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Electronics

Lecture No. 2
Assistant Lecturer
Mohammed Dyhia Ali
2017-2018
Diode Application
Graphical Manner Analysis:
The applied load will have an important impact on the
point of operation (Q- Point).
the applied load characteristics can be drawn as line.
The intersection of the load line with the
characteristics of diode will determine the point of
operation (or Q-Point).
Diode Application
Mathematical manner analysis:
Diode on state Diode off state
VD= 0.7 V for silicon and Due to the open circuit, the
VD=0.3V for germanium. diode current is 0 A
Series Diode Configuration with DC Input
EX: For the series diode configuration of Figure
below, determine (a) VD, VR , and ID, (b) repeat
with the diode reversed.
Solution:
Parallel and Series Parallel
Configuration with DC Input
Ex: Determine Vo, I1, ID1, and ID2 for the parallel diode
configuration of Fig. below.
Solution:
With the voltage source as shown in figure above, and the
direction of current as shown in figure above. So the two
diode are in the "on" state.
Homework
Determine I, V1, V2, and Vo for
the series dc configuration of
Fig. below.

Determine the voltage Vo for the


network of Fig. below
Sinusoidal Input
Half Wave Rectifier:
For the moment we will use the ideal model to reduce
complexity.
Over one full cycle, period T, the average value is zero.
This circuit called a half-wave rectifier, will generate a
waveform vo that will have an average value not Zero,
use in the ac-to-dc conversion process.
Sinusoidal Input
During the interval 0 For the period T/2 T,
T/2 the polarity of the polarity of the input
vi is in reverse and the
the applied voltage vi
resulting polarity across
is such as to establish the ideal diode produces
pressure in the an off state with an o.c
direction indicated and equivalent. The result is
turn on the diode with the absence of a path for
charge to flow and
the polarity appearing
vo=i*R = (0)*R=0 V.
above the diode.
Sinusoidal Input
The input vi and the output The effect of using a silicon diode
vo were sketched together with VT = 0.7 V is shown in Fig.
below.
in Fig. below The applied signal must now be at
The output signal vo has a least 0.7 V before the diode can
net positive area above the turn on.
axis over a full period T and The difference between vo and vi is
an average value a fixed level of VT=0.7V and
determined by: vo = vi - VT,
The net effect is a reduction in
area above the axis, which
naturally reduces average voltage
Ex: (a) Sketch the output vo and determine the dc level of the output
for the network of Fig. below,(b) Repeat part (a) if the ideal diode is
replaced by a silicon diode, (c) Repeat parts (a) and (b) if Vm is
increased to 200 V and compare solutions using exact and
approximation method, (d) In part (a) find the peak inverse voltage
PIV appears across diode.
Solution:
Sinusoidal Input
Full wave Rectifier:
Bridge Network:
The dc level obtained from a sinusoidal input can be
improved 100% using a process called full-wave
rectification.

During the period t = 0 to T/2 the polarity of the input


voltage is resulting polarities across the ideal diodes where
D2 and D3 are conducting while D1 and D4 are in the off
state.
Sinusoidal Input
For the negative region of the input the
conducting diodes are D1 and D4.
The important result is that the polarity across
the load resistor R is the same, establishing a
second positive pulse.

Over one full cycle the input and output voltages


will appear as follow:
Sinusoidal Input
Since the area above the axis for one full cycle is
now twice that for a H.W.R, the dc level has also
been doubled:

If diodes are not ideal, we should represent each diode in on


state with VT. # where Vm >> 2VT
Sinusoidal Input
Center Tap Tr. full wave Rectifier:
This full-wave rectifier can be achived with only two diodes.
center-tapped (CT) transformer is required to establish the
input signal across each section of the secondary of the
transformer.
During the positive portion of vi. D1 assumes the S.C
equivalent and D2 the O.C equivalent.

