000 Must be inspected and field tested before
3 30,000 GREEN 26,500 each use (visual and roll-up test)
4 40,000 ORANGE 36,000
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Preventing Electrical Hazards -


Personal Protective Equipment PPE

Proper foot
Use electrical rated protection (not tennis
protective equipment shoes)
Rubber insulating
when working in areas gloves, hoods,
where there is a sleeves, matting, and
blankets
potential electrical
Hard hat (insulated -
hazard. nonconductive)

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Preventing
Electrical More on PPE ...
Hazards - PPE Use, store & maintain your
Electrical PPE in a safe,
Proper foot reliable condition
protection (not
tennis shoes) Wear nonconductive head
Rubber insulating protection
gloves, hoods, Wear protective equipment for
sleeves, matting,
and blankets the eyes or face wherever
there is danger of injury to the
Hard hat
(insulated - eyes or face
2009 Edition nonconductive)
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition

PPE Inspection AND.


Electrical PPE with any of the following Any of the following texture changes:
defects may not be used swelling, softening, hardening, or
A hole, tear, puncture, or cut becoming sticky or inelastic.
An embedded foreign object
Ozone cutting or ozone checking (the Any other defect that damages the
cutting action produced by ozone on insulating properties
rubber under mechanical stress into a
series of interlacing cracks)
Dont use defective Electrical PPE!

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

PPE Testing PPE Testing

Rubber insulating line hose Rubber insulating blankets


Upon indication that insulating value is Before first issue and every 12 months
suspect
Rubber insulating gloves
Rubber insulating covers Before first issue and every 6 months
Upon indication that insulating value is
suspect. Rubber insulating sleeves
Before first issue and every 12 months

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Safeguards for Personnel Protection Insulated Tools


1910.335 1910.335 (a)(2)

Insulating Equipment Failing to Whenever employees


Pass Inspection are working near
exposed energized
Rubber Insulating Line Hose and parts, they must use
Covers insulated tools.
Head Protection
Flash Protection

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Alerting Techniques
NFPA 70E - 2009 1910.335 (b)

130.3(C) Equipment Labeling. Safety Signs and Tags


Equipment shall be field marked with Barricades
a label containing the available
incident energy Alternate Alerting Techniques

or required level of PPE.


Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Electrical Switching Operations Electric Switching Operations


Major cause of personnel injury Prevention continued.
Mechanism Keep personnel 1.2 meters to either side - away
from the front of the switch.
Prevention
Selection of the side to stand at will depend on the
Wearing safely glasses
proximity of the handle to one side or the other.
Wearing gauntlet-type gloves
The hinges are as likely to rupture as the latch is to
Standing to one side of the switch, not in front of it.
burst.
Use the hand nearest the switch to operate the handle.
Firm and smart operation is desirable, never
Turn the opposite way of the switch as it is operated.
indecisive teasing of the switch.
Following these steps will minimize injury if an
electrical explosion were to occur.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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This is closer to what it This is how it SHOULD be done!!!!!!!!!!!


should look like!
This is what NFPA 70E
suggests, and what OSHA
expects!
OSHA 1910.335(a)(1)(i)
NFPA 70E Table 3-3.9.1
/ 3-3.9.2

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Article 130 Article 130


Working On or Near Live Parts Working On or Near Live Parts

Personal and Other Protective Foot and Leg Protection


Equipment. Where insulated footwear is used as protection
against step and touch potential, dielectric overshoes
Arm and Hand Protection shall be required.
Employees shall wear rubber insulating gloves Insulated soles shall not be used a primary
where there is a danger of hand and arm injury from electrical protection.
electric shock due to contact with live parts.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Article 130 Article 130


Working On or Near Live Parts Working On or Near Live Parts

130.7 Personal and Other Protective 130.7 Personal and Other Protective
Equipment. Equipment.
(C) Personal Protective Equipment. (C) Personal Protective Equipment.
(8) Standards for Personal Protective (9) Selection of personal protective
Equipment. Personal protective equipment shall Equipment. When selected in lieu of the flash
conform to the standards given in Table hazard analysis of 130.3(A), Table
130.7(C)(8). 130.7(C)(9)(a) shall be used to determine the
hazard/risk category for a task. For tasks not
listed a flash hazard analysis is required.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Article 130 Article 130


