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RADIATION

Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics Soitinrakentajat AMF

School of Electrical Engineering Tuikkalantie 2

Aalto University Leppavirta

henna.tahvanainen@aalto.fi jyrki.polkki@estelle.fi

ABSTRACT

is modelled with the finite element method. The aim is

to compare two traditional body structures and a modified

body structure in terms of vibrational modes and radiation

efficiency. The two traditional body structures are the closed

box kantele and the top-plate kantele. In the modified struc-

ture, the top plate and the back plate are separated with an

air gap. The modified structure has more vibrational modes

than the traditional body structures, because it incorporates Figure 1. The modified kantele with the air gaps indicated.

a freely vibrating top plate coupled with enclosed air. The

simulations show that when the air gap is between 1-3 mm, plates together. In addition to the two traditional kanteles, a

the radiation efficiency of the modified kantele is higher kantele with a freely-vibrating top plate isolated from the

than that of the traditional kanteles. This result supports back plate with an air gap has been developed [3, 4]. It is

previous research that concluded the modified kantele to be called the modified kantele and it is shown in Fig. 1.

louder than the traditional top-plate kantele. The kantele with its complex shape, enclosing and sur-

rounded by air, represents a coupled structure-acoustic prob-

lem. To tackle such problems, wave-based modelling meth-

1. INTRODUCTION

ods, such as finite element, boundary element, and finite

The kantele is a zither-like plucked string instrument. There difference methods, have been used extensively in string in-

are 16 peoples in North East Europe and West Siberia that strument acoustics [5, 6]. Other numerical methods include

play this kind of a zither. Consequently, instruments with the fictitious domain method applied to the guitar [7].

various string arrangements and terminations, as well as The finite element method (FEM) is particularly suitable

shapes and sizes of the sound box belong to the kantele fam- for complicated shapes, especially when the eigenfrequen-

ily. The various kanteles are currently being documented in cies of the solid domain and enclosed air are comparable

The Kindred of Kantele- project 1 . in frequency. Of the family of string instruments, FEM has

The common parts for all the kanteles include a wooden been applied successfully at least to the guitar [813], violin

sound box, metal or nylon strings, and tuning pins made [1416], and piano [1720]. The early models considered

of metal or wood. The amount of strings varies from 5 to mainly the instrument soundboards in the low frequency re-

40. In addition, there may be a sound hole. The common gion [6], or instrument-shaped air-cavities [16]. In addition,

acoustical feature for the kanteles is the special fluctuating different stages of construction were simulated [9,15]. More

timbre caused by the knotting of string around the non-rigid recently, FEM has been applied to structure-acoustic cou-

tuning pins [1, 2]. Initially, the kantele was carved from a pling in string instruments [1012, 14]. Both enclosed and

single piece of wood with no back plate. Later, the carved surrounding air add to the mass of the instrument and thus

kantele was turned into a box by adding a soundboard to lower the eigenfrequencies of the string instrument [10, 14].

the carving. These two structures are henceforth referred The mode shapes, on the other hand, are much less affected.

to as the top-plate kantele and the box kantele, respectively. This paper aims at extending the understanding of the

Nowadays, the kantele is assembled by glueing wooden contribution of the isolated top plate to the increased loud-

1 http://kanteleenkielin.maanite.fi/2013/03/31/ ness of the modified kantele by using FEM. The vibrational

kindred-of-kantele-overview-in-english/ modes and sound radiation of three kantele structures are

studied: closed box kantele, top-plate kantele, and modified

Copyright: 2013

c Henna Tahvanainen, Henri Penttinen, Vesa Valimaki et kantele. Additionally, the radiation efficiency for each kan-

al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the tele structure is computed. Moreover, the effect of size of

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, which permits unrestricted the air gap in the modified kantele is investigated.

use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author This paper is organised as follows. In Sec. 2, the back-

and source are credited. ground of the modified kantele is described. In Sec. 3, the

193

Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2013, SMAC 2013, Stockholm, Sweden

Excitation point

scribes the FE-model of the kantele and the results of the Connecting

simulations are presented in Sec. 5. Section 6 concludes the blocks

paper.

