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EXPERIMENT- 1

OHMS LAW RESISTANCE OF WIRE


AIM

To determine the resistance of the given wire and hence to calculate the resistance
per unit length.

APPARATUS

Resistance wire, battery eliminator, one way key , Voltmeter, Ammeter, Rheostat

THEORY

Ohms law states that the current flowing through a conductor is directly
proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor provided the
temperature remains constant.

VI

V = IR

where R=V/I is called the resistance of the conductor. Resistance is the opposition offered by
the conductor to the flow of current due to the attraction of the free electrons by the atoms
of the conductor.

The V-I graph is a straight line as shown below.

If l is the length of the wire then the resistance per unit length=R/l

Procedure :

1. Arrange the apparatus as per the circuit diagram.


2. Clean the ends of the connecting wires with sand paper and make them shiny.

3. Make the connections as per circuit diagram. All connections must be neat and tight.
Take care to connect the ammeter and voltmeter with their correct polarity. (+ve to +ve and
-ve to -ve).

4. Determine the zero error and least count of the ammeter and voltmeter and record them.

5. Adjust the rheostat to pass a low current.


6. Insert the key K and slide the rheostat contact to see whether the ammeter and voltmeter
are showing deflections properly.

7. Adjust the rheostat to get a small deflection in ammeter and voltmeter.

8. Record the readings of the ammeter and voltmeter.

9. Take at least six sets of readings by adjusting the rheostat gradually.

10. Plot a graph with V along x-axis and I along y-axis.

11. The graph will be a straight line which verifies Ohm's law.

12. Determine the slope of the V-I graph. The reciprocal of the slope gives resistance of the
wire.

13. Measure the length of the resistance wire and calculate the resistance per unit length.

Precautions :

1. All the electrical connections must be neat and tight.

2. Voltmeter and Ammeter must be of proper range.

3. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is passed for a
long time there will be heating of the wire.
4. Rheostat should be of low resistance.
5. Check for zero corrections of voltmeter and ammeter.

Result

1. Resistance of the wire =

2. Resistance per unit length =

Sources of Error
1.Non uniform cross section of the wire.
2. Loose screws of the instruments.
3. High resistance of the rheostat.
4. Resistance of coil may change due to over heating.

Write the following in left side


Circuit Diagram:
A=Ammeter

V=Voltmeter

R= Resistance wire

K=Key

Observations:

Range of the given voltmeter = .....................V.


Least count of the given voltmeter = .....................V.

Zero correction of the Voltmeter = V

Range of the given ammeter =.................... A.

Least count of the given ammeter = ..................... A.

Zero correction of the ammeter = ....A

Sl No Voltmeter Corrected Ammeter Corrected Resistance of


reading Voltmeter reading Ammeter the wire
reading (V) reading (I) R=V/I
Volts Amperes
Volts Amperes ohms
1
2
3
4
5
6

Calculations
Mean Resistance of the wire R =

Resistance of the wire from the V-I graph= V/I =

Length of the Resistance wire, l =

Resistance per unit length =R/l =

EXPERIMENT- 2
METRE BRIDGE- SPECIFIC RESISTANCE
AIM

To determine the unknown resistance of a wire and hence to calculate the specific
resistance of the wire.

APPARATUS

Metre bridge, Resistance wire , battery eliminator, one way key , resistance box ,
galvanometer , jockey , and connecting wires.

THEORY

Metre Bridge is based on the principle of Wheatstone Bridge.

R1 = R3

R2 R4

When the galvanometer current is made zero by adjusting the jockey


position on the metre-bridge wire

where k is the resistance per unit length.


R = Sl / (100-l)
PROCEDURE

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Touch the jockey at the left end and
then at the right end of the metre bridge wire AB. If the galvanometer shows opposite
deflections in the two cases the connections are correct.

Now introduce a resistance S in the resistance box in the right gap such that the
galvanometer shows zero deflection almost at the middle of the wire AB. Touch the jockey
on the left end A of the wire and move it along the wire till the galvanometer shows no
deflection. Measure the balancing length AJ from the left(l).Take at least six observations by
changing the value of the resistance S in the Resistance box S. Calculate the resistance R
using the formula R = Sl / (100-l)

Find the average resistance of wire R.

