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study of ADC and DAC

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Exp. Title: Study of Analog to Digital Converter & Digital to Analog Converter

Aim

Introduction

A converter a device for altering the nature of an electric current or signal, especially from

analog signal to digital signal or vice versa. It is an electrical devices that convert the voltage

from alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) or digital current to alternating current

i.e. a converter is a device which convert one form of signal to other form. In the real world,

most data is characterized by analog signals. In order to manipulate the data using a

microprocessor, we need to convert the analog signals to the digital signals, so that the

microprocessor will be able to read, understand and manipulate the data. Some devices need

data in analog form for processing in this case we need digital to analog converter.

most phenomena in the "real world," to digital language, used in information processing,

computing, data transmission, and control systems. Digital-toanalog converters (DACs) are

used in transforming transmitted or stored data, or the results of digital processing, back to

"real-world" variables for control, information display, or further analog processing.

Thus converter is need to convert one form of signal in to other. For example the main goal

of analog to digital Converter is to digitize the analog signals, which means to record and

store the analog signals in numbers.Converter is a important device in electrical field and

converter can be classify as follows:

Digital-to-analog converter (DAC)

Digital-to-digital converter (DDC)

commonly called, is a device that convert analog signals

into digital signals. Analog information is transmitted by modulating a continuous

transmission signal by amplifying a signal's strength or varying its frequency to add or take

away data.In electronics, an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is a device for converting an

analog signal (current, voltage etc.) to a digital code, usually binary. In the real world, most

of the signals sensed and processed by humans are analog signals. Analog-to-Digital

conversion is the primary means by which analog signal are converted into digital data that

can be processed by computers for various purposes, as shown in figure:

Figure: Audio Signal Processing

There are many types of ADC for different applications. The most inexpensive type of ADC

is a Successive-Approximation ADC. Figure shows the transfer curve of a 4-bit ADC. Inside

a Successive-Approximation ADC, a series of digital codes, each corresponds to a fix analog

level, are generated successively by an internal counter to compare with the analog signal

under conversion. The generation is stopped when the analog level becomes just larger than

the analog signal. The digital code corresponds to the analog level is the desired digital

representation of the analog signal.

The performance of ADCs and DACs mainly depends on their Resolution and Speed.

The Resolution of a converter is expressed in the number of Bit. For an ADC, the Resolution

states the number of intervals or levels which can be divided from a certain analog input

range. An n-bit ADC has the resolution of 1 / 2n. For example, the Resolution of a 16-bit

ADC is 1 / 65536, since 216 = 65536. If the measuring voltage range is 10 V, then this input

range can be resolved into 10 V / 65536 = 0.153 mV precision.

The Speed of a converter is expressed by the Sampling Frequency. It is the number of times

that the converter samples the analog signal, its unit is Hertz (Hz). In audio signal processing,

Sampling Frequencies of 44 kHz, 22 kHz and 11 kHz are mostly used. Using 44 kHz

Sampling Frequency means the converter is sampling the analog audio signal and doing

analog to digital conversion at 44000 times per second. The higher the Sampling Frequency,

the lower the distortion and the better the sound quality.

electronic device that converts adigital code to an analog signal such as a voltage, current, or

electric charge. Signals can easily be stored and transmitted in digital form; a DAC is used

for the signal to be recognized by human senses or non-digital systems.

(ADC) is the measure of how finely its output may change between discrete, binary steps. For

instance, an 8-bit DAC with an output voltage range of 0 to 10 volts will have a resolution

of 39.22 mV.

Ladder as shown in figure:

Starting from V1 and going through V3, this would give each input voltage exactly half the

effect on the output as the voltage before it. In other words, input voltage V 1 has a 1:1 effect

on the output voltage (gain of 1), while input voltage V2 has half that much effect on the

output (a gain of 1/2), and V3 half of that (a gain of 1/4). These ratios are the same ratios

corresponding to position weights in the binary system. If we drive the inputs of this circuit

with digital gates so that each input is either 0 volts or full supply voltage, the output voltage

will be an analog representation of the binary value of these three bits.

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