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site analysis

fall 2015

francisco alaniz uribe


BScArch, MDPU, MEDes (Urban Design), RPP MCIP

assistant professor

research associate, the urban lab


"Always design a thing by considering
it in its next larger context - a chair in
a room, a room in a house, a house in
an (neighbourhood), an
(neighbourhood) in a city

Eliel Saarinen
site analysis

site analysis is not a separate step, is part of the


design process

it provides the foundations for your design decisions

is intended to understand and interpret the landscape


(natural and built form)

it allows you to select appropriate precedents

it moves you from being outsiders to being insiders

search for determinants of form


form

form determines the human experience, what we can or can not do in a


space

sets the stage for social and civic life

and affects environmental and economic sustainability

good site planning is the first step in reaching sustainable design


approach to analysis

we use a morphological approach that considers the processes of form


making

is influenced by the program being proposed

is multidimensional with time as the 4th dimension

history, understand the origin of form and its aging process

its about culture

and it also considers a climate in flux


Townscape Analysis
Background
Review of documents and studies
Local/regional analysis
Historic evolution and projection
Assumptions and principles

Inventory and Analysis

topography historic resources roads and rails


hydrology water neighbourhoods
cultural landscapes
vegetation sewer land uses
visual analysis
wildlife power land subdivision
historic evolution

Ecological analysis Cultural landscapes Infrastructure Land uses

Issues, Opportunities and Constraints


Identify issues, opportunities and constraints
land suitability / capability / desirability / developability
Stakeholders input and review through open houses, workshops, etc.
Conceptual Plans

Preliminary plans and concepts


Stakeholders input and review through open houses, workshops, etc.

Final Plans

Report

Historic Evolution Brochure

Campus Concept Plan

3D Model

Design and Development Guidelines


elements of analysis

topography histori
hydrology cultural
vegetation visu
wildlife histori

existing site
- sun and wind - year round
(consider eects of buildings)

- topography

- vegetation - trees/grass

- surface water and precipitation

Ecological analysis
sun

sun exposure
- heat/energy gain

- impact on people, wildlife and buildings

sun

Beltline, Calgary 11am on Dec 31st


sun and wind

wind exposure
- dierent each season

- evapotranspiration

- chinook winds (unique to this region)

- impact on people, wildlife and buildings

sun
mapping examples
o
51 N sun diagrams
sun
mapping examples
3d modelling: using an existing building and modelling it in sketch up
locating the sites coordinates on a modelling software
wind effect of wind on buildings
wind
mapping examples
wind diagrams
topography

slope
- for people (sitting, recreation, etc.), for buildings

- 2% enough for water drainage

- no slope or low point on the land = standing water

slope and sun exposure


- moisture retention

- erosion

topography

slope and drainage

picture of examples
topography
mapping examples
plan view map with clear topographic lines - landmarks for reference

990

985

980

975
970

965

960
955
940
935 950
945
topography
topographic lines / contours
how does topographic lines work
sea level elevation
543 544 545 surveying in Autocad - dwg files
topography
mapping examples
colour gradation - landmarks for reference

990

985

980
975
topography
F"41                 mapping
  examples
E5PQPHSBQI

3d model - landmarks for reference


surface water and precipitation

precipitation
- snow, rain and hail

- understanding patterns of seasons

surface water
- stormwater management

- issues of drainage -

- water pollution

- water temperature

surface water and precipitation


mapping examples
precipitation diagrams
Jan

Feb - 5.8 C

Mar - 0.6 C

Apr 10.1 C

May 16.9 C

Jun 20.2 C

Jul

Aug 21.4 C

Sep 16.4 C

Oct 9.6 C

Nov - 1.8 C

Dec - 7.2 C
maximum
- 9.5 C

22.1 C
- 20.5 C

- 17.1 C

- 10.4 C

- 11.4 C

- 17.9 C
- 1.7 C
minimum

3.7 C

9.6 C

8.3 C

3.7 C
-2C

8C

36.4 cm 22.5 cm 18.6 cm 8.7 cm 2 cm 0 cm 0 cm 0.7 cm 2.8 cm 9.4 cm 25.5 cm 32 cm

1.8 mm 1 mm 1 mm 9.6 mm 35.2 mm 76.5 mm 70.4 mm 61.1 mm 40.1 mm 15.1 mm 5.4 mm 0.7 mm