Determine the diameter of the wire using a screw gauge and length of the wire using
ascale. Hence calculate the specific resistance of the wire.

Precautions

1.The ends of the connecting wires should be rubbed and clean with sand
paper.

2.Plugs in resistance box should be pressed and tightened.

3.Never slide jockey on the wire.

4. Do not press jockey hard on the wire.

5. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is
passed for a long time there will be heating of the wire.
6. A high resistance to be used in series to the galavanometer to protect it from
flow of high current.

Result :

1. The Resistance of the wire = .. ohm

2. The Specific resistance of the wire= ohm

Source of Error

1. The wire of the metre bridge may not be of uniform area of cross section
through out its length.
2. Heating of wire due to continuous flow of current.
3. The screw guage may have backlash error.
4. Error in measuring the length.

Write the following in left side


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Observations:
Resistance of wire

S.No Resistance in Balancing length Length Unknown


the resistance (l) cm resistance
(100-l) cm
box
R = Sl / (100-l)
S ()

()
1

5
Mean value of the resistance , R = ohms

Length of wire,L = .. cm = m

Diameter of wire

Pitch of the screw gauge = Distance moved/No. of rotations=5mm/5=1mm

Least count (LC) = Pitch/No of divisions = 1/100 = 0.01 mm


Zero correction =
Pitch scale Circular Corrected Corrected Observed
reading(PSR) Scale CSR = CSRXLC diameter =
reading(CSR) CSR+Zero PSR+(corrected
mm mm
correction CSRXLC)

mm
1

Calculations

Mean diameter,d = mm

Radius of wire, r=d/2= .. mm = m

Specific resistance of wire = r2R /L =. m


EXPERIMENT 3

METRE BRIDGE- SERIES COMBINATION OF RESISTORS


AIM

To verify the series combination of resistors using metre bridge.

APPARATUS

Metre bridge, Two Resistances , battery eliminator, one way key , resistance box ,
galvanometer , jockey , and connecting wires.

THEORY

Metre Bridge is based on the principle of Wheatstone Bridge.

R1 = R3

R2 R4

When the galvanometer current is made zero by adjusting the jockey


position on the metre-bridge wire

where k is the resistance per unit length.

R = Sl / (100-l)

When two resistances R1 and R2 are connected in series the total


resistance is given by
R = R1 + R2

PROCEDURE
Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Touch the jockey at the left end and
then at the right end of the metre bridge wire AB. If the galvanometer shows opposite
deflections in the two cases the connections are correct.

Now introduce a resistance S in the resistance box in the right gap such that the
galvanometer shows zero deflection almost at the middle of the wire AB. Touch the jockey
on the left end A of the wire and move it along the wire till the galvanometer shows no
deflection. Measure the balancing length and calculate the resistance R1 using the formula.
Repeat the experiment for different values of S and find the average resistance of wire R1.

Now replace the first wire in the left gap with the second wire and find the resistance
R2 by the same procedure. Now connect the series combination of resistors in the left gap
and determine the resistance Rs. Compare the experimental and theoretical values of
resistance in series combination.

Precautions

1.The ends of the connecting wires should be rubbed and clean with sand
paper.

2.Plugs in resistance box should be pressed and tightened.

3.Never slide jockey on the wire.

4. Do not press jockey hard on the wire.

5. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is
passed for a long time there will be heating of the wire.
6. A high resistance to be used in series to the galavanometer to protect it from
flow of high current.

Result :

1. The value of individual resistance R1 = .. ohm & R2 = ohm

2. The equivalent resistance of series combination

Experimental Value= ohm

Theoretical value = ohm

Source of Error

1. The wire of the metrebridge may not be of uniform area of cross section
through out its length.
2. Heating of wire due to continuous flow of current.
3. The screw guage may have backlash error.
4. Error in measuring the length.
Write the following in left side

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

R-Unknown resistance

S- Resistance box

J- Jockey

AB- Metre bridge wire

E- Battery eliminator

K- Key

Observations:

Wire used Sl Resistance Balancing (100-l) Unknown Average


No in the length resistance Resistance
resistance
(l) R = Sl / (100-l)
box

() cm cm () ()

First wire 2 R1=


3
1

Second wire 2 R2=

3
1

Series 2 R s=

combination
3

Calculations

Resistance of first wire, R1 =..

