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COURSE NUMBER: ME 221

Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery


3 credit hour

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmrazzaque/lecturenotes.html

Course teacher
Dr M
Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque
Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
BUET
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Fluid statics

Fluid statics is the study of fluids in which there is no relative


motion between fluid particles.

If there is no relative motion; no shearing stresses exist. The only


stress that exists is a normal stress, the pressure. So, it is the pressure
that is of primary interest in fluid statics.

When the fluid velocity is zero, denoted as the hydrostatic condition,


the pressure variation is due only to the weight. For a known fluid in
a given gravity field, the pressure may easily be calculated by
integration.

If the fluid is moving in rigid-body motion, such as a tank of liquid


which has been spinning
p g for a longg time,, the ppressure can be easilyy
calculated, because the fluid is free of shear stress.
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Fluidstatics

Three situations are usually investigated in fluid statics. These


i l d (a)
include ( ) fluids
fl id att rest,
t such
h as liquid
li id in
i a reservoir,
i (b) fluids
fl id
contained in devices that undergo linear acceleration, and (c)
fluids contained in rotating cylinders.

In addition to the examples shown above, we consider


instruments called manometers and investigate the forces of
buoyancy and the stability of floating bodies.
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PRESSUREATAPOINT

Pressure at a point is defined as being the infinitesimal normal


p
compressive force divided byy the infinitesimal area over which
it acts. Now does the pressure, at a given point, vary as the
normal to the area changes direction?

To show that this is not the case, even for fluids in motion,
consider the wedge
wedge-shaped
shaped element of unit depth (in the zz-
direction) shown in Fig. 2.2.
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Assume that a pressure p acts on the hypotenuse and that a
different pressure acts on each of the other areas,
areas as shown.
shown
Since the forces on the two end faces are in the z-direction,
we have not included them on the element.

Now, let us apply Newton's second law to the element, for


both the x- and y-directions:

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Where we have used The pressures shown are due
to the surrounding fluid and are the average pressure on the areas.
Substituting

Eqs 2.2.1
Eqs. 2 2 1 take the form

point x 0 and y 0.
As the element shrinks to a point, 0 Hence
the right-hand sides in the equations above go to zero, even for
fluids in motion, providing with the result that, at a point,

Since is arbitrary, this relationship holds for all angles at a point.


Thus we conclude that the pressure in a fluid is constant at a point.
That is, pressure is a scalar function. It acts equally in all directions
at a given point for both a static fluid and a fluid that is in motion.
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Pressure Variation in a Fluid Body
To determine the pressure variation in fluids at rest or fluids
undergoing an acceleration while the relative position of fluid
elements to one another remains the same,, consider the
infinitesimal element displayed in Fig.2.4, where the z-axis is
in the vertical direction.

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Pressure Variation in a Fluid Body

If we assume that p is the pressure at the center of this element,


the ppressures at anyy other ppoint can be expressed
p byy usingg a
first-order Taylor series expansion with p(x, y, z):

lf we move from the center to a face a distance (dx/2) away, we


see that
h the
h pressure is
i

The pressures at all faces are expressed in this manner, as


shown in Fig.
Fig 2.4.
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Pressure Variation in a Fluid Body

Newton's second law


is written in vector
form for a constant-
mass system as

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Pressure Variation in a Fluid Body

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Fluids at Rest

A fluid at rest does not undergo any acceleration. Therefore, Eq


2.3.6 reduces to

or

This equation implies that there is no pressure variation in the x and


y directions, that is, in the horizontal plane. The pressure varies in
the
h z direction
d only.
l

Also note that dp is negative if dz is positive; that is, the pressure


decreases as we move up and increases as we move down,

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Fluids at Rest

Hydrostatic-pressure distribution. Points a, b, c, and d are at equal depths in


water and therefore have identical pressures.

Points A, B, and C are also at equal depths in water and have identical
pressures higher than a, b, c, and d.

Point D has a different pressure from A, B, and C because it is not


connected to them by a water Path.
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Pressures in Liquids at Rest

If the density can be assumed constant (which is the case with


liquids), Eq.2.4.2 may be integrated to yield

so that pressure increases with depth. Note that z is positive in the


upwardd direction.
di i Th quantity
The ( / + z)) is
i (p/ i often
f referred
f d to as the
h
piezometric head.

If the
h point off interest were a distance
d h below
b l a free
f surface
f E
Eq.
2.4.3 would result in

This equation is quite useful


in converting pressure to an
equivalent
q height
g of liquid.
q

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Gage Pressure and Vacuum Pressure

Engineers usually specify pressures as (1) the absolute or (2) the


gage pressure ( pressure relative to the local ambient atmosphere).

