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Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

II Year B. Tech. II Sem


Electrical Technology Lab Manual
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment
Section – A ( Networks Lab )
Verification of Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Kirchhoff’s Current Law
1

2 Verification of Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems

3 Verification of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

4 Verification of Superposition and Reciprocity Theorems

5 Determination of two-port network parameters (Z & Y)

6 Determination of two-port network parameters (ABCD & H)

Section – B ( Electrical Machines Lab )

Magnetization characteristics of D.C. Shunt generator. Determination


7
of critical field resistance.
Swinburne’s Test on DC shunt machine (Predetermination of
8 efficiency of a given DC Shunt machine working as motor and
generator).
Brake test on DC shunt motor. Determination of performance
9
characteristics

OC & SC tests on Single-phase transformer (Predetermination of


10
efficiency and regulation at given power factors and determination
of equivalent circuit)

BEYOND THE SYLLABUS


11 Series and Parallel Resonance

12 Load Test on a Single Phase Transformer


1. Verification of Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Kirchhoff’s Current
Law

AIM: To verify the Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law and Kirchhoff’s Current Law for a given circuit.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:-

Sl.
Name of the Component Specifications Quantity
No.

1 Resistors 1.1KΩ, 2.2KΩ & 3.3KΩ 1 each

2 Bread Board - 1

3 D.R.P.S. (0-30) V 1

4 Ammeters (0-200)mA 3

5 Voltmeters (0-30)V 3

6 Connecting wires Single strand Required

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
PROCEDURE FOR KCL:-
1. Connect the circuit as per the figure shown above.
2. Adjust the input voltage as 10 volts, and switch on the supply.
3. Measure the current flowing through R1, R2, R3 resistors using Ammeters i.e., IT, I1 & I2.
4. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column.
5. Verify that the IT = I1 + I2.
6. Repeat the procedure for different voltage values, and then switch off the supply.
7. Compare the values Practical to Theoretical.
PROCEDURE FOR KVL:-
1. Connect the circuit as per the figure shown above.
2. Adjust the input voltage as 10 volts, and switch on the supply.
3. Note the reading of ammeter & voltmeters, i.e., I, V1, V2 &V3 from the voltmeters.
4. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column.
5. Verify that the V1 = V2 + V3.
6. Repeat the procedure for different voltage values, and then switch off the supply.
7. Compare the values Practical to Theoretical.

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:-
For KCL:
Req = (R2 ║ R3) + R1
Ieq = V1 / Req
I1 = Ieq * R3/ (R2+R3)
I2 = Ieq * R2/ (R2+R3)
For KVL:
For measuring Voltage V2 across R1
Req = (R1+R2)
Ieq = V / Req
V2 = V * R1 / (R1 + R2) or V1=I*R1
V3 = V * R2 / (R1 + R2) or V2=I*R2
TABULAR COLUMNS:
For KCL:
S.No V1(volts) IT(mA) IT(mA) I1(mA) I1(mA) I2(mA) I2(mA)
theoretical practical theoretical practical theoretical practical

For KVL:
S.No I(mA) V1(volts) V1(volts) V2(volts) V2(volts) V3(volts) V3(volts)
theoretical Practical theoretical practical theoretical practical

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:
1. Reading must be taken without parallax error.
2. Measuring instruments must be connected properly & should be free from errors.
3. All connections should be free from loose contacts.
4. The direction of currents should be identified correctly.
RESULT:

VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:

1. What is KCL? Define with respect to node.


2. What is KVL? Define with respect to loop.
3. On which principle KCL works?
4. On which principle KVL works?
5. What is equivalent resistance when three resistors are connected in series?
6. What is equivalent resistance when three resistors are connected in parallel?
7. Explain voltage division principle?
8. Explain current division principle?
9. What is equivalent resistance when converted from star to delta network?
10. What is equivalent resistance when converted from delta to star network?
2. THEVENIN’S & NORTON’S THEOREMS
Aim: To verify Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems.