Resistance of second wire, R2 =

Resistance of series combination(experimental value), R s =..

Resistance of series combination(theoretical value), Rs=R1+R2 =

EXPERIMENT 4

REFRACTION OF LIGHT THROUGH A GLASS PRISM

AIM

(i) To study the variation of angle of deviation (d) with angle of incidence (i) and to
find the angle of minimum deviation (D) from i-d curve.
(ii) To find the refractive index of the material of the prism using A and D.

Materials required:

Glass prism
Drawing board
Paper
Pins
Scale
Pencil
Protractor

Theory:
The angle through which the emergent ray deviates from the direction of
incident ray is called angle of deviation 'd'.

As the angle of incidence is increased, angle of deviation 'd' decreases and


reaches minimum value. If the angle of incidence is further increased, the angle of
deviation is increased.
A graph is drawn between angle of incidence (i) and angle of deviation (d) by
taking angle of incidence i along X-axis and angle of deviation d along Y-axis. It
should be a curve as shown below.

The angle of minimum deviation is obtained from the graph. Let D be the
angle of minimum deviation, then the refractive index (n) of the material of the prism
is calculated using the formula,
Procedure:

A paper is fixed on the drawing board placed on the table.


Place the given glass prism on the center of the paper.
Using the pencil, mark the outline ABC of the prism on the paper.
Remove the prism, and using the scale and pencil, normal NN is drawn to the
face AB .
Using the protractor, measure an angle 30 from the normal.
Another line is drawn making the angle 30 (angle of incidence i) with the
normal.

Two pins P and Q are fixed on this line.

The prism is replaced on the outline ABC.

Viewing the pins from the face AC of the prism, two other pins Rand S are
fixed so that P,Q,R and S are in a line.

Remove the pins.

Draw the line RS through the marks of R and S.

The line PQ is extended forwards and the line RS is extended backwards to


meet at a common point G.
Using the protractor, measure the angle HGM. This is the angle of deviation d.
Repeat the experiment for different values of angle of incidence i and the
corresponding angle of deviations are measured.
Draw a graph with angle of incidence i along the X-axis and angle of deviation
d along the Y axis.
The angle of deviation corresponding to the lowest bend of the curve is the
angle of minimum deviation D.
Angle of the prism A is directly measured from the outline of the prism using
the protractor.
Calculate the refractive index of the material of the prism using the formula,

Precautions

1. The drawing pins should be fixed vertically and their tips should be sharp.
2. Use a sharp pencil

3. Keep the angle of incidence between 300 and 600

4. Pins should be fixed about 4cm away from each other.


5. For all observations use the same prism

Result

A graph showing the variation of angle of deviation with the angle of incidence
is plotted.
Angle of minimum deviation, D = --------
Refractive index of material of the prism, n = ------------

Sources of Error

1. Improper fixing of drawing pins.


2. Improper measuring of angles.
3. Lack of smooth curve in graph.

Write the following in left side

Observations:
Sl No. Angle of Incidence (i) Angle of Deviation (d)

1 30

2 35

3 40

4 45

5 50

6 55

7 60

Calculations:

Angle of prism A = 60.


From graph, angle of minimum deviation D = ------------
Refractive index of the material of the prism,

EXPERIMENT 5

METRE BRIDGE- PARALLEL COMBINATION OF RESISTORS


AIM

To verify the parallel combination of resistors using metre bridge.

APPARATUS

Metre bridge, Two Resistances , battery eliminator, one way key , resistance box ,
galvanometer , jockey , and connecting wires.

THEORY

Metre Bridge is based on the principle of Wheatstone Bridge.