Working On or Near Live Parts Working On or Near Live Parts

130.7 Personal and Other Protective 130.7 Personal and Other Protective
Equipment. Equipment.
(C) Personal Protective Equipment. (C) Personal Protective Equipment.
(10) Protective Clothing and Personal (11) Protective Clothing Characteristics.
Protective Equipment Matrix. Once the Table 130.7(C)(11).
Hazard/Risk Category has been identified, Table
130.7(C)(10) shall be used to determine the
required personal protective equipment (PPE)
for the task.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Article 130 Article 130


Working On or Near Live Parts Working On or Near Live Parts

Factors in Selection of Protective Clothing: Factors in Selection of Protective Clothing


contd. :
Clothing and equipment that provide worker
protection from shock and arc flash hazards shall be
utilized. If FR clothing is required, it shall cover associated
parts of the body as well as all flammable apparel
Clothing and equipment required for the degree of
exposure shall be permitted to be worn alone or Allow movement and visibility.
integrated with flammable, non-melting apparel.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Article 130 Article 130


Working On or Near Live Parts Working On or Near Live Parts

Layering: Outer Layers must meet the following criteria:

Non-melting, flammable fiber garments shall be Garments worn as outer layers over FR clothing,
permitted to be used as under layers in conjunction such as jackets or rainwear, shall also be made from
with FR garments in a layered system for added FR material.
protection.
If non-melting, flammable fiber garments are used as
under layers, the system arc rating shall be sufficient
to prevent break open of the innermost FR layer at
the expected arc exposure incident energy level to
prevent ignition of flammable under layers.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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Article 130 Article 130


Working On or Near Live Parts Working On or Near Live Parts

Underlayers must meet the following: Coverage:


Clothing shall cover potentially exposed areas as
Meltable fibers such acetate, nylon, polyester, completely as possible. Shire sleeves shall be
polypropylene, and spandex shall not be permitted in fastened at the wrists, and shirts and jackets shall be
fabric under layers (underwear) next to the skin. closed at the neck.
Fit:
Tight-fitting clothing shall be avoided. Loose-fitting
clothing provides additional thermal insulation
because of air spaces. FR apparel shall fit properly
such that it does not interfere with the work task.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Article 130 Article 130


Working On or Near Live Parts Working On or Near Live Parts

Interference: Flash Suits must meet the following requirements:

Flash suit design shall permit easy and rapid removal by the wearer. The entire
The garment selected shall result in the least suit, including the hoods face shield, shall have an arc rating that is suitable for
the arc flash exposure.
interference with the task but still provided the
necessary protection. Where exterior air is supplied into the hood, the air hoses and pump housing
shall be either covered b FR materials or constructed of non-melting and
nonflammable materials.
The work method, location, and task could influence
the protective equipment selected.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Article 130 Article 130


Working On or Near Live Parts Working On or Near Live Parts

Face Protection must meet the following requirements: Hand Protection must consist of:

Face shield shall have an arc rating suitable for the arc flash
exposure. Leather or FR gloves shall be worn where required
for arc flash protection.
Face shields without an arc rating shall not be used.
Where insulating rubber gloves are used for
Eye protection (safety glasses or goggles) shall always be worn shock protection, leather protectors shall be worn
under face shield or hoods. over rubber gloves.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

27
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PPE-OSHA, 1910.132(a)
Protective equipment, including personal protective
equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities,
protective clothing, respiratory devices, and protective
shields and barriers, shall be provided, used, and
maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition
wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of
processes or environment, chemical hazards,
radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants
encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or
impairment in the function of any part of the body
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
through absorption, inhalation or physical contact.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Why do you need a FR Clothing


PPE-Employee Owned Program?

Employee-owned equipment. Where Why do you need to pay attention to NFPA


employees provide their own protective 70E and OSHA requirements for employee
protection?
equipment, the employer shall be
responsible to assure its adequacy,
including proper maintenance, and Check out the cost comparison.
sanitation of such equipment. Examples from Steel Grip

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Why do you need a FR Clothing Why do you need to Wear FR


Program? Ex 1 Clothing?

Accident cost before FR program Accident cost AFTER implementing FR


program
Medical $ 812,677.00
Medical $ 9,213.00
Indemnity 773,613.00
Indemnity 1,890.00
Vocational 9,948.00 Vocational 1,195.00
Expenses 931.00 Expenses 10.00
TOTAL $ 1,597,229.00 TOTAL $ 12,308.00

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

28
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Arc Flash Rated Face Shield

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Balaclava Sock Hood

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

29
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Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

How to Perform Work on or Near


Energized Parts Safe Work Practices
Voltage Testing

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Safe Work Practices


Amperage Testing Applies to
both
breakers and
disconnects.