2. BACKGROUND OF THE MODIFIED KANTELE

Originally, the kantele was used as a rune-accompaniment

in small farm houses. Nowadays, it is played in various

ensembles in large spaces. Consequently, it is beneficial

to develop an acoustically louder version. A kantele with

improved sound radiation was presented at SMAC 2003 by

Polkki et al [3]. The idea for this modified kantele came

from old museum copies with no back plate. Interestingly,

these seemed to sound louder in a soft-padded case rather Figure 2. The top plate and the back plate of the kantele

than on lap where they are usually played. Based on these for the FE-model. The top-plate kantele considers the top

observations, in 1999 Polkki began experimenting with plate only, the box kantele is obtained by attaching the

different lightweight wooden structures, which would do plates together, so that the side edges are fixed. In the

the same. The first prototypes with 11, 15, and 19 strings modified kantele, the plates are attached together with the

were made. Adjusting the air gap between the plates was a three connecting blocks allowing an air gap between the

delicate process in order to obtain a favourable timbre. In plates.

addition, the larger kanteles benefited from a small sound

hole in the gap. Based on the prototypes, it was clear that

the displacement at nodal points of the respective domain

changes in the top plate were needed if the strong attack

(subscript s for structure, f for fluid). Hsf is the coupling

and the long decay of the characteristic kantele sound were

matrix between the two domains. At the structure-acoustic

to be preserved. Consequently, the top plate was made three

boundary, two conditions for the coupling apply. Firstly, the

times thicker and strengthened around the tuning pins.

particle velocity perpendicular to the boundary should be

The collaboration between Polkki and Penttinen lead to

continuous. Secondly, the air exerts a load on the structure,

verified design rules for the kantele with improved sound

which is equal to the inverse of the air pressure. Finally,

loudness [4]. The rules are 1) increasing string tension, 2)

when modelling the sound radiation of an instrument in the

increasing radiating surface area, and 3) isolating the top

free field, the calculations are often limited over a finite vol-

plate from the back plate with an air gap. In addition, it was

ume. In order to avoid artificial reflections, the boundaries

confirmed by listening tests that this modified design was

are modelled as so called radiating boundaries, or using

on average 3 dB louder than the top-plate kantele. In the

a technique called Perfectly Matched Layer (PML). The

meanwhile, the modified design has been fine-tuned and

numerically more accurate boundary condition, PML, is

sold commercially for 12 years. The commercial version,

an additional medium surrounding the computational do-

Kirjokansi, is shown in Fig. 1. The top plate and the back

main that matches the domain and absorbs all the incoming

plate are attached together with three screws. The kantele

radiation in all angles with no reflections [23].

has 11+4 strings spanning the fundamental frequency range

of 73-588 Hz. The four lowest strings are used as drones. 4. SIMULATIONS

Finally, the isolating air gap has lately been applied to the

40-string kantele, and based on informal listening tests after In this paper, three kantele structures were considered: the

fine-tuning, it now sounds warm and rich in bass. top-plate kantele, the box kantele, and the modified kantele

with air gaps of several sizes (1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm).

Both eigenfrequency and forced vibration analysis were

3. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

conducted using an existing finite element software (Com-

In FEM, the continuous domain is discretised into a finite sol Multiphysics) in order to study the vibrational modes

set of solid elements, which each are approximated with and the radiation of the kantele, respectively. The modelling

simple shape functions such as polynomials [21]. The con- steps taken are described in the following.

tinuous field, such as the pressure, is then evaluated at the

vertices of each element called nodes. At least six elements 1. Importing/drawing the geometry

per bending wavelength are required in order to ensure In these simulations, strings, tuning pins, and bars

sufficient accuracy of the simulation [22]. For structure- parallel to the top plate were omitted. The back plate

acoustic vibrations, the equations of motion translate into was modelled flat. The three plastic screws were

the following matrix substituted with wood blocks. The top plate and the

back plate of the modelled kantele can be seen in

Ms 0 ds

Ds 0 ds

Ks H sf

ds

Fb Fig. 2. In addition, the kantele was surrounded by air

+ + = (r = 0.7 m).