R1 = R3

R2 R4

When the galvanometer current is made zero by adjusting the jockey position
on the metre-bridge wire

where k is the resistance per unit length.

R = Sl / (100-l)

When two resistances R1 and R2 are connected in parallel the total


resistance is given by
1/Rp = 1/R1 + 1/R2

Rp=R1R2/(R1+R2)
PROCEDURE

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Touch the jockey at the left end and
then at the right end of the metre bridge wire AB. If the galvanometer shows opposite
deflections in the two cases the connections are correct.
Now introduce a resistance S in the resistance box in the right gap such that the
galvanometer shows zero deflection almost at the middle of the wire AB. Touch the jockey
on the left end A of the wire and move it along the wire till the galvanometer shows no
deflection. Measure the balancing length and calculate the resistance R1 using the formula.
Repeat the experiment for different values of S and find the average resistance of wire R1.

Now replace the first wire in the left gap with the second wire and find the resistance
R2 by the same procedure. Now connect the parallel combination of resistors in the left gap
and determine the resistance Rp. Compare the experimental and theoretical values of
resistance in parallel combination.

Precautions

1.The ends of the connecting wires should be rubbed and clean with sand
paper.

2.Plugs in resistance box should be pressed and tightened.

3.Never slide jockey on the wire.

4. Do not press jockey hard on the wire.

5. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is
passed for a long time there will be heating of the wire.
6. A high resistance to be used in series to the galavanometer to protect it from
flow of high current.

Result :

1. The value of individual resistance R1 = .. ohm & R2 = ohm

2. The equivalent resistance of parallel combination

Experimental Value= ohm

Theoretical value = ohm

Source of Error

5. The wire of the metrebridge may not be of uniform area of cross section
through out its length.
6. Heating of wire due to continuous flow of current.
7. The screw guage may have backlash error.
8. Error in measuring the length.
Write the following in left side

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

R-Unknown resistance

S- Resistance box

J- Jockey

AB- Metre bridge wire

E- Battery eliminator

K- Key

Observations:

Wire used Sl Resistance Balancing (100-l) Unknown Average


No in the length resistance Resistance
resistance
(l) R = Sl / (100-l)
box

() cm cm () ()

First wire 2 R1=

3
1

Second wire 2 R2=

3
1

Parallel 2 Rp=

combination
3
Calculations

Resistance of first wire, R1 =..

Resistance of second wire, R2 =

Resistance of parallel combination(experimental value), R p =..

Resistance of parallel combination(theoretical value), Rp=R1R2/(R1+R2)=


EXPERIMENT 6
POTENTIOMETER (COMPARISON OF EMFs)
Aim :
To compare the emf of two given primary cells using a potentiometer.

Apparatus required :
Potentiometer , Battery eliminator,Two primary cells, one way Key, two way key, Rheostat,
Galvanometer, resistance Box

Theory :

If a cell of emf E1 is balanced against the length l1 ,we have


E 1 = l1

Similarly, if another cell of emf E2 is balanced against the length l2, we have
E 1 = l1

From the two equations, we have


E1 / E2 = l1 /l2
Procedure
Connect the different components as per the circuit diagram. Now, touch the
jockey at the two ends P and Q of the potentiometer wire. If the galvanometer shows
opposite deflections in the two cases the connections are correct.

By adjusting the two-way key plug in the first cell E1 in the circuit. . Touch the jockey
on the end P of the potentiometer wire and move it along the wire till the galvanometer
shows no deflection. Measure the balancing length l1.

Now using the two way key plug in the second cell E2 in the circuit and measure the
balancing length l2.

Calculate the ratio of emfs.

Repeat the experiment by changing the current by slightly moving the rheostat
contact. Find the average ratio of emfs.

Precautions

1. Ensure that emf of E is greater than E1 and E2 of the cells.


2. All positive terminals should be connected to one point.
3. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is
passed for a long time there will be heating of the wire.
4. Length should be measured from the point where all positive are
connected.
5. Jockey should not be pressed on wire too hard.
Result :

The ratio of emf of two cells E1/E2 = ..

