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Diode application

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Lecture No. 2

Assistant Lecturer

Mohammed Dyhia Ali

2017-2018

Diode Application

Graphical Manner Analysis:

The applied load will have an important impact on the

point of operation (Q- Point).

the applied load characteristics can be drawn as line.

The intersection of the load line with the

characteristics of diode will determine the point of

operation (or Q-Point).

Diode Application

Mathematical manner analysis:

Diode on state Diode off state

VD= 0.7 V for silicon and Due to the open circuit, the

VD=0.3V for germanium. diode current is 0 A

Series Diode Configuration with DC Input

EX: For the series diode configuration of Figure

below, determine (a) VD, VR , and ID, (b) repeat

with the diode reversed.

Solution:

Parallel and Series Parallel

Configuration with DC Input

Ex: Determine Vo, I1, ID1, and ID2 for the parallel diode

configuration of Fig. below.

Solution:

With the voltage source as shown in figure above, and the

direction of current as shown in figure above. So the two

diode are in the "on" state.

Homework

Determine I, V1, V2, and Vo for

the series dc configuration of

Fig. below.

network of Fig. below

Sinusoidal Input

Half Wave Rectifier:

For the moment we will use the ideal model to reduce

complexity.

Over one full cycle, period T, the average value is zero.

This circuit called a half-wave rectifier, will generate a

waveform vo that will have an average value not Zero,

use in the ac-to-dc conversion process.

Sinusoidal Input

During the interval 0 For the period T/2 T,

T/2 the polarity of the polarity of the input

vi is in reverse and the

the applied voltage vi

resulting polarity across

is such as to establish the ideal diode produces

pressure in the an off state with an o.c

direction indicated and equivalent. The result is

turn on the diode with the absence of a path for

charge to flow and

the polarity appearing

vo=i*R = (0)*R=0 V.

above the diode.

Sinusoidal Input

The input vi and the output The effect of using a silicon diode

vo were sketched together with VT = 0.7 V is shown in Fig.

below.

in Fig. below The applied signal must now be at

The output signal vo has a least 0.7 V before the diode can

net positive area above the turn on.

axis over a full period T and The difference between vo and vi is

an average value a fixed level of VT=0.7V and

determined by: vo = vi - VT,

The net effect is a reduction in

area above the axis, which

naturally reduces average voltage

Ex: (a) Sketch the output vo and determine the dc level of the output

for the network of Fig. below,(b) Repeat part (a) if the ideal diode is

replaced by a silicon diode, (c) Repeat parts (a) and (b) if Vm is

increased to 200 V and compare solutions using exact and

approximation method, (d) In part (a) find the peak inverse voltage

PIV appears across diode.

Solution:

Sinusoidal Input

Full wave Rectifier:

Bridge Network:

The dc level obtained from a sinusoidal input can be

improved 100% using a process called full-wave

rectification.

voltage is resulting polarities across the ideal diodes where

D2 and D3 are conducting while D1 and D4 are in the off

state.

Sinusoidal Input

For the negative region of the input the

conducting diodes are D1 and D4.

The important result is that the polarity across

the load resistor R is the same, establishing a

second positive pulse.

will appear as follow:

Sinusoidal Input

Since the area above the axis for one full cycle is

now twice that for a H.W.R, the dc level has also

been doubled:

state with VT. # where Vm >> 2VT

Sinusoidal Input

Center Tap Tr. full wave Rectifier:

This full-wave rectifier can be achived with only two diodes.

center-tapped (CT) transformer is required to establish the

input signal across each section of the secondary of the

transformer.

During the positive portion of vi. D1 assumes the S.C

equivalent and D2 the O.C equivalent.

rectifier with the same dc levels

Sinusoidal Input

Ex: Determine the output waveform for the

fallowing network and calculate the output dc

level and the required PIV of each diode.

Sinusoidal Input

Waveform Filtering

The filter acts to suppress the harmonics from

the rectified waveform and to preserve the dc

component.