The Left
Hand Rule
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

30
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An electrically safe work condition shall be


NFPA 70E -2009
achieved when performed in accordance with the
procedures of 120.2 and verified by the following
Article 120 Establishing an process:
1. Determine all of possible sources of electrical
Electrically Safe Work supply to the equipment (check drawings, diagrams,
and identification tag).
Condition
2. After properly interrupting load current, open
disconnecting device(s) for each source.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

120.1 contd Article 120


Establishing an Electrically Safe
3 Wherever possible, 6. Where it could be
verify blades are fully reasonably anticipated Work Condition
open or ... that the conductors or Each employer shall identify, document, and
4 Apply lockout tagout circuit parts being de- implement lockout/tagout procedures conforming to
devices (doc. policy). 120.3 to safeguard employees from exposure to
energized could contact
5. Use adequate voltage electrical hazards.
detector. Test each other exposed energized
phase conductor or conductors or circuit
circuit part both phase- parts, apply ground The lockout/tagout procedure shall be appropriate
to-phase and phase-to- connecting devices rated for the experience and training of the employees and
ground. for the available fault conditions as they exist in the workplace.
duty.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Article 120
Establishing an Electrically Safe
Work Condition
(A) General. All electrical circuit conductors
and circuit parts shall be considered
energized until the source(s) of energy is (are)
removed, at which time they shall be
considered deenergized.
Not considered to be in electrical safe work
condition until all of the applicable requirements
of 120 have to be met before it is considered de-
energized.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

31
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Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Article 120 Article 120


Establishing an Electrically Safe Establishing an Electrically Safe
Work Condition Work Condition
120.2 (B) Principles of Lockout/Tagout 120.2 (C) Responsibility.
Execution.

(1) Procedures.
(1) Employee Involvement.
(2) Form of Control.
(2) Training.
(3) Audit Procedures.
(3) Plan.
(4) Control of Energy.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

NFPA 70E - 2009 NFPA 70 E


120.2(D)(2) Simple Lockout/Tag-out Complex Lockout/Tagout Procedure:
Procedure.
Requires written plan of execution.
Simple:
Authorized employee for a set number of
Involves only a qualified person(s) de-energizing
one set of conductors or circuit part source for the employees working under the protection of
sole purpose of performing work with in the Limited a group lockout/tagout device(such as an
Approach Boundary electrical equipment shall be operation lock).
considered to be a simple lockout/tagout.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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(c)(2)
Lockout/Tagout
NFPA 70E - 2009 1910.147

Each authorized employee shall affix a OSHA HAS DETERMINED THAT LOCKOUT
personal lockout or tagout device to the group IS, BY FAR, THE MOST EFFECTIVE MEANS
lockout device, group lockbox, or comparable OF PROVIDING EMPLOYEE PROTECTION,
mechanism when he or she begins work, and AND IS PREFERRED OVER TAGOUT.
shall remove those devices when he or she
stops working on the machine or equipment OSHA has not accepted the argument that a
being serviced or maintained. qualified employee can work on energized circuits
Tag must be used with lock out device with a as safely as he or she can work on de-energized
statement prohibiting the removal of device or circuits.
operation of the equipment

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Selection and Use of Work


Article 130
Working On or Near Live Parts
Practices - 1910.333
130.1 Justification for Work Intent of 1910.333 continued
130.2 Approach Boundaries to Live Parts 1) De-energize the equipment involved and lockout
130.3 Flash Hazard Analysis its disconnecting means, or
130.4 Test Instruments and Equipment Use 2) De-energize the equipment and tag the
130.5 Work On or Near Uninsulated disconnecting means if the employer can
demonstrate that tagging as safe as locking, or
Overhead Lines
3) Work the equipment energized if the employer
130.6 Other Precautions for Personnel Activities can demonstrate that it is not feasible to de-energize
130.7 Personal and Other Protective Equipment it.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Usually not insulated


Examples of equipment
that can contact power Overhead Lines
lines:
Crane Lines must be de-energized
Ladder and grounded before work
Scaffold
is begun.
Backhoe
If protective measures are
Scissors lift
used, these shall include:
Raised dump truck Guarding
bed
Isolating
Aluminum paint roller Insulating

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

33
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Vehicular & Mechanical


Equipment Unqualified Persons
When unqualified persons are working near
Any vehicle (except construction cranes at overhead lines, in an elevated position, such as from
least 20 feet) that is capable of contacting an aerial device, the person and the longest
conductive object that he or she may be able to
overhead lines must be operated so that at contact the line with must not be able to come
no time it comes closer than 10 ft. to the within the following distances:
For voltage to ground 50Kv or below 10 ft
overhead lines. For voltage to ground over 50Kv - 10 ft. + 4 in for every
10Kv over 50Kv.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Confined or Enclosed Work Spaces


