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Forces and Motion

Observations:

1. A force is not necessary for

Two natural states of motion:

2. A force is necessary for

Why do you feel thrown backwards when a car starts up quickly from rest? Are you really thrown backward?
What is actually going on?

Why do you feel thrown forward when a speeding car stops abruptly? Are you really thrown forward? What is
actually going on?

Definitions:

1.

2.

1) Which object has more of a tendency to remain at rest?


3.
2) Which object has more of a resistance to changing its state?

A 3) Which object has more inertia? 2


B
4) Which object has more mass?
Isaac Newton
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Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727), English mathematician and Below is the title page of Isaac Newtons greatest work and
physicist, considered one of the greatest scientists in history, one of the most influential books in all of science.
made important contributions to many fields of science. His
discoveries and theories laid the foundation for much of the
progress in science since his time.

1. What is the title in English?

2. By what title is it commonly known?

3. When was it published?

4. What did it contain?

a)

b)

Newtons Three Laws of Motion (Original Version)

Every object persists in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces
impressed on it.

The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which
that force is impressed.

To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal,
and directed to contrary parts.

Newtons First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia)

Newtons Second Law of Motion

Newtons Third Law of Motion

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Types of Forces Forces
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Name Property Range

Holds nucleus together

Rank the fundamental forces from


strongest to weakest:

Identifying Forces: Free-Body Diagrams


What is a free-body diagram?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Fg: FN:

FA: Ff:

1. What is the cause of the normal force?

2. Why cant you walk through a wall?

3. What is the cause of the frictional force?

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Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
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A weight is hung over a pulley by a string that is attached to a cart. The weight is dropped.

1. What will happen to the cart? Why?

2. What will change if a heavier weight is used?

3. What will change if a heavier cart is used?

A second weight is now hung over a pulley by a string pulling on the cart in the opposite direction.

4. What will happen to the cart if weight #1 is heavier than weight #2?

5. What will happen to the cart if weight #2 is heavier than weight #1?

6. What will happen to the cart if both weights are the same?

Net force (Fnet):

In each case below, determine the net force acting on the cart (magnitude and direction).

6N 10 N 16 N 5N 8N 8N
7. 8. 9.

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Conclusions: HON
1)

2)

3)

Balanced Forces Unbalanced Forces

If all the forces acting on an object are balanced, If all the forces acting on an object are not balanced,

Newtons Second Law of Motion:


Variable:

Quantity:

Units:

Type:

Write the unit for force in terms of fundamental units: Estimation Skill:

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1) A net force of 100. N acts west on a 5.0 kg mass. Determine the magnitude and direction of the
acceleration of the mass.

2) A 1.6 -kg box is accelerated at 2.0 m/s2. Determine the magnitude of the net force.

3) An 80. kg student is pulled on roller blades by a friend who exerts a force of 20.0 N. Friction between the
wheels and the ground exert a force of 5.0 N. What is the students acceleration?

4) A 1000. kg car accelerates from rest to 20. m/s in 5.0 seconds. What net force acts on the car?

5) A 15.0 kg crate is dragged across the floor with an acceleration of 0.80 m/s2 by an applied force of 22 N.
How much friction is acting on the crate?

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Mass and Weight
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Mass: Weight:

Property: Property:

Variable:

Quantity:

Units:

Type:

Relationship between
mass and weight
1. What is the weight of a 1.0 kilogram mass: a) here on Earth? b) In deep space?

2. What is the mass of a 1.0 N apple: a) here on Earth? b) In deep space?

Estimation Skills - some common masses and weights:


3. The weight of a plumbers wrench on Planet Guido is 22 newtons and its mass here on Earth is 8.2 kg. For Planet
Guido,
Penny calculate
= 3 grams the:
(0.003 kg) a) acceleration due to mass
1 kilogram gravity
= 2.2 pounds b) gravitational
1 apple = field strength
1 newton

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4. What is your mass in the (MKS) metric system of measurement?

5. Complete the chart below for your mass and weight in various places using the metric system.

Earth Moon (g = 1.6 m/s2) Deep Space

Mass

Weight

1. Describe how the readings on the scale change as the elevator goes up.

Riding in an Elevator
2. Describe how the readings on the scale change as the elevator goes down.

3. When does the scale read the normal weight of the person?

4. When does the scale read higher than the normal weight of the person?

5. When does the scale read less than the normal weight of the person?

6. What does a scale reading actually measure?

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Friction
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(N)
a) no movement b) no movement
e
forc
tion
Fric

c) movement begins d) while moving


Applied force (N)

Static Friction (Ffs)

1)

2)

3)

4)

Kinetic Friction (Ffk) (dynamic friction, sliding friction)

1)

2)

3)

Cause of friction:

Factors that influence the amount of frictional force on an object:

1.

2.

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In each case below, the car is screeching to a halt across a different surface. A value HON
known as the coefficient of friction is listed below each case.