Sources of Error

Potentiometer wire may be not be having uniform cross section through out its
length.

Heating of wire due to continuous flow of current.

Resistance at the ends of the wire of potentiometer may not be negligible.

Write the following in left side


Circuit diagram

B: Battery eliminator of emf E


Rh: Rheostat
E1 , E2: primary cells
K : Key
K1, K2:Two way key
G: Galvanometer
PQ: Potentiometer wire
RB: High Resistance Box
J : Jockey

Observations:
S.No Balancing length when Balancing length Ratio of emfs
E1 is in the circuit (l1) when E2 is in the
circuit (l2)

cm cm
1

Calculations
Average ratio of emfs(experimental value) = .

Theoretical value

Emf of the first cell E1 = 1.5V

Emf of the second cell E2 =1.1V

Ratio of emfs = E1/E2 = 1.36

EXPERIMENT 7

FIGURE OF MERIT OF GALVANOMETER

AIM

To determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection method and to find


its figure of merit.

Materials Required

A weston type galvanometer


A battery or battery eliminator
Two resistance boxes
Two one-way keys
Connecting wires

Theory
A galvanometer is a device used to detect feeble electric currents in a circuit.
It consists of a coil suspended between the poles of a powerful magnet. As current
passes through the coil, it deflects. It can be detected from the deflection on
galvanometer needle. The deflection is proportional to the current passed through it.

we can get the resistance of the given galvanometer as,

The figure of merit of a galvanometer is the current required to produce a


deflection of one division in the galvanometer scale. It is represented by the letter k,
and is given as,

k= E/(R+G)

Procedure

Arrange the components on a table and connect them as per the circuit
diagram.
Make sure that plugs of the resistance boxes are tight.
Take out a high resistance from the resistance box 1 and insert the key k 1.
Adjust the resistance from this resistance box to get maximum galvanometer
deflection.
Note the deflection and record it as in the tubular column.
Insert the key k2 also, without changing the value on the resistance box.
Now, adjust the resistance from the low resistance box such that
galvanometer shows deflection which is exactly half of the previous reading.
Record the value of low resistance box S.
We can repeat the experiment by changing the value of high resistance R and
adjusting low resistance S.
The resistance of the given galvanometer can be calculated each time by
using the relation G= RS/(R-S).

We can find the figure of merit of the galvanometer by using the equation,

k= E/(R+G)

Precautions

1. Connections should be neat and tight.


2. All the plugs in the resistance box should be made tight.
3. Emf of cell should be constant.
4. Use high resistance voltmeter to measure the emf of cell.
5. Before inserting plug in key K2 introduce some resistance in the Shunt
resistance box to avoid short circuit of the cell.
Result

The resistance of the given galvanometer, G =---------


The figure of merit of the given galvanometer, k =---------- Amp / div.
Sources of error
1. Loose plugs in the resistance box.
2. Emf of battery may not be constant
3. Unequal size of divisions on the galvanometer.
4. Error in the resistance coils in the Resistance box.

Write the following in left side

Circuit diagram

E- Battery of emf E

K1, K2- Keys

G- Galvanometer

R- High resistance box

S- Shunt resistance(low resistance)

Observations
Emf of the cell , E =

Sl No Resistance Deflection Shunt Half Resistance of Figure of Merit of


R resistance Deflection galvanometer Galvanometer

S /2 G= RS/(R-S)
k= E/(R+G)

Amp/Div

5
Calculations

Mean resistance of the given galvanometer, G =---------


Mean figure of merit of the given galvanometer, k =---------- Amp / div.

EXPERIMENT 8

FOCAL LENGTH OF CONCAVE MIRROR

AIM

To determine the focal length of given concave mirror.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Concave mirror, mirror stand, screen, candle, metre scale

THEORY

Focal length is the distance between the pole and principal focus.

In u-v method the focal length of a mirror is given by

So focal length is given by

f = uv
u+v
where u= Object distance

v= Image distance

f= focal length

PROCEDURE
1. Rough Focal length

The concave mirror is mounted on a mirror stand. The mirror is turned


towards a distant object like distant tree or window. A screen is adjusted on the
other side of the mirror to get a clear image. The distance between the mirror
and screen is measured as the rough focal length(f).