Qualified Persons 1910.333 (c)(5)

When qualified persons are working in the With installations in confined spaces OSHA
vicinity of overhead lines, whether in an elevated requires that precautions be taken to assure
position or from the ground, the qualified
persons may not approach or take any that accidental contact does not occur.
conductive object closer to the exposed lines Examples:
than specified in the appropriate OSHA Table: K- Protective blankets to shield live parts
1 or Table S-1for 600 volts or less; and NFPA Doors and panels required to be secured if they could
knock into employees and cause them to contact exposed
70E Table 2-1.3.4. energized parts.

There is also similar language in 70E.


Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Article 130
Working On or Near Live Parts
Confined or Enclosed Work Spaces
(additional 70E requirements)

Doors, hinged panels, and the like shall be


secured to prevent their swinging into an
employee and causing the employee to contact
exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit
parts operating at 50 volts or more or where an
electrical hazard exists.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

34
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NFPA 70E Temporary Protective


Grounding Equipment

120.3 (A) Placement. Temporary


Temporary Grounding protective grounds shall be placed at such
for Personnel locations and arranged in such a manner as to
prevent each employee from being exposed to
hazardous differences in electrical potential.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

NFPA 70E Temporary Protective NFPA 70E Temporary Protective


Grounding Equipment Grounding Equipment

120.3 (B) Capacity. Temporary protective 120.3 (C) Equipment Approval.


grounds shall be capable of conducting the Temporary protective grounding equipment
maximum fault current that could flow at the shall meet the requirements of ASTM F855,
point of grounding for the time necessary to Standard Specification for Temporary
clear the fault. Protective Grounds to be Used on De-
energized Electric Power Lines and
Equipment.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

NFPA 70E Temporary Protective Temporary Protective Grounding


Grounding Equipment

120.3 (D) Impedance. Temporary


protective grounds shall have an impedance
low enough to cause immediate operation of
OSHA Requirements
protective devices in case of accidental
energizing of the electric conductors or circuit
parts.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

35
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1910.269(n) Grounding for the


1910.269(n) Grounding for the
Protection of Employees
Protection of Employees
also known as Personal Protective
Grounding
For the employee to work lines or equipment
applies to the grounding of transmission as deenergized, the lines or equipment shall be
and distribution lines and equipment for the deenergized under the provisions of paragraph
purpose of protecting employees. Paragraph (m) of this section and shall be grounded as
(n)(4) of this section also applies to the specified in paragraphs (n)(3) through (n)(9) of
protective grounding of other equipment as this section.
required elsewhere in this section.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

1910.269(n) Grounding for the 1910.269(n) Grounding for the


Protection of Employees Protection of Employees
if the employer can demonstrate that
installation of a ground is impracticable or (i) the lines and equipment have been
that the conditions resulting from the deenergized under the provisions of paragraph
installation of a ground would present (m) of this section.
greater hazards than working without
grounds, the lines and equipment may be (ii) There is no possibility of contact with another
energized source.
treated as deenergized provided all of the
following conditions are met: (iii) The hazard of induced voltage is not present.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

1910.269(n) Grounding for the


Protection of Employees 1910.269(n) Grounding for the
Protection of Employees
Equipotential zone. Protective grounding equipment
Temporary protective grounds shall be (i) No. 2 AWG copper, minimum. It shall be
capable of carrying maximum fault current at
placed at such locations and arranged point of grounding for time necessary to clear
in such a manner as to prevent each fault.
employee from being exposed to (ii) Low impedance. Low enough to cause
hazardous difference in electrical immediate operation of protective device.
potential. Guidelines found in ASTM F855-2009.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

36
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1910.269(n) Grounding for the 1910.269(n) Grounding for the


Protection of Employees Protection of Employees

Testing
Before any ground is installed. Order of connection.
Lines and equipment shall be
tested and found absent of the ground-end connection
nominal voltage, unless shall be attached FIRST, and then
previously installed ground is the other end shall be attached by
present. means of a live-line tool.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