The second case occurs because many pressure instruments are of


dffirential type and record, not an absolute magnitude, but the
diff
difference b t
between th fluid
the fl id pressure and
d the
th atmosphere.
t h

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Linearly Accelerating Containers

Consider a fluid at rest relative to a reference frame that is linearly


accelerating with a horizontal component ax and a vertical component
az. Then Eq. 2.3.6 simplifies to

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Linearly Accelerating Containers

Note that density or viscosity does not appear in the above equation.
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Linearly Accelerating Containers

A coffee mug on a horizontal tray is accelerated at 7 m/s2.The


mug is 10 cm deep and 6 cm in diameter and contains coffee 7
cm deep at rest
rest. (a) Assuming rigid body acceleration of the
coffee, determine whether it will spill out of the mug,(b)
Calculate the gage pressure in the corner at point A if the density
of coffee is 1010 kg/m3.

(a) Regardless of the


shape of the mug, the
free surface tilts at an
g ggiven byy
angle

as az = 0.
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Linearly Accelerating Containers
If the mug is symmetric about its
central axis, the volume of coffee is
conserved if the tilted face intersects
the original rest surface exactly at the
centerline, as shown.

Thus the deflection at the left side of


the mug is z = (3 cm)(tan ) = 2.14 cm.
This is less than the 3-cm
3 cm clearance
available, so the coffee will not spill.
(b) When at rest,
rest the gage pressure at point A is given by
pA = g(zsur - zA) = (1010 kg/m3)(9.81 m/s2)(0.07 m) = 694 Pa.
During acceleration, the pressure at A becomes
pA = g(zsur - zA) = (1010 kg/m3)(9.81 m/s2)(0.0914 m) = 906 Pa,
which is 31% higher than the pressure at rest.
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Manometers
Manometers are instruments that use columns of liquids to measure
pressures.

The figure
g shows a simple
p openp manometer for measuringg pA in a
closed chamber relative to atmospheric pressure, pa.

The manometric fluid (2) is chosen different from the chamber


fluid (1) to isolate the chamber fluid from the environment and to
suitably scale the length of the open tube. 19
Manometers

Here, one can begin at A, apply the basic hydrostatic formula


down to z1, jump across fluid 2 to the same pressure p1, and then
use the basic hydrostatic formula up to level z2.

The physical reason that we can jump across" at section I is that a


continuous length of the same fluid connects these two equal
elevations.

Any two points at the same elevation in a continuous mass


of the same static fluid will be at the same pressure.
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First get the specific weights from
Tables.
Now proceed
N d from
f A tot B
B,
calculating the pressure change in
each fluid and adding:

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Solution

First identify the relevant points


1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 as shown in the
figure. For simplicity, neglect
th weight
the i ht off the
th air
i andd assume
the pressure at point 3 is equal
to the pressure at point 4.

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Forces on Submerged Planes

In the design of submerged devices and objects, such as dams,


flow barriers, ships, and holding tanks, it is necessary to
calculate the magnitudes and locations of forces that act on
their surfaces, both plane and curved.

Here, we consider
only plane surfaces,
such as tthee pplane
suc a e
surface of general
shape shown in the
Fig Note that a side
Fig.
view is given as
well as a view
showing the shape
of the plane.
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Forces on Submerged Planes

The total force of the liquid on the plane surface is found by


integrating the pressure over the area, that is,

The x and y coordinates are


i the
in h plane
l off the
h plane
l
surface, as shown. Assuming
p = 0 at h = 0,, we know that

h h is
where i measuredd vertically
ti ll
down from the free surface to the
elemental area dA and y is
measured from point 0 on the free
surface.
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Forces on Submerged Planes

The force may then be expressed as

The distance
Th di t to
t a
centroid is defined as

The expression for the


force then becomes

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Forces on Submerged Planes

Where is the vertical


distance from the free
surface to the centroid
of the area and pc is the
pressure at the centroid.

Thus the magnitude of the force on a submerged plane surface


is the ppressure at the centroid multiplied
p byy the area.

The force does not depend on the angle of inclination, . 27


Forces on Submerged Planes
The force does not, in
general, act at the
centroid The location
centroid.
of the resultant force is
found by taking the
sum of the moments of
all the infinitesimal
pressure forces actingg
p
on the area equal to the
moment of the resultant
force.
force

Let the force F act at the point (xp,yp), the center of pressure
(c p )
(c.p.).

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Forces on Submerged Planes

The value of yp can be


obtained
bt i d by
b equating
ti
moments about the x-
axis:

where the second moment of the area about the x-axis is

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Forces on Submerged Planes

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Forces on Submerged Planes

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Forces on Submerged Planes

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Forces on Submerged Planes

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Forces on Submerged Planes

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Forces on Submerged Planes

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Forces on Submerged Planes

Problem: Find the force P needed to hold the 3 m wide rectangular


gate shown.
shown

Sol hints:
F= = 9810*(5sin40o/2)*(5x3) N
3 * 53 12
= 2.5 + m
(5x 3) * 2.5
: 7*Psin40o = (5 - yp)*F
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Forces on Curved Surfaces