H Tsf Mf pf 0 Df pf 0 Kf pf Fq

(1) 2. Defining material properties

where M , D, K, and F , are the global matrices of mass, The kantele was assumed to be made out of one or-

damping, stiffness, force, and p and d are the pressure and thotropic material, spruce. The material properties

194

Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2013, SMAC 2013, Stockholm, Sweden

Ex 122 [108 Pa] 110

Elastic moduli Ey 15.6

Ez 7.20 100

Gxy 15.1 [108 Pa]

Shear moduli Gyz 1.22 90

Magnitude [dB]

Gxz 14.6

xy 0.42 [1] 80

Poisson ratios yz 0.53

xz 0.46

70

Density s 440 [kgm3 ]

Isotropic loss factor 0.01 [1]

Driving force amplitude A 1.5 [N] 60

box

Air density 0 1.2 [kgm3 ] 50 modified

Speed of sound in air c0 343 [ms1 ] top plate

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550

Frequency [Hz]

Figure 3. The sound pressure level at 0.7 m above the

material values are obtained from [24].

kantele for three different kantele structures: box kantele

obtained from Kretschmann [24] and other parame- (dash-dotted red line), modified kantele (solid black line)

ters are listed in Tab. 1. and top-plate kantele (dashed blue line).

3. Defining boundary conditions

The air was surrounded by a PML (r = 0.8 m). The the increased loudness of the modified kantele compared to

two structure-acoustic boundary conditions accord- the traditional top-plate kantele.

ing to Sec. 2 were applied. The mode density for the modified kantele is higher than

4. Meshing for the two traditional kanteles because the modified kantele

The chosen element size was limited by computa- has a freely vibrating top plate and the air enclosed by the

tional capacity. Tetrahedral elements were used, with two plates which can couple to the plate vibrations. An

the size range of 1.5-10 cm. Such meshing resulted example of this case is illustrated in Fig. 4. Figure 4a shows

to 60 000-200 000 elements depending on the kantele the first two normal mode shapes of the top-plate kantele

structure. Thus, the simulated frequency range was (at 150 Hz and 195 Hz), Fig. 4b the first significant normal

limited to 570 Hz, which covers the tuning range of mode of the box kantele (at 295 Hz), and Fig. 4c the first

the kantele strings. three normal modes of the modified kantele (at 125 Hz,

185 Hz, and 230 Hz). The color legend indicates the total

These four steps are enough to perform an eigenfrequency displacement in millimeters. The values above and below

analysis. In order to study radiation, the following addi- the legend are the maximum and minimum values for the

tional steps for the forced oscillation analysis are required: displacement. It can be seen that shapes of the first two top

plate modes correspond to the shapes of the first two normal

5. Damping coefficient modes of the modified kantele. The frequencies of these

The internal damping of the wood material was con- modes have lowered; from 150 Hz to 125 Hz, and from 195

sidered isotropic and frequency-independent for sim- Hz to 185 Hz. In addition, the vibration amplitudes (total

plicity. displacement) are smaller for the modified kantele than for

6. Type and location of the force the top-plate kantele. In particular, the ponsi vibrates less.

The kantele was driven sinusoidally by approximat- The back plate has a solid ponsi (see Fig. 1), which is fixed

ing the area and the location of the fifth tuning pin to the top plate.

indicated in Fig. 2. Similarly, the shape of the first significant normal mode

7. Frequency steps at which the analysis is performed of the box kantele corresponds to the shape of the third

The frequency step was 5 Hz due to limited computa- normal mode of the modified kantele. The mode frequency

tional time. has changed from 295 Hz to 230 Hz. The only difference

between these two shapes is that in the modified kantele

5. RESULTS the free edge also has a vibration maximum. In addition,

the Helmholtz resonance (found to be at 230 Hz) and the

5.1 Comparison of the kantele structures

back plate participate in the vibration. For this mode, the

The modelled frequency responses of the three kantele struc- vibration amplitude is higher for the modified kantele than

tures at 0.7 m above the top plate are shown in Fig. 3. Based for the box kantele.