78.8 hrs 107.4 hrs 170.5 hrs 234.5 hrs 275.3 hrs 295 hrs 308.3 hrs 271.7 hrs 168.4 hrs 137.4 hrs 83.1 hrs 72.9 hrs
surface water and precipitation
mapping examples
overlay on a topographic map water flow
and standing water
floodplain
mapping examples
overlay on a topographic map water flow
and standing water
floodplain
mapping examples
overlay on a topographic map water flow
and standing water

flood fringe: carries water and moves


water generally at speed

floodplain
floodway: holds water spilled but
flood fringe
does not carry water at speed
floodway

find floodplain map at the City of Calgary website


vegetation - trees/grass

deciduous trees and shrubs


- lose leaves in the fall

coniferous trees and shrubs


- do not lose leaves
- evergreen - generally have needles

grass
- turfgrass and native prairie grass

These have implications for sustainability, for


example sun exposure and irrigation needs
vegetation - trees/grass

value of trees and shrubs


- shade and shelter
- provide habitat - shelter and food - birds, rabbits, squirrels

value of grass
- sitting place

- unstructured recreation
- turfgrass needs more maintenance(water, etc.) than prairie grass
vegetation - trees/grass
mapping examples
highlighted colour in a map that includes landmarks for reference
vegetation - trees/grass
mapping examples
colour over a black and white aerial photograph
vegetation - trees/grass
mapping examples
colour over a black and white aerial photograph

divers colours for dierent kinds of trees site


benalto
an
(e.g. deciduous and coniferous)
benalto trees
elements of analysis

historic resources roads


cultural landscapes
visual analysis
historic evolution

origins of the site


- historic aerial photographs and maps

- built form changes - figure/ground


mapping

- vegetation change and patterns

- transportation infrastructure

- relationships to context

Cultural landscapes
historic photos
historic evolution
- Glenbow archives

- Aerial photos archives UofC


historic maps

historic maps
- fire insurance maps

- SANDS archives UofC


Historic Timeline
Dane-zaa (Beaver Indians) arriving in canoes 1700s Dane-zaa Indians were the primary inhabitants of the Lesser Slave Lake region. Cree

aboriginal
preceded the European traders and acted as middlemen between European traders and

timeline
native people.

1760s The Cree come with firearms destroying Dane-zaa Indian bands and driving the remaining
back northwest.

1781-82 Smallpox weakens the Cree.


Cree Encampment, 1957 late1700s The Dane-zaa Indians acquire firearms and begin fighting back. Peace is made between the
Dane-zaa and the Cree at Unchaga, or Peace River.

1799 Arrival of the North West Company (NWC). Area is home to the XY Company (New North

fur trade / North West Company


West Co), the Hudsons Bay Company, Bredin & Cornwall, Revillon Frres, and smaller
independent companies and free traders due to fur and game resources, the importance of
Lesser Slave Lake as a means of travel through northern Alberta, and Grouard Trail linking
Grouard area and Peace River Crossing. Large numbers of First Nations people and Mtis
lived nearby.
Dominion Land Office, 1913
1800-01 North West Co. forts built at both ends of Lesser Slave Lake - the fort on the west end (now
Grouard) was probably built by Angus Shaw (fur trading post).

1815 The Hudsons Bay Company sets up a post by Lesser Slave Lake. Both North West
Company and Hudsons Bay Company established forts on Buffalo Bay at the present
townsite of Grouard.