1910.269(n) Grounding for the


1910.269(n) Grounding for the Protection of Employees
Protection of Employees
Additional precautions.
(Order of removal. When work is performed on a
cable at a location remote from
the grounding device shall be
the cable terminal, the cable may
removed from the line or
not be grounded at the cable
equipment using a live-line tool
terminal if there is a possibility of
before the ground-end connection
hazardous transfer of potential
is removed.
should a fault occur.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Meter Safety - How To Safely


1910.269(n) Grounding for the Measure Current/Voltage
Protection of Employees
Removal of grounds for test.
Grounds may be removed temporarily
during tests. During the test
procedure, the employer shall ensure
that each employee uses insulating
equipment and is isolated from any
hazards involved, and the employer
shall institute any additional measures
as may be necessary to protect each
exposed employee in case the
previously grounded lines and
equipment become
Note: The training energized.
materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

37
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Meter Safety Meter Safety


This is EXACTLY the WRONG way to do it! This is EXACTLY the WRONG way to do it!

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Handheld test tool safety Handheld test tool safety


13.8 kV
Last known earthly arced Test leads destroyed
residence of over to
automotive fuse test
used to replace probes.
original fuse

Test leads survived intact


Insides were barbecued.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Handheld test tool safety Handheld test tool safety


The wrong meter to use on a power circuit. The electrician suffered severe burn injuries
on his hand and arm.
250V fuse
didnt Fingerprints burned
open in into probes
time

Probe tips Poor quality leads and


burned off probes led to injury.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

38
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Handheld test tool safety Handheld test tool safety


Typical work environment Aftermath of an accident

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Safety inspection
Handheld test tool safety
If it melts metal, what does it do to people? Test leads and probes
Check test lead resistance:
Step 1: Insert leads in V/ and COM inputs.
Step 2: Select , touch probe tips. Good leads are 0.1 - 0.3 .
How do you check a single test lead?
Visually check for:
CAT III-1000 V/CAT IV-600 V rating
Double insulation
Shrouded connectors, finger guards
Insulation not melted, cut, cracked, etc.
Connectors not damaged: no insulation pulled away from end
connectors
Probe tips: not loose or broken off

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Safety inspection
Checking meter fuses on most meters New IEC Safety Standards
Step 1: Plug test lead in V/ input. Select
.
Step 2: Insert probe tip into mA input. Read
value.
Step 3: Insert probe tip into A input. Read
value.
Is the fuse okay? What would an open fuse
read?

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

39
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International Electrotechnical
IEC 61010 key concepts
Commission
Protection against overvoltage transients

IEC 61010 is the new standard for low


voltage test, measurement and control CATEGORIES: CAT I to CAT IV
equipment. The greatest danger from transients is in
the high categories, because they could
IEC 61010 provides much improved trigger an arc blast.
protection against overvoltage impulse IMPULSE TESTING: No failure allowed
transients - voltage spikes. Meters must be tested by being hit with a
specified number of transients, with
IEC 61010 is the basis for: specified peak voltages.
ANSI/ISA-S82.01-94 (US) INTERNAL SPACING: increased
CAN C22.2 No. 1010.1-92 (CAN) Clearance (distance through the air) and
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
EN61010-1:1993 (EUR) 2009 Edition Creepage (surface distance) are increased.
2009 Edition

Overvoltage category Overvoltage category


The level and energy of voltage IEC 61010 defines four locations or
impulses is dependent on the location. categories:
The closer the location is to the power CAT IV Origin of installation
source, the higher the available fault Utility level and any outside cable run
current, the higher the category CAT III Distribution wiring, including mains
bus, feeders and branch circuits;
permanently installed loads.
CAT II Receptacle outlet circuit; plug-in loads.
CAT I Protected electronic circuits
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Category locations CAT IV


Equipment of overvoltage category IV
is for use at the origin of the installation
(utility service).
Outside and service entrance
Service drop from pole to building
Run between meter and panel
Overhead line to detached building
Underground line to well pump22

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

40
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CAT III CAT II


Premises wiring: mainscircuits, i.e., Loads that plug in at receptacle outlet
bus and feeders and distribution panels
Examples of such equipment are
Permanently installed loads: motors, appliances, portable tools and other
lighting systems, drives, load centers household and similar loads
Typically separated from utility service All outlets at more than 10 m (30 ft)
by at least a single level of transformer from Category III
isolation
All outlets at more than 20 m (60 ft)
Does not include receptacle plug-in from Category IV
loads, except in the case of heavy
appliance outlets with short
connections to service entrance