Apparatus required:

S. No. Name of the Component Specifications Quantity

1 Resistors R1 = , R2 = , R3= 3

2 Decade Resistance Box 10-1M 1

3 Multimeter DMM 1

4 Dual Regulated Power Supply (0-30) V 1

5 Ammeter (0-20) mA 1

6 Voltmeter (0-20)V 1

7 Bread board 1

8 Connecting Wires Single strand As required

Circuit diagrams:
Thevenin’s Theorem:
THEORITICAL CALUCLATIONS:

For the given circuits the resistors values are as follows

For 10v supply: Finding Rth

Rth=((R1*R2)/(R1+R2))+R3=……….kΩ

Finding Vth=Vapp*(R2)/(R1+R2)=……….V

Finding LOAD current ITH=VTH/(RTH+RL)

Procedure:

1. Apply a DC voltage of 10 V from voltage source to be input terminals of the network and
measure the output voltage Voc without load.
2. Connect the load at the output of the network and measure the current through the load.
3. Disconnect the voltage source and load, short the input terminals of the network and
measure the Thevenin’s equivalent impedance at output terminals.
4. Adjust the input voltage of the voltage source that is equal to Thevenin’s and a voltage
and apply to the input terminals of the equivalent circuit.
5. Measure the load current IL and compare it to the theoretical value V1 and tabulate.
Observations:

S. Vth IL
VIN
No. Vth (theo) Vth (prac) IL (theo) IL (prac)

3
Norton’s Theorem :
Procedure:

1. Apply the DC voltage of 10V from the voltage source to the input terminal of the
network and measure the load current at the output of the network.
2. Apply the DC voltage of 10V and measure short circuit current Isc by short circuiting the
load terminals.
3. Find Zth by disconnecting the voltage source and the load, short the input terminals of the
network and measure the Thevenin’s equivalent impedance at the output terminal.
4. Draw the Norton’s equivalent circuits by connecting Zth in parallel with Isc
5. Convert the Norton’s equivalent to the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit and measure the
load current with connecting load at output terminals and compare with I.

Theoretical calculations:

Finding RN

RN= =((R1*R2)/(R1+R2))+R3=……….kΩ

Finding Total current=Vapp/R1+((R2*R3)/(R2+R3)) =…………mA

Finding Norton’s current= IT* (R2*(R2+R3)) =…………mA

Finding Load current= IT*(RN/(RN+RL)) =…………mA

Tabular Column:

IN IL
S. No. VIN
IN (theo) IN (prac) IL (theo) IL (prac)

Result:

VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. State Thevenin’s Theorem.


2. What is the condition for reciprocity for a network?
3. What is an independent voltage source?
4. What is an independent current source?
5. Draw the symbols of all the dependent current and voltage sources.
6. What is Thevenin’s voltage?
7. What is Norton’s current?
8. Write Ohm’s law.
9. Write the expression for the voltage and current through an inductor.
10. Write the expression for the voltage and current through the capacitor.
3. Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Aim :- To verify the power transferred to be maximum across the load using Maximum Power
Transfer Theorem.

Apparatus required :

S. No. Name of the Component Specifications Quantity

1 Resistors R1 = , R2 = , R3= 3

2 Decade Resistance Box 10-1M 1

3 Multimeter DMM 1

4 Dual Regulated Power Supply (0-30) V 1

5 Ammeter (0-20) mA 1

6 Voltmeter (0-20)V 1

7 Bread board 1

8 Connecting Wires Single strand As required

Circuit Diagram:
Procedure :

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure


2. Varying the load resistance in steps and note the ammeter readings and calculate power
3. Plot the graph by taking resistance on X – axis and power on Y – axis
4. Connect the circuit as in figure (b)
5. Varying V note the corresponding values of I
6. Rs = V / I
7. Rs should be equal to RL for maximum power transfer.