The net effect is the same output as that appearing in bridge


rectifier with the same dc levels
Sinusoidal Input
Ex: Determine the output waveform for the
fallowing network and calculate the output dc
level and the required PIV of each diode.
Sinusoidal Input
Waveform Filtering
The filter acts to suppress the harmonics from
the rectified waveform and to preserve the dc
component.
Measure of goodness for rectified waveforms,
both filtered and unfiltered, is the ripple
factor.
Sinusoidal Input
t2< t < t3The diode turns OFF
Half wave rectifier with capacitor and the capacitance discharge
filter: with law.
t1<t<t2 When vi > VT, the diode is
ON and the current flows toward R
and C. the C is charging with a law:
Sinusoidal Input
Full wave rectifier with capacitor filter:
The analysis proceeds exactly as for the half-
wave rectifier. And the result law is as follow:
CLIPPERS
Clippers: that circuit have the ability to clip off a portion of the
input signal without distorting the remaining part of the alternating
waveform.
Series Clippers:
Steps of solution:
1) Make a mental sketch of the response of the network based on the
direction of the diode and the applied voltage levels.
2) Determine the applied voltage that will cause a change in state for
the diode.
3) apply Kirchhoff's voltage law, and be continually aware of the
defined terminals and polarity of vo.
4) It can be helpful to sketch the input signal above the output and
determine the output at instantaneous values of the input.
Ex: Determine the output waveform for the network of
Fig. below:
Solution:

the diode will be in the on state for the positive


region of vi especially when we note the aiding
effect of V=5V. For vi more negative than -5 V the diode
will enter its open-circuit state, while for voltages more
positive than -5 V the diode is in the short-circuit state.
CLIPPERS
Parallel clipper:
The analysis of parallel configurations is very
similar to that applied to series configurations.
CLIPPERS
Ex: Determine vo for the network of Fig. below
CLIPPERS
Clampers
This circuit clamp a signal to a different dc level.
The network must have a capacitor, a diode, and
a resistive element, but it can also employ an
independent dc supply .
The magnitude of R and C must be chosen by =
RC is large enough to ensure that ( > 5T).
Clampers
During the interval 0 T/2:
Diode in the on state
shorting out the effect of the resistor R.
RC time constant is so small (R determined by
the inherent resistance of the network).
capacitor will charge to V volts very quickly.
output voltage is directly across the short
circuit and vo = 0 V.
Clampers
During the interval T/2 T:
Diode is in off state by the applied signal and stored
voltage across the capacitorboth.
R is back in the network the time constant
determined by the RC is sufficiently large.
discharge period 5 much greater T/2 T.
the capacitor holds onto all its charge and, therefore,
voltage (since V = Q/C) during this period.
The total swing of the output is equal to the total swing of
the input signal.
Clampers
Start the analysis of clamping networks by considering that
part of the input signal that will forward bias the diode.
During the period that the diode is in the on state, assume
that the capacitor will charge up instantaneously to a
voltage level determined by the network.
Assume that during the period when the diode is in the off
state the capacitor will hold on to its established voltage
level.
Throughout the analysis maintain a continual awareness of
the location and reference polarity for vo to ensure that the
proper levels for vo are obtained.
Keep in mind the general rule that the total swing of the
total output must match the swing of the input signal.
Clampers
Ex: Determine vo for the network of Fig. below for
the input indicated
Clampers
Voltage Multiplier
This circuits are employed to maintain a relatively low
transformer peak voltage while stepping up the peak
output voltage to two, three, four, or more times the
peak rectified voltage.
Voltage Doubler (half wave Rectifier):
The network is a half-wave voltage doubler.
During positive voltage half-cycle diode D1 conducts
(and diode D2 is cut off).
C1 will charge up to the peak rectified voltage (Vm).
Assume Diode D1 is ideal, and the input voltage
charges capacitor C1 to Vm.
Voltage Multiplier
During the negative half-cycle, diode D1 is cut
off and diode D2 conducts.
capacitor C2 is charging.
Since diode D2 acts as a short during the
negative half-cycle (and diode D1 is open), we
can sum the voltages around the outside loop:
Voltage Multiplier
On the next positive half-cycle, diode D2 is non-
conducting and capacitor C2 will discharge through the
load.
If no load is connected across capacitor C2, both
capacitors stay chargedC1 to Vm and C2 to 2Vm.
The output waveform across capacitor C2 is that of a
half-wave signal filtered by a capacitor filter.
The PIV across each diode is 2Vm.
Voltage Multiplier
Voltage Doubler (full wave Rectifier):
During the positive half-cycle voltage
diode D1 conducts, Diode D2 is non-
conducting.
capacitor C1 charged to a peak voltage
Vm.
During the negative half-cycle diode D2
conducts while diode D1 is non-
conducting.
capacitor C2 charged to a peak voltage
Vm.
Voltage Multiplier
If no load current, the voltage across capacitors C1 and
C2 is 2Vm
If load current is drawn from the circuit, the voltage
across capacitors C1 and C2 is the same as that across a
capacitor fed by a full-wave rectifier circuit.