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

First the CAT, then the voltage


CAT I Voltage rating by itself can be misleading.
Equipment in which measures are CAT III-1000 V (8 kV transient) is safer than CAT
taken to limit transient overvoltages III-600 V
(6k V transient)
to an appropriately low level
But CAT III-600 V is safer than CAT II-1000 V
Examples are protected electronic
circuits. A copier that has an internal
step-up transformer and 1000 Vdc is still
First know the category you are working in, then
a CAT I-1000 V machine, because the choose the appropriate voltage rating.
current levels are so low If you ever measure power circuits, you should use
a CAT III-600 V or CAT IV 600 V/CAT III-1000 V
meter.
And CAT IV 600 V/CAT III-1000 V test leads and
probes.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Look for CAT III or CAT IV


markings Levels of CAT III protection
CAT Transient with Fuse and Clearance Creepage
2 Source overload (air) (surface)
Rating
III-1000 V 8000 V 1000 V 16.0 mm 16.0 mm
IV-600 V
III-600 V 6000 V 1000 V 11.5 mm 14.0 mm
II-1000 V
II-600 V 6000 V 600 V 11.5 mm 11.5 mm

CAT III- CAT IV-600 V CAT III-


1000 V CAT III-1000 V 600 V

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

41
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Designed to IEC 1010-1


But can the product pass testing...
Brand A Brand B Brand C
Markings CAT II 750 V CAT III D of C to
1000 V Input IEC 1010-1
Tested @ CAT II 1000 V Cat III 1000 V CAT III 1000 V
1 Flashover inside meter 2 Fault current in test leads
3.7 mm 2.5 mm 7.5 mm
Creepage Doesnt Doesnt Doesnt
clearance comply comply comply
with 5.7 mm with 16 mm with 16 mm

Input protection Display Input protection


Transient components window components
tests opened breakdown opened
under high @ CAT II level
voltage

3 Arcing at the terminals 4 Arc blast


Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Whats the bottom line? Whats the bottom line?


If you use a scope on CAT III-600 V

If you work on power circuits, you power circuits, you need


need a CAT III-600 V or CAT IV- a CAT III-600 V scope
600 V/ CAT III 1000 V meter. and scope probes.
Look for the CAT rating and
Look for the CAT rating
voltage rating marked near the
input jacks. and voltage rating
CAT or voltage rating alone can be marked near the input
CAT IV-600 V
misleading CAT III-1000 V jacks.
Look for independent
certification.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
UL 3111 2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Whats the bottom line? What about my old meter?


Overload protection Unless a meter was specifically designed to
Safety must be built-in on all functions meet CAT III-600 V or higher, it is not safe to use
An industrial grade meter devotes on power circuits. Most meters produced before
Newer meters also have
additional features and
10 % - 15 % of components exclusively 1997 do not meet the standard. capabilities
to protection. Larger displays
Built-in protection against the most common Back light

safety hazards: 1000 Vac capability

High voltage transients and danger Capacitance


Frequency
of arc-over
Magnetic hangers
Voltage contact while in continuity Temperature
or resistance mode 3X dc accuracy
High integrity components 2X ac accuracy
Voltage measurement while test leads are Original Older Fluke New 170 Series Min / Max Record
plugged into amps jacks Fluke 70 Series 70 Series-III CAT IV-600 V Probe holders
1000V high CAT IV-600 V NOT RATED CAT II-600 V CAT III-1000 V
High energy fuses energy fuses CAT III-1000 V UNDER RATED
Battery door

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

42
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Meter safety checklist Meter safety checklist


Insist on these safety features: Watch for:
Fused current inputs Cracked or oily case
(high energy fuses). Broken input jacks
Overload protection on the ohms
No meter is safe when improperly
function.
Test leads that have shrouded used.
connectors and finger guards. Use meters within their rating.
Recessed input jacks. Use meters designed for
Meet the latest safety standards measurements on power circuits.
(CAT III-600 V or CAT IV 600 V/CAT III Use replacement fuses approved by
1000 V) and are independently certified. the manufacturer.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Test lead safety checklist Safety first


Dont let test leads be a weak Safe practices include but are not limited to:
point Whenever possible, work on de-energized circuits. Follow
CAT III-1000 V or CAT IV 600 V/ proper lock-out/tag-out procedures.
CAT III 1000 V rating Use well maintained tools and appropriate safety gear
Double insulation Safety glasses, insulated tools, insulating gloves,
Shrouded connectors flash suits, insulating mats, etc.
Arc Flash Hazard consideration using specialized Dont work alone.
probes and PPE materials
Practice safe measurement techniques.
Finger guards
Always connect the grounded lead first, hot second.
Insulation not damaged: not melted, cut, cracked,
Disconnect the hot lead first, grounded lead second.
stretched
Use the three-point test method.
Connectors: no insulation pulled away
from end connectors Test known circuit, measure target circuit,
Probe tips: not loose or broken off (too short) then re-test known circuit.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Electrically Safe Work Condition General Electrical Safety Precautions