1858 First upgrade of the Grouard Peace River Trail.

1872 June 15: Mission begins officially when Father Remas purchases 3 small houses.

mission
1881 Lesser Slave Lake settlement becomes Hudsons Bay Company Headquarters for the
Northwest Territories.

1890 Opening of St. Bernard Mission Indian Residential School.

1891 Father Emile-Jean-Marie Grouard is consecrated a bishop.


Bishop Emile Jean Marie Grouard
1892 June 15: first visit of Bishop Grouard to St. Bernard Mission.

Priests Residence, early 1900 1894 The Sisters of Providence open the Mission School.

Grouard Bridge, early 1900 1896-1902 The Sisters of Providence convent is built.

1902 The Cathedral is completed and St. Bernard Roman Catholic Church is incorporated (the
church and the cemetery are presently designated as a Provincial Historic Site).

1902-1904 Construction of the Priests Residence at St. Bernard Mission, later to become known as

mission school
the Bishops Palace.

1903 The first post office is established as the Lesser Slave Lake Post Office.

Hudson Bay Company, 1905 1905 The Province of Alberta is created, changing the jurisdiction of the area to Alberta instead
of the Northwest Territories.

Steamship The Northern Light on Lesser Lake, 1909 1909 September 27: Grouard is incorporated as a Village, with 65 occupied dwellings. The
community is named Grouard, in honor of Bishop Grouard.

1913 June 27: Grouard is incorporated as a Town, with 741 permanent inhabitants.

1915 Edmonton, Dunvegan and British Columbia Railway bypasses Grouard by 12 miles to the

railway / highway
south and establishes railway towns of High Prairie and McLennan, causing Grouards
population to drop by 2/3.

1935 The St. Bernard Missions Boys Residence building is destroyed by fire.
Roman Catholic Church, 1913
1937 December: Opening of the new brick building for the Missions Boys Residence.

1940 Town of Grouard reverts back to Village status.

1944 January 15: Grouard dissolved from Village status and becomes a Hamlet.

St Bernard Church and Boys Residence, 1938 early 1960s Highway 2 construction is completed.

1961 St. Bernard Indian Residential School closes.


1962 July 8: Sisters of Providence leave St. Bernard Mission permanently.

1963 October 21: Opening of Moosehorn Lodge and Grouard Vocational School.

reserve / hamlet / college


1966 May 29: Demolition of the Bishop and Priests Residence building.

St Bernard Indian Residential School, 1890-1961 1970 Three native Reserves (Freeman to the north, and Halcrow and Pakeshan to the west)
amalgamated to form the Kapaweno Reserve. The Alberta Vocational Centre is established
in Grouard (later to become Northern Lakes College).

1978 The Cardinal Housing Project construction begins (will be demolished by 1985).
1985 Community School construction completed

1999 Northern Lakes College launches its new name.

Grouard Heritage and Cultural Resource Concept Plan 5


historic evolution
mapping examples
st. marys university college
campus planning project using aerial photographs

historic evolution
1948 1956 1963

St.Pauls Church and Providence School The Sisters of Providence


St. Patricks Church are is built on the South open a new nursing
present on the South East edge of the site, along home east of the original
corner of the site. with additional service Lacombe Home.
buildings.
Lacombe Home and A new Providence
the school, built by the convent is built to house
Sisters of Charity sit on the remaining sisters.
the 200 acres donated
to Father Lacombe by The Faithful Companions
Senator Patrick Burns. of Jesus operate a school
Also, there are a number and a boarding house on
of service buildings the site.
present, including the
Water Tower (1920),
the Laundry Building
(1913),the Carriage
House, and the Power
Plant (1927).