on the figure, the structures differ at least in overall sound Figure 5 shows the corresponding sound pressure levels

pressure level, mode density, and mode frequencies. The for the mode shapes in Fig. 4; the first two normal modes

box kantele has a lower sound pressure level than the top- of the top-plate kantele are shown in Fig. 5a, the first sig-

plate and the modified kantele, except at regions around nificant normal mode of the box kantele in Fig. 5b, and the

295 Hz and 555 Hz. The modal density between 70-570 first three normal modes of the modified kantele in Fig. 5c.

Hz is 8, 9 and 11 for the box, top-plate, and modified kan- The colour legend indicates the sound pressure level in dB

tele, respectively. It is desirable to have many modes in the units. The values above and below the legend are the max-

tuning range of strings for better sound quality and sound imum and minimum values for the sound pressure level,

pressure level [25]. This is one of the factors that explain respectively. It can be seen that the radiation of the modi-

195

Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2013, SMAC 2013, Stockholm, Sweden

Total displacement (mm) Total displacement (mm) Sound Pressure Level (dB) Sound Pressure Level (dB)

150 Hz 125 Hz

150 Hz 125 Hz

195 Hz 185 Hz

b) Box kantele

Total displacement (mm) 195 Hz 185 Hz

Sound Pressure Level (dB)

normal modes of both the top-plate kantele and the box kan- 295 Hz 230 Hz

tele in terms of total displacement: a) the first two normal

modes of the top-plate kantele, in b) the first normal mode

Figure 5. An example of how the modified kantele includes

of the box kantele, and c) the first three normal modes of

normal modes of both the top-plate kantele and the box

the modified kantele. The mode shapes that are on the same

kantele in terms of sound pressure levels: a) the first two

row correspond to one another.

normal modes of the top-plate kantele, in b) the first normal

fied kantele at these three modes is more omnidirectional mode of the box kantele, and c) the first three normal modes

than for the traditional kanteles. The top-plate kantele has a of the modified kantele. The mode shapes that are on the

higher maximum sound pressure level, but at some direc- same row correspond to one another. The kantele soundhole

tions on the sides, the sound pressure level is small. This is is facing the reader.

a demonstration of the acoustic short-circuit. Namely, the

SPL at 0.7 m above the kantele

air displaced by the top plate is in opposite phase on the 110

top and at the back on the plate. These anti-phasic regions

partially cancel each other, and thus reduce sound radiation. 100

90

Magnitude [dB]

80

The size of the air gap in the modified kantele can be

changed. It is of interest to study how the size affects 70

60

deed, already a small air gap between the top and back 1 mm

3 mm

plate changes the frequency response. Figure 6 shows the 50

7 mm

modelled frequency responses for the kantele with different 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550

Frequency [Hz]

air gaps: 1 mm, 3 mm, and 7 mm.

Based on Fig. 6, two different frequency ranges for the

Figure 6. The frequency responses at 0.7 metres above the

changes can be distinguished. First of all, below 300 Hz the

kantele with different air gaps: 1 mm (dashed blue line), 3

mode density does not change, but the mode frequencies

mm (solid red line), and 7 mm (dash-dotted black line).

increase when the size of the air gap increases. The mode

shapes do not change, but their vibration amplitudes do. As the size of the air gap increases, the free edge of the

Secondly, above 300 Hz, the mode density decreases when top plate is able to vibrate more freely. What is more, the

the size of the air gaps increases. In addition, the modes vibration maxima move closer to the edges and the back

shapes do not appear in the same order in frequency. plate is less coupled with the top plate. An example of a

196

Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2013, SMAC 2013, Stockholm, Sweden

Top plate

Airgap 3 mm

Airgap 3 mm

Total displacement (mm)

285 Hz

Airgap 5 mm

285 Hz

Airgap 5 mm

290 Hz

Airgap 7 mm

290 Hz

Airgap 7 mm

290 Hz

290 Hz normal modes on the modified kantele with an air gap of 3

mm, 5 mm, and 7 mm. The sound pressure level is shown

on the left-hand column and the pressure on the right-hand

Figure 7. Vibration amplitudes of the sixth normal mode column.

of the modified kantele with an air gap of 3 mm, 5 mm, and

7 mm. In the left-hand column the kantele is seen from the 5.3 Radiation efficiency

top and in the right-hand column from the bottom.