Measure of goodness for rectified waveforms,

both filtered and unfiltered, is the ripple

factor.

Sinusoidal Input

t2< t < t3The diode turns OFF

Half wave rectifier with capacitor and the capacitance discharge

filter: with law.

t1<t<t2 When vi > VT, the diode is

ON and the current flows toward R

and C. the C is charging with a law:

Sinusoidal Input

Full wave rectifier with capacitor filter:

The analysis proceeds exactly as for the half-

wave rectifier. And the result law is as follow:

CLIPPERS

Clippers: that circuit have the ability to clip off a portion of the

input signal without distorting the remaining part of the alternating

waveform.

Series Clippers:

Steps of solution:

1) Make a mental sketch of the response of the network based on the

direction of the diode and the applied voltage levels.

2) Determine the applied voltage that will cause a change in state for

the diode.

3) apply Kirchhoff's voltage law, and be continually aware of the

defined terminals and polarity of vo.

4) It can be helpful to sketch the input signal above the output and

determine the output at instantaneous values of the input.

Ex: Determine the output waveform for the network of

Fig. below:

Solution:

region of vi especially when we note the aiding

effect of V=5V. For vi more negative than -5 V the diode

will enter its open-circuit state, while for voltages more

positive than -5 V the diode is in the short-circuit state.

CLIPPERS

Parallel clipper:

The analysis of parallel configurations is very

similar to that applied to series configurations.

CLIPPERS

Ex: Determine vo for the network of Fig. below

CLIPPERS

Clampers

This circuit clamp a signal to a different dc level.

The network must have a capacitor, a diode, and

a resistive element, but it can also employ an

independent dc supply .

The magnitude of R and C must be chosen by =

RC is large enough to ensure that ( > 5T).

Clampers

During the interval 0 T/2:

Diode in the on state

shorting out the effect of the resistor R.

RC time constant is so small (R determined by

the inherent resistance of the network).

capacitor will charge to V volts very quickly.

output voltage is directly across the short

circuit and vo = 0 V.

Clampers

During the interval T/2 T:

Diode is in off state by the applied signal and stored

voltage across the capacitorboth.

R is back in the network the time constant

determined by the RC is sufficiently large.

discharge period 5 much greater T/2 T.

the capacitor holds onto all its charge and, therefore,

voltage (since V = Q/C) during this period.

The total swing of the output is equal to the total swing of

the input signal.

Clampers

Start the analysis of clamping networks by considering that

part of the input signal that will forward bias the diode.

During the period that the diode is in the on state, assume

that the capacitor will charge up instantaneously to a

voltage level determined by the network.

Assume that during the period when the diode is in the off

state the capacitor will hold on to its established voltage

level.

Throughout the analysis maintain a continual awareness of

the location and reference polarity for vo to ensure that the

proper levels for vo are obtained.

Keep in mind the general rule that the total swing of the

total output must match the swing of the input signal.

Clampers

Ex: Determine vo for the network of Fig. below for

the input indicated

Clampers

Voltage Multiplier

This circuits are employed to maintain a relatively low

transformer peak voltage while stepping up the peak

output voltage to two, three, four, or more times the

peak rectified voltage.

Voltage Doubler (half wave Rectifier):

The network is a half-wave voltage doubler.

During positive voltage half-cycle diode D1 conducts

(and diode D2 is cut off).

C1 will charge up to the peak rectified voltage (Vm).

Assume Diode D1 is ideal, and the input voltage

charges capacitor C1 to Vm.

Voltage Multiplier

During the negative half-cycle, diode D1 is cut

off and diode D2 conducts.

capacitor C2 is charging.

Since diode D2 acts as a short during the

negative half-cycle (and diode D1 is open), we

can sum the voltages around the outside loop:

Voltage Multiplier

On the next positive half-cycle, diode D2 is non-

conducting and capacitor C2 will discharge through the

load.

If no load is connected across capacitor C2, both

capacitors stay chargedC1 to Vm and C2 to 2Vm.