Theoritical calculations:

For the given circuits the resistors values are as follows R1,R2, R3&RL=1K Ω

For 10v supply: Finding Rth

Rth=((R1*R2)/(R1+R2))+R3=……….kΩ

Finding Vth=Vapp*(R2)/(R1+R2)=……….V

Finding LOAD current ITH=VTH/(RTH+RL)

Load Resistance Load Current IL Load Power


S.No VIN V (volts)
RL() (mA ) PL = I2 RLwatts
EXPECTED GRAPH:

Result :

VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:

1. State Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.


2. What is power?
3. What is the relationship between power and energy?
4. What is the difference between a DC and a AC voltage source?
5. What is current?
6. What is voltage or potential difference?
7. In what form energy is stored in an inductor and a capacitor?
8. Under what condition the source transfers maximum energy to the load?
9. What do you mean by network analysis?
10. What do you mean by network synthesis?
4. Super position and Reciprocity Theorems
Aim :- To verify Superposition and Reciprocity Theorem.

Apparatus required :

S. No. Name of the Component Specifications Quantity

1 Resistors R1 = , R2 = , R3= 3

2 Multimeter DMM 1

3 Dual Regulated Power Supply (0-30) V 1

4 Ammeter (0-20) mA 1

5 Voltmeter (0-20)V 1

6 Bread board 1

7 Connecting Wires Single strand As required

Circuit Diagram :-
Procedure :
Superposition Theorem :
1. Connect V1, V2 as shown in figure 1(a).
2. For different V1 and V2 values note the ammeter reading as “IT”
3. Replace ‘V1’ with a short circuit as shown in figure 1(b) and read the ammeter reading
as “I2” for corresponding values of V2.
4. Replace “V2” with a short circuit as shown in figure 1(c) and connect “V 1” in the circuit
and read ammeter reading as ‘I1’ for corresponding values of V1.
5. IT = I1 + Ic

Observations Superposition Theorem :

V1 (Volts) V2 (Volts) IT (mA)


S. No. Theo Prac Theo Prac Theo Prac

V2 (Volts) I2 (mA) V1 (Volts) I1 (mA)


S. No. Theo Prac Theo Prac S.No. Theo Prac Theo Prac

1 1

2 2
THEORITICAL CALUCLATIONS FOR SUPERPOSITION THEOREM:

Case-1
Form fig-1: Apply mesh analysis
Total current(Through R2) I= ………mA

Case-2
Form fig=2: V1= 0, V2=20V
Calculate Req=(R1*R2)/(R1+R2)+R3=………KΩ

Total current I=V/Req=………..mA

Current(Through R2) I1=I*(R1/(R1+R2) )= …….mA

Case-3
Form fig-3 V1= 20V, V2=0V
Calculate Req=(R3*R2)/(R3+R2)+R1=………KΩ

Total current I=V/Req=………..mA

Current(Through R2) I2=I*(R3/(R3+R2) )= …….mA


As per Super position Theorem, I=I1+I2

Circuit Diagram :
Reciprocity Theorem
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 1(a).
2. Apply some voltage V.
3. Note down the ammeter ( 0 – 50 mA) reading as “I1”
4. Inter change ammeter and voltage source as shown in figure 1(b). and take the ammeter
reading as “I2”
5. Repeat the above procedure for different values or V and tabulate the values.
6. I1 should be equal to I2.
THEORETICAL CALCULATION:
For the given circuits the resistors values are as follows
R1=1K Ω,2.2K Ω,1K Ω,RL=1K Ω