Approach equipment wearing
appropriate Personal Protective Consider all electrical circuits
Equipment energized until placed in a Safe
Stand to the side of equipment and Work Condition
look away Never intentionally expose yourself
Disconnect equipment to an electrical hazard
Lockout/Tagout and then open door Attend electrical Safety Training
meetings including CPR classes
Test for absence of voltage
Remove all metal jewelry
Look around for potential hazards
Wear the proper protective based on
Use grounding straps if needed theNote:
potential hazard present
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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General Electrical Safety Precautions


Qualification & Training

All electrical systems are potential


Killers, and ALL personnel should be
aware of their dangers
Most fatal electric shocks do not
happen to the uninitiated, they
happen to people who know better.
No job is so important, or task so
urgent, that we can not take the
time to perform our work safely and
in a professional manner

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

ELECTRICAL SAFETY
ELECTRICAL SAFETY 1910.331-335 OSHA

Article 110 of NFPA 70E - 2009


Scope - 1910.331-335
Covers qualified persons and unqualified persons.
Rules:
Safety-Related Work Practices Premises Wiring Installations of electrical conductors and
equipment within or on buildings or other structures.
29 CFR 1910.331-335 Wiring for Connection to Supply Installations of conductors
that connect supply of electricity.
NFPA 70E Article 110 General Requirements Other Wiring Installations of other outside conductors on the
for Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices premises.
Optical Fiber Cable Installations of optical fiber cable where
such installations are made along with electric conductors.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

ELECTRICAL SAFETY
Article 110 of NFPA 70E
NFPA 70E 2009
Host Employer Responsibilities

SAFETY-RELATED WORK PRACTICES


The host employer shall inform contact
110.3 Responsibility
employers of:
The safety-related practices contained in Part II
shall be implemented by employees. The A. Known hazards
employer shall provide the safety-related work B. Information about installation
practices and shall train the employee who shall
C. Observed contract-employer-related
implement them.
violations of this standard to the contract
employer.
CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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NFPA 70E 2009 NFPA 70E - 2009


Contract Employer Responsibilities Contract Employer Responsibilities

Contract employer has to: The contract employer shall advise the host employer
of:
communicate hazards to employees
a) Any unique hazards presented by the contract employers
Ensure that employees follows the work practices work.
required by this standard and safety-related work b) Any unanticipated hazards found during the contract
rules required by the host employer. employers work that the host employer did not mention, and
c) Measures taken by contract and prevention of recurrent
hazards

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

ELECTRICAL SAFETY Training 1910.332 / 110.6


Article 110 of NFPA 70E/OSHA 1910.332

SAFETY-RELATED WORK PRACTICES NFPA 70E, Safety Training :


Such employees shall be trained to understand the specific
Training Requirements hazards associated with electrical energy.
They shall be trained in safety-related work practices and
The training requirements contained in this procedural requirements as necessary to provide protection
section shall apply to employees who face a risk from the electrical hazards associated with their respective job
of electrical hazard that is not reduced to a safe or task assignments.
level by the electrical installations requirements . Employees shall be trained to identify and understand the
relationship between electrical hazard and possible injury.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Training 1910.332 / 110.6 Training, NFPA 70E

The training required by this section shall Employees working on or near exposed
energized electrical conductors or circuit
be: parts shall be trained in:
classroom or Methods of release of victims from contact with
exposed energized conductors or circuit parts.
on-the-job type, or They shall be regularly instructed in methods of first aid
a combination of the two. procedures, such as approved methods of resuscitation,
if their duties warrant such training.
The degree of training provided shall be Training of employees in approved methods of
resuscitation, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation,
determined by the risk to the employee. shall be certified by the employer annually.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

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NFPA 70E - 2009 NFPA 70E - 2009


Qualified Employee Training. Employee Training
Unqualified Persons also need training to extent of
Tasks that are performed less often than hazards
once per year shall require retraining An employee shall receive additional training (or
before the performance of the work retraining) under any of the following conditions:
(a) Non compliance with the safety-related work practices.
practices involved. (b) Changes or new technologies that require different work
Training of employees in approved practices
(C) Employment of work practices not normally used
methods of resuscitation, including
cardiopulmonary resuscitation, shall be
certified by the employer annually.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Records of Training
NFPA 70E - 2009
The employer shall document that each
employee has received the training.
This documentation shall be made when the
employee demonstrates proficiency in the
work practices involved and shall be
maintained for the duration of the employees
employment.
Documents shall contain name and date of
training.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Training 110.6(D) NFPA 70E, 2002 NEC