The output waveform across capacitor C2 is that of a

half-wave signal filtered by a capacitor filter.

The PIV across each diode is 2Vm.

Voltage Multiplier

Voltage Doubler (full wave Rectifier):

During the positive half-cycle voltage

diode D1 conducts, Diode D2 is non-

conducting.

capacitor C1 charged to a peak voltage

Vm.

During the negative half-cycle diode D2

conducts while diode D1 is non-

conducting.

capacitor C2 charged to a peak voltage

Vm.

Voltage Multiplier

If no load current, the voltage across capacitors C1 and

C2 is 2Vm

If load current is drawn from the circuit, the voltage

across capacitors C1 and C2 is the same as that across a

capacitor fed by a full-wave rectifier circuit.

which is less than the capacitance of either C1 or C2

alone.

The lower capacitor value will provide poorer filtering

action than the single capacitor filter circuit.

The PIV across each diode is 2Vm.

Voltage Multiplier

Voltage Tripler and Quadrupler

this circuit is the extension of the half-wave voltage

doubler.

To get three and four times the peak input voltage. It

should be additional diodes and capacitors be connected.

By adding diodes and capacitors, we can get output voltage

may be five, six, seven, and so on, times the basic peak

voltage (Vm).

The voltage across

capacitor C2 is 2Vm, across

C1 and C3 it is 3Vm, and

across C2 and C4 it is 4Vm

The PIV across each diode

is 2Vm.

Special type Diodes

normal diodes, lower forward voltage drop (0.15 -

0.4 V) at low currents, its used in rectifier

applications and clamping diodes.

Special type Diodes

Light Emitting Diode (LED): it will give off visible

light when it is energized. such as gallium

arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) or gallium phosphide

(GaP).

Laser Diode: it produces coherent light. These

diodes find their application in DVD and CD

drives, laser pointers, etc. Laser diodes are more

expensive than LEDs. They are cheaper than

other forms of laser generators. Moreover, these

laser diodes have limited life.

Special type Diodes

Zener Diode:

At zener region the characteristic drops in a vertical manner at a

reverse bias potential VZ.

At Zener diode the direction of conduction is opposite to that of the

arrow in the symbol.

The polarity of VD and VZ are the same as would be obtained if each

were a resistive element.

The location of the Zener region can be controlled by varying the

doping levels. An increase in doping, producing an increase in the

number of added impurities, will decrease the Zener potential.

Zener diodes are available having VZ of (1.8 - 200 V) with power

ratings from 0.25 W to 50 W.

Special type Diodes

the Zener model to be employed for the on

state will be as diode. For the off state as

defined by (0- less then Vz), the Zener

equivalent is the open circuit.

For zener diode in an electrical network there

are three operation modes:

A. Fixed Vi and R load

B. Fixed Vi, Variable RL

C. Fixed RL, Variable Vi

Special type Diodes

A. Fixed Vi and R load

The applied dc voltage is fixed, as is the load resistor.

The analysis can fundamentally be broken down into two

steps.

from the network and calculating the voltage across the

resulting open circuit.

2. Substitute the appropriate equivalent circuit and solve for

the desired unknowns

Special type Diodes

Special type Diodes

B. Fixed Vi, Variable RL

Due to the offset voltage VZ, there is a specific

range of resistor values which will ensure that the

Zener is in the on state.

To determine the minimum load resistance:

obtained from will ensure that the Zener diode is

in the on state and the diode can be replaced

by its VZ source equivalent.

Special type Diodes

Special type Diodes

Ex: (a) for the fallowing network, determine the

range of RL and IL that will result in VRL being

maintained at 10 V, (b)Determine the maximum

wattage rating of the diode

Special type Diodes

C. Fixed RL, Variable Vi

For fixed values of RL, the voltage Vi must be

sufficiently large to turn the Zener diode on. The

minimum turn-on voltage is determined by:

Special type Diodes

H.W: Determine the range of values of Vi that will

maintain the Zener diode of Fig. below in the on

state

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