Administration Building

Lacombe Home
Water Tower
Laundry Building Classroom Building
St. Patricks Church
Carriage House
St. Pauls Church School

1976 1982 2008

The Midlands United Lacombe Home, the At the official opening of


Church and the Water Tower, the the College in 1999, the
Lacombe Care Centre Laundry Building, the library and computer lab
are built. Carriage House, and the building - St. Basils Hall
Water Tower (1920),
the Laundry Building
(1913),the Carriage
House, and the Power
Plant (1927).

historic evolution
mapping examples Administration Building

Lacombe Home
Water Tower using aerial photographs
Laundry Building Classroom Building
St. Patricks Church
Carriage House
St. Pauls Church School

1976 1982 2008

The Midlands United Lacombe Home, the At the official opening of


Church and the Water Tower, the the College in 1999, the
Lacombe Care Centre Laundry Building, the library and computer lab
are built. Carriage House, and the building - St. Basils Hall
Power Plant are declared is inaugurated.
In 1975, Fish Creek provintial historic
Provincial Park officially buildings in 1979. The same year, the
opens, and Glennfield Lacombe Home building
day use area is Macleod Trail widened is destroyed by fire.
developed North of St. with new interchanges,
Marys College site. Fish Creek LRT station Midlands Building and Le
constructed, and Fort Centre, a renovated
Calgarys suburbs now historical building open.
extend to the south.

Glennfield Area

Water Tower
Laundry Building Lacombe Home site
Carriage House Le Fort Centre

St. Basils Hall

Midlands Building
Lacombe Care Centre
historic evolution
mapping examples
using maps photographs

1948 1966 2002


elements of analysis

neighbourhoods
land uses
land subdivision

buildings/spaces
- figure ground

- relationship between built area and open spaces

- entries by pedestrians and vehicles

- land subdivision

- land uses (not zoning)

Land uses
figure ground

mapping examples
figure ground - colour black buildings and show
roads/paths with thin lines
buildings/spaces and entries
mapping examples
use arrows on a map or aerial photograph to show entries
land subdivision

mapping examples
land subdivision

single vs. multi family

diversity or uses and

building types
land use

mapping examples
shows: existing building footprints with a colour
depicting an specific land use

implications:

diversity of land uses at the pedestrian level

conventional colours in planning,


further detail is required e.g.
restaurant, store, oce, gallery,
etc.
Single family residential

Multi family residential

Commercial and oce

Institutional or community facilities

Industrial

Parks and recreation

Environmental or natural reserves

Utility buildings

Infrastructure
elements of analysis

roads and rails


water neighbou
sewer
power land sub

elements of infrastructure
- transportation and flows

- stormwater management

- powerlines

- consider setbacks and other impacts

Infrastructure
circulation infrastructure

roads
- hierarchy of roads based on section and volume of trac

- large roads are barriers for connections

- parking areas

paths
- sidewalks, paths and trails

lrt
- tracks are barriers for connections

- stations are destinations and nodes


circulation infrastructure
road hierarchy
15 m
local

city of calgary website:


Design guidelines for subdivision servicing:

http://www.calgary.ca/PDA/pd/Pages/Urban-
Development/Urban-Development-publications.aspx

Road Classification Map:

http://www.calgary.ca/Transportation/TP/Documents/
forecasting/forecasting_toolbox/
rtm_roads_classification_part2.pdf?noredirect=1
circulation infrastructure
21 m
road hierarchy
collector
circulation infrastructure
mapping examples
use dierent colours on a map to show road hierarchy and tracks
other infrastructure

E-T Energy
Oil Sands Lease
Enbridge
Pipeline
Suncor
Energy

mapping examples ATCO Electric


Powerline

- oil and gas pipelines



Archaeological
- power lines Site

ATCO Electric
Sub-Station

!
"

!
"
Hwy. 63
summary of findings

what are the most


important pieces
of the analysis?
- opportunities and
constraints

- express your findings


spatially
mapping human behaviour

references:

jan gehl & svarre


how to study public life

william h whyte
the social life of small urban spaces
https://vimeo.com/111488563
site analysis
fall 2015

francisco alaniz uribe


BScArch, MDPU, MEDes (Urban Design), RPP MCIP

assistant professor

research associate, the urban lab