Qualified Person:
Qualified Person
Qualified Person
Same as the 1999 NEC definition One who has the skills
OSHA Definition: one who is familiar and knowledge related
with the construction and operation of to the construction and
the equipment and the hazards involved. operation of the
equipment and has
received safety training
on the hazards involved.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

46
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Revised Who or What


Qualified Person: Determines Who is a
Qualified Person:
This definition is used 1. The employer will
determine who is
more than 90 times in
qualified!
the 2002 NEC. It is also
an essential definition in 2. An electrical
NFPA 70E, NFPA 70B, license issued by
a city or state
79, and in OSHA 1910 does not make a
and 1926 Standards. person qualified! **ND

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E


2009 Edition
3. not the AHJ.
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition

Training: NFPA 70E 110.6(D)(1)


Qualified Person. Training: NFPA 70E 1-5.4.1
QUALIFIED PERSON: Continued

QUALIFIED PERSON: A qualified person shall be trained A person can be considered qualified with respect to
and knowledgeable of the construction and operation of certain equipment and methods but still be unqualified for
equipment or a specific work method, and shall be trained others.
to recognize and avoid the electrical hazards that might
be present with respect to that equipment or work (b) An employee who is undergoing on-the-job training
method. and who in the course of such training has demonstrated
an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of
(a) Such persons shall also be familiar with the proper training and who is under the direct supervision of a
use of special precautionary techniques, personal qualified person shall be considered to be a qualified
protective equipment, including arc-flash, insulating and person for the performance of those duties.
shielding materials, and insulated tools and test
equipment.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Training: NFPA 70E 110.6(D) Training:


Section 110.6(D) of NFPA
QUALIFIED PERSON: Continued 29 CFR 70E/1910.332

The training requirements are almost the same:


(c) Such persons shall be permitted to (1) The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish
work within the Limited Approach exposed live parts from other parts of electrical equipment.
(2) The skills and techniques necessary to determine the
Boundary of exposed live parts operating nominal voltage of exposed live parts.
at 50 volts or more shall, at minimum, be (3) 70E only: The approach distances specified in Table
130.2 (C) and the corresponding voltages to which the
additionally trained in all of the following: qualified person will be exposed.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

47
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Training:
Section 110.6(D) of NFPA 70E Training:
29 CFR 1910.332 Section 110.6(D) of NFPA 70E

OSHA table for approach distance is not the 110.6 (D) Employee Training.
same.
1. Qualified Persons.
Not included in the OSHA standards
(4) The decision-making process
d) Tasks that are performed less often
necessary to determine the degree and than once per year shall require
extent of the hazard and the personal retraining before the performance of
protective equipment and job planning the work practices involved.
necessary to perform the task safety.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Training:
Section 110.6(D) of NFPA 70E

110.6(D)(2) Unqualified Persons.

(2) Unqualified Persons.


Unqualified persons shall be trained in and be
familiar with any of the electrical safety-related
practices that might not be addressed
specifically by Chapter 1, but are necessary
for their safety.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Training: OSHA 1910.332


Employees must be trained in, and familiar with,
the safety-related work practices required by
1910.331-335 that pertain to their respective
job assignments.

Unqualified employees must also be trained in,


and familiar with, any electrically related safety
practices not specifically addressed by
1910.331-335 but which are necessary for their
safety.

Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

48
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ELECTRICAL SAFETY PRINCIPLES


Its Just 40 Little Words CONCLUSIONS
Plan Every Job
Anticipate the unexpected
Anticipate Unexpected Events
Identify the Hazard A plan is needed to reduce
Minimize the Hazard risks of injury
Use Procedures as Tools
Use the Correct Tools for the Job Task There are many elements
Use Personal Protective Equipment to consider for the plan
Isolate the Equipment
Document the elements into
Assess People's Abilities
Protect the Person an Electrical Safety Program
Audit these Principles
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
2009 Edition 2009 Edition

Electrical Safety, Arc Flash/Blast Injury


Prevention for Management
Note: The training materials were developed under NFPA 70E
This training course was produced under grant number
2009 Edition
SH-1942-09-06-F13 from OSHA, USDOL.

49