1. What does the coefficient of friction measure?

Inspect the table of Approximate Coefficients of Friction in your reference tables.

2. Why are there two types of coefficients of friction?

3. Compare the coefficients of kinetic friction and static friction.

4. What materials on top of one another are the easiest to start moving? The hardest to start moving?

5. What materials are the easiest to slide over one another? The hardest to keep moving?

6. What is the coefficient of friction that applies while you are dragging a wooden crate across a hardwood
floor?

7. What is the coefficient of friction that applies when a car skids across a dry asphalt roadway?

Relationship:
Variable:

Quantity:

Units:

Type:
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8. A 4.0 kg block is being dragged across the floor by a student who finds that he must exert a force of 14.0 newtons to keep
the block moving at a constant velocity.

a) Draw and label a free-body diagram from this situation.

b) Calculate each force acting on the block.

c) Calculate the coefficient of kinetic friction (k) for the block and the floor?

9. A student tries pushing a 6.0 kg wooden box across a wooden floor with a force of 10. N but the box doesnt move.

a) How much frictional force is acting on the box?

b) How much force does the student need to apply to get the box to move?

c) If the student kept pushing with this amount of force, what would happen to the box?

d) How much force is needed to move the box with a constant velocity?

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10. In lab, the coefficient of kinetic friction for dragging a brick across a tabletop is found from experiment to be 0.23.

a) How much force would you need to drag a 2.0 kg brick across the tabletop at a constant speed?

b) If that brick is replaced with one that has a mass of 4.0 kg, which of the following will change? If so, how much?

Weight Normal force Force of Friction Coefficient of friction

11. A 20-kg sled rests on a bed of ice. A pulling force of 30 N is applied to the sled and it is found to accelerate at a rate of 0.5
m/s2.

a) Determine the force of friction.

b) Determine the coefficient of friction.

12. A driver slams on the brakes and her 2000 kg car skids to a stop on the dry asphalt highway.

a) What is the force of friction stopping the car?

b) At what rate does the car accelerate while stopping?

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The Inclined Plane
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Draw a free-body diagram for this box at Resolving Fg into components that are parallel and
rest on an inclined plane. perpendicular to the surface of the inclined plane:

Fg =

Fg =

If the box is in equilibrium, then . . .

1. Draw and calculate the magnitude of all the forces acting on this
box sliding down a hill at a constant speed of 12 m/s.

2. Calculate the force of tension in the rope holding this 50. N box held at rest on a
frictionless hill.

300

3. Calculate the tension in the rope holding this 50. N box held at rest on a hill if there
is a 10. N force of friction.

300

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4. Calculate the tension in the rope when this 50. N box is being dragged up the hill at a
constant speed of 5.0 m/s if there is a 10. N frictional force acting on it.

300

5. Calculate how fast this box will accelerate down the hill if the hill is frictionless.

4.5 kg

200

6. Calculate the force of friction acting on the box if it now accelerates down the incline at a rate of 0.67 m/s2.

4.5 kg

200

7. As the angle increases, what happens to the . . .

weight?

normal force?

force of friction?

coefficient of friction?
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Newtons Third Law
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Perform the activities with the force meters as directed by your teacher. Make your observations below.

Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3

Newton's Third Law of Motion:

Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6

If a heavier student pushes a lighter student, who exerts more force? Explain.

Action-Reaction pairs:

Give some examples of action-reaction pairs of forces:

1) The force exerted by ____________________ on ____________________ is equal and opposite to the force exerted
by _____________________ on ____________________.

2) The force exerted by ____________________ on ____________________ is equal and opposite to the force exerted
by _____________________ on ____________________.

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Equilibrium
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What are some properties of an object in equilibrium?

Sketch a free-body diagram for this box at rest on a hill.

Then, find the resultant of the vectors you drew.

Based on your drawings above, what is another


property of an object in equilibrium?

Is the system below in equilibrium? Now, draw a single vector that will put the system into equilibrium.

Draw the resultant.

Equilibrant:

What is the relationship between the resultant and the equilibrant?

For each system below, sketch a resultant vector and an equilibrant vector.

1. Which of the following sets of forces could be in equilibrium?


a) 2 N, 3 N, 4 N b) 10 N, 20 N, 30 N c) 20 N, 20 N, 50 N d) 30 N, 30 N, 30 N

Rule for equilibrium of 3 force vectors:

2. Which of the following forces could put a 5 N and a 10 N force into equilibrium?
a) 2 N b) 5 N c) 7 N d) 12 N
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Skydiving
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What are some factors that affect the amount of air


resistance a falling object experiences?

Compare the force of gravity to the force of air resistance for this 100. kg skydiver. Compare the acceleration in each diagram.

What happens when the force of air resistance equals the force of gravity?

Terminal velocity:

As the skydiver falls,

What is the force of air resistance acting on a 60 kg skydiver at terminal velocity?

Which experiences a greater force of air resistance: an elephant or a feather? Explain.

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