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Forces on Curved Surfaces

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Forces on Curved Surfaces

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Forces on Curved Surfaces

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Forces on Curved Surfaces

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Forces on Curved Surfaces

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Forces on Curved Surfaces

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Forces on Curved Surfaces

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Buoyancy
Two laws of buoyancy discovered by Archimedes in the third
century B.C.:
1. A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force
equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
2. A floating body displaces its own weight in the fluid in which it
floats.
floats
These two laws are easily derived by referring to the Fig. The body
lies between an upper curved surface 1 and a lower curved surface 2.
The body experiences a net upward force

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Buoyancy

Alternatively, we can sum the vertical forces on elemental


g the immersed bodyy as shown in the Fig.:
slices through g

This result is
identical to the
previous one and
equivalent to law I
above.
H
Here, it is
i assumedd
that the fluid has
uniform specific
weight.
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Buoyancy

The line of action of the buoyant force passes through the


centroid of the displaced liquid volume only if it has uniform
density.

This point through which FB acts is called the center of


buoyancy.

Of course, the center of buoyancy may or may not correspond


to the actual center of mass of the body's own material, which
mayy have variable density.
y

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Buoyancy

Gases also exert buoyancy on any body immersed in them.

For example, human beings have an average specific weight of


about 60 lbf/ft3. If the weight of a person is 180 lbf, the
3 0 ft3.
person's total volume will be 3.0

However, in so doing we are neglecting the buoyant force of


the air surrounding the person. At standard conditions, the
specific weight of air is 0.0763 lbf/ft3; hence the buoyant force
is approximately 0.23 lbf. If measured in vacuo, the person
would weigh about 0.23 lbf more.

For balloons,
balloons the buoyant force of air, air instead of being
negligible, is the controlling factor in the design.
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Buoyancy of Floating Bodies

Floating bodies are a special case; only a portion of the body is


submerged,
b d with
ith the
th remainder
i d pokingki up outt off the
th free
f
surface. This is illustrated in the Fig. From a static force
balance, it may be derived that

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Buoyancy of Floating Bodies

Not only does the buoyant force equal the body weight but also
they are collinear since there can be no net moments for static
equilibrium. The above equation is the mathematical
equivalent of Archimedes' law 2.2

Occasionally, a body will have exactly the right weight and


volume for its ratio to equal the specific weight of the fluid. If
so, the body will be neutrally buoyant and remain at rest at
any point where it is immersed in the fluid. Small neutrally
buoyant particles are sometime used for flow visualization.

A submarine can achieve positive,


positive neutral,
neutral or negative
buoyancy by pumping water in or out of its ballast
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Stability of Floating Bodies

If a floating object is raised a small distance,


distance the buoyant
force decreases and the object's weight returns the object to
its original position.

Conversely, if a floating object is lowered slightly, the


buoyant
y force increases and the larger g buoyant
y force
returns the object to its original position.

Thus a floating object has vertical stability since a small


departure from equilibrium results in a restoring force.

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Rotational Stability of Submerged Bodies

Let us now consider the rotational


stabilityy of a submerged
g body.
y

If the center of gravity G of the body


is above the centroid C (also referred
to as the center of buoyancy) of the
displaced volume and a small angular
rotation
i results
l ini a moment that
h will
ill
continue to increase the rotation; the
bodyy is unstable and overturningg
would result.

Engineers must design to avoid


floating instability.
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Rotational Stability of Submerged Bodies

If the center of gravity G is below the


centroid C,C a small angular rotation
provides a restoring moment and the body
is stable.

If the center of gravity and the


centroid coincide, the body is said
to be neutrally stable, a situation
that is encountered whenever the
density is constant throughout the
floating body.

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Stability of Floating Bodies

If the center of gravity is below the centroid, the body is


always
w ys sstable,
b e, ass w
with sub
submerged
e ged bod
bodies.
es.

The body may be stable, though, even if the center of gravity is


above the centroid,
centroid as sketched.
sketched

54
Stability of Floating Bodies

When the body rotates the centroid


of the volume of displaced liquid
moves to the new location C'. If the
centroid C' moves sufficiently far, a
restoring moment develops
de elops and the
body is stable.

This is determined by the metacentric height GM.


Metacentre M is the point of intersection of the buoyant force
before
be o e rotation
otat o wwith
t tthee buoya
buoyantt force
o ce aafter
te rotation.
otat o .

If GM is positive, as shown, the body is stable; if GM is


negative (M lies below G),
G) the body is unstable.
unstable

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Stability of Floating Bodies

To determine a quantitative relationship for the distance GM


consider the sketch, which shows the uniform cross section of
the floating body in rotated condition.
condition

56
Stability of Floating Bodies

An expression for , the x-


coordinate of the centroid of
the displaced volume can be
found by considering the
volume to be the original
volume plus the added
wedge with cross-sectional
area DOE minus the subtracted wedge with cross-sectional
area AOB.

To locate the centroid of the composite volume, we take


moments as follows:

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Stability of Floating Bodies

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Stability of Floating Bodies

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Stability of Floating Bodies

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Stability of Floating Bodies

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