The modified kantele has a higher mode density than the

traditional kanteles. The simulations show that the vibra-

mode that undergoes such a change is the sixth normal mode tion maxima and sound pressure level decrease when the

of the modified kantele, occurring at 285 Hz. It experiences size of the air gap increases, at least for some modes. For

a drop of 15 dB in sound pressure level when the size of the entire frequency range, the average radiation efficiency

the air gaps increases for 1 mm to 7 mm. In addition, its describes how effective the different structures actually are

frequency shifts from 285 Hz to 290 Hz. This mode shape in transmitting input energy to radiation [26]. The aver-

is shown in Fig. 7 for different sizes of air gaps: 3 mm, 5 aged radiation efficiencies obtained via simulations for the

mm, and 7 mm. The case with the 1-mm air gap is almost modified kantele with different air gaps and the traditional

identical to the 3-mm air gap. In the left column, the kantele kantele structures are shown in Tab. 2. The radiation effi-

is seen from above and in the right column from the bottom. ciency is at its maximum with the 3-mm air gap. Beyond

The corresponding sound pressure level and pressure fields that, the radiation efficiency becomes comparable to that of

are shown in Fig. 8. the box kantele. The top-plate kantele has the lowest radia-

tion efficiency of all the structures studied. It also exhibits

With the increasing air gap size, several phenomena occur. more directional radiation patterns.

Firstly, the coupling of the top and the back plate decreases.

Air gap box 1 mm 3 mm 5 mm 7 mm top-plate

In Fig. 8, the back plate vibrates with the shape (2,0) and 0.0159 0.0242 0.0281 0.0128 0.0083 0.0008

its vibration amplitude decreases with the increase of the

air gap. Furthermore, the widths of the vibration maxima Table 2. Radiation efficiency of the kantele with different

decrease. At the free edge, the vibration maximum moves air gaps, and the traditional box and top-plate kanteles.

towards the corner that is the least fixed. In addition, the

radiation patterns become more directive since the widths

6. CONCLUSIONS

of vibration maxima decrease. Finally, different air modes

couple with the body. At 285 Hz, the air vibrates with the In this paper, the body of a string instrument called the

mode shape (2,0) for 3-mm and 5-mm air gaps, and with kantele has been simulated with the finite element method.

the mode shape (1,0) for the 7-mm air gap. Both the eigenfrequency analysis and forced vibration anal-

197

Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2013, SMAC 2013, Stockholm, Sweden

ysis with sinusoidal excitation were used to simulate the [9] M. J. Elejabarrieta, A. Ezcurra, and C. Santamara, Vibrational

kantele with the frequency range of 0-570 Hz. Three kan- behaviour of the guitar soundboard analysed by the finite

tele structures were included; two traditional structures, the element method, Acta Acustica united with Acustica, vol. 87,

pp. 128136, 2001.

top-plate kantele and the box kantele, were compared with

a modified kantele which has an air gap separating the top [10] , Coupled modes of the resonance box of the guitar,

and the back plate. In the modified kantele, the top plate Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 111, no. 5,

pp. 22832292, 2002.

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and the back plate create an enclosed air mass that has its [11] A. Ezcurra, M. Elejabarrieta, and C. Santamaria, Fluid-

own vibrational modes. structure coupling in the guitar box: numerical and exper-

imental comparative study, Applied Acoustics, vol. 66, pp.

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vibrating top plate and the enclosed air leads to an increased

density of normal modes and eigenmodes in the modified [12] J. A. Torres and R. Boullosa, Radiation efficiency of a guitar

top plate linked with edge or corner modes and intercell can-

kantele in comparison to the traditional kanteles. A high

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an air gap of 3 mm had the highest radiation efficiency. [15] J. Bretos, C. Santamaria, and J. A. Moral, Vibrational patters

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[16] , Vibrational patterns of a violin-shaped air cavity ob-

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