2.Focal length of concave mirror by u-v method

The concave mirror is mounted on a mirror stand. A lighted candle is kept at


a definite distance (say u= 13 cm) from the pole of the mirror. A screen is
adjusted on the other side of the mirror to get a clear image. The distance
between the mirror and screen is measured as the image distance (v). Hence
foal length is calculated using the formula
f = uv
u+v
The experiment is repeated for different object distances u and average focal
length is calculated.

PRECAUTIONS

1.All the distances should be measured from the pole of the lens.

2. The object, mirror and screen should be in the same horizontal level.

PRECAUTIONS

1. The mirror stand and screen should be vertical.

2. The object should be in line with the pole of the mirror. The
aperture of the mirror should be small.

3. All the distances should be measured from the pole of the mirror.

4.

RESULT

Focal length of concave mirror = cm

SOURCES OF ERROR

1. Possibility of parallax error.

2. The stands may not be vertical.

3. Object may not be in line with pole of the mirror.


Write the following in left side
RAY DIAGRAM

P- Pole

F- focus

C- Centre of curvature

u- Object distance

v- Image distance

f- focal length

OBSERVATIONS

Rough focal length f = cm


Radius of curvature , R = 2f = cm

Sl No Object Image Focal length


distance distance
f = f = uv
(u) (v)
u+v

cm cm cm
1 18
2 20
3 25
4 30
5 35
6 40

Average focal length f = cm

EXPERIMENT 9
POTENTIOMETER (INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF A CELL)

Aim : To determine the internal resistance of a given cell by using a


potentiometer.
Apparatus required :

Potentiometer , Battery eliminator, One primary cell, one way Key, Rheostat,
Galvanometer,Resistance Box

Theory :
Resistance offered by the electrolyte of a cell to the flow of ions inside the
electric cell is its internal resistance.
Formula to determine the internal resistance of a cell using potentiometer is
given by

r=
where r = internal resistance of the cell
l1 = balancing length for the emf of the cell (open circuit)
l2 = balancing length for the potential difference of the cell(closed circuit)
R = external resistance

Procedure
Connect the different components as per the circuit diagram. Now, touch the jockey at the
two ends P and Q of the potentiometer wire. If the galvanometer shows opposite deflections
in the two cases the connections are correct.

Introduce a resistance R in the shunt resistance box. Keep the key K2 open. So the
emf of the cell E act in the circuit. Touch the jockey on the end P of the potentiometer wire
and move it along the wire till the galvanometer shows no deflection. Measure the balancing
length l1.

Now close the key K2 also. So the terminal potential difference of the cell V acts in
the circuit. Measure the balancing length l2 for the terminal potential difference. Calculate
the internal resistance r of the cell using the formula.

Repeat the experiment by changing the value of resistance R in the shunt resistance
box and find the average internal resistance r.

Precautions :

1. Ensure that emf of driver cell is greater than emf of primary cell.
2. All positive terminals should be connected to one point.
3. Key should be inserted only when readings are taken. Since if current is
passed for a long time there will be heating of the wire.
4. Length should be measured from the point where all positive are
connected.
5. Jockey should not be pressed on wire too hard.

Result :

Internal resistance of cell = ..

Sources of Error

Potentiometer wire may be not be having uniform cross section through out its
length.

Heating of wire due to continuous flow of current.

Resistance at the ends of the wire of potentiometer may not be negligible.

Write the following in left side


Circuit Diagram

Ba: Battery eliminator


Rh: Rheostat
E: Primary cell
K1 ,K2: Keys
R : Resistance Box
RB : High Resistance
G: Galvanometer
PQ: Potentiometer wire
J : Jockey
Observations

S.No Shunt Balancing Balancing length for Internal resistance


resistance length for emf terminal potential
(K2 open) difference(K2 closed)
R r=
l1 l2

() cm cm ()
1
2
3
4

Mean internal resistance of the cell =