The effective capacitance is that of C1 and C2 in series,


which is less than the capacitance of either C1 or C2
alone.
The lower capacitor value will provide poorer filtering
action than the single capacitor filter circuit.
The PIV across each diode is 2Vm.
Voltage Multiplier
Voltage Tripler and Quadrupler
this circuit is the extension of the half-wave voltage
doubler.
To get three and four times the peak input voltage. It
should be additional diodes and capacitors be connected.
By adding diodes and capacitors, we can get output voltage
may be five, six, seven, and so on, times the basic peak
voltage (Vm).
The voltage across
capacitor C2 is 2Vm, across
C1 and C3 it is 3Vm, and
across C2 and C4 it is 4Vm
The PIV across each diode
is 2Vm.
Special type Diodes

Schottky Diodes: its constructed differently from


normal diodes, lower forward voltage drop (0.15 -
0.4 V) at low currents, its used in rectifier
applications and clamping diodes.
Special type Diodes
Light Emitting Diode (LED): it will give off visible
light when it is energized. such as gallium
arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) or gallium phosphide
(GaP).
Laser Diode: it produces coherent light. These
diodes find their application in DVD and CD
drives, laser pointers, etc. Laser diodes are more
expensive than LEDs. They are cheaper than
other forms of laser generators. Moreover, these
laser diodes have limited life.
Special type Diodes
Zener Diode:
At zener region the characteristic drops in a vertical manner at a
reverse bias potential VZ.
At Zener diode the direction of conduction is opposite to that of the
arrow in the symbol.
The polarity of VD and VZ are the same as would be obtained if each
were a resistive element.
The location of the Zener region can be controlled by varying the
doping levels. An increase in doping, producing an increase in the
number of added impurities, will decrease the Zener potential.
Zener diodes are available having VZ of (1.8 - 200 V) with power
ratings from 0.25 W to 50 W.
Special type Diodes
the Zener model to be employed for the on
state will be as diode. For the off state as
defined by (0- less then Vz), the Zener
equivalent is the open circuit.
For zener diode in an electrical network there
are three operation modes:
A. Fixed Vi and R load
B. Fixed Vi, Variable RL
C. Fixed RL, Variable Vi
Special type Diodes
A. Fixed Vi and R load
The applied dc voltage is fixed, as is the load resistor.
The analysis can fundamentally be broken down into two
steps.

1. Determine the state of the Zener diode by removing it


from the network and calculating the voltage across the
resulting open circuit.
2. Substitute the appropriate equivalent circuit and solve for
the desired unknowns
Special type Diodes
Special type Diodes
B. Fixed Vi, Variable RL
Due to the offset voltage VZ, there is a specific
range of resistor values which will ensure that the
Zener is in the on state.
To determine the minimum load resistance:

Any load resistance value greater than the RL


obtained from will ensure that the Zener diode is
in the on state and the diode can be replaced
by its VZ source equivalent.
Special type Diodes
Special type Diodes
Ex: (a) for the fallowing network, determine the
range of RL and IL that will result in VRL being
maintained at 10 V, (b)Determine the maximum
wattage rating of the diode
Special type Diodes
C. Fixed RL, Variable Vi
For fixed values of RL, the voltage Vi must be
sufficiently large to turn the Zener diode on. The
minimum turn-on voltage is determined by:
Special type Diodes
H.W: Determine the range of values of Vi that will
maintain the Zener diode of Fig. below in the on
state

Two back-to-back Zeners can also be used as an


ac regulator.