Case-1
From fig-1: S. No. V I1
Calculate Req=(R3*R2)/(R3+R2)+R1=………KΩ
Total current I=V/Req=………..mA 1
Current (Through R3) I2=I*(R2/(R3+R2) )= …….mA
2
Case-2
From fig-2 :
Calculate Req=(R1*R2)/(R1+R2)+R3=………KΩ S. No. V I2
Total current I=V/Req=………..mA
Current (Through R1) I1=I*(R2/(R1+R2) )= …….mA 1
Result:
VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS: 2
1. What is linear element?
2. What is a bilateral element?
3. What is KCL?
4. What is KVL?
5. What is the difference between a circuit and a network?
6. State Superposition Theorem.
7. State Reciprocity Theorem.
8. What do you mean by equivalent resistance of a network?
9. What is the action performed by a short circuited voltage source in SPT verification?
10. If the network contains an independent current source how would you deactivate it while
verifying the SPT?
5. Z and Y Parameters of a Two Port Network

Aim: To measure “ Z” and “Y” parameters of a given two port passive network

Apparatus required:-
S. No. Name of the Component Specifications Quantity

1 Resistors R1 = , R2 = , R3= 3

2 Decade Resistance Box 10-1M 1

3 Multimeter DMM 1

4 Dual Regulated Power Supply (0-30) V 1

5 Ammeter (0-20) mA 1

6 Voltmeter (0-20)V 1

7 Bread board 1

8 Connecting Wires Single strand As required

Procedure :
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure (1)
2. Keep port 2 open : I2 = 0
3. Set different voltages on V1.
4. Measure V2 and I1 and tabulate V1 , V2 and I1
5. Connect the variable voltage to port 2 and keep the port 1 open circuit i.e. I1 = 0 As
shown in figure (2) . Measure V2, V1, I2 . Set different voltages at V2 and measure I2 and
V1 for each setting and tabulate.
Circuit Diagrams:
Observations:

When I2 = 0 When I1 = 0

V1 V2 I1 Z11 Z21 V2 V1 I2 Z22 Z12

30 30
25 25

When I2 = 0. When I1 = 0

Z11 = V1 / I1 Z22 = V2 / I2

Z21 = V2 / I1 Z12 = V1 / I2

For Y- Parameters:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure (3) connect the variable voltage at port 1. Short
circuit the port 2. By varying the V1 , note down the I1 , I2 and tabulate
2. Connect the variable voltage at port 2 short circuit the port 1 as shown in figure (4)
3. By varying the V2 , note down the I1 , I2 and tabulate.

For Y – Parameters :

When V2 = 0 When V1 = 0

V1 I1 I2 Y11 Y21 V2 I1 I2 Y22 Y12

Y11 = I1 / V1 Y22 = I2 / V2

Y21 = I2 / V1 Y12 = I1 / V2

CONCLUSION:

Z11(Ω) Z11(Ω) Z12(Ω) Z12(Ω) Z22(Ω) Z22(Ω) Z21(Ω) Z21(Ω)


theoretical Practical theoretical Practical theoretical Practical theoretical Practical

Y11(Ω) Y11(Ω) Y12(Ω) Y12(Ω) Y22(Ω) Y22(Ω) Y21(Ω) Y21(Ω)


theoretical Practical theoretical Practical theoretical Practical theoretical Practical

Result:
VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. What do you mean by a 2-port network?


2. What are impedance, admittance and immittance?
3. What is driving point impedance?
4. What is driving point admittance?
5. What is driving point immittance?
6. Write equations for Z-parameter.
7. Write equations for Y-parameter.
8. What is the relationship between Z- and Y- parameter?
9. What is the condition for reciprocity for a network?
10. What is the condition for symmetry for a network?
6. Transmission & Hybrid Parameters of Two Port Network
Aim: To measure “Hybrid & Transmission parameters of given two port passive network

Apparatus required:-
S. No. Name of the Component Specifications Quantity

1 Resistors R1 = , R2 = , R3= 3

2 Decade Resistance Box 10-1M 1

3 Multimeter DMM 1

4 Dual Regulated Power Supply (0-30) V 1

5 Ammeter (0-20) mA 1

6 Voltmeter (0-20)V 1

7 Bread board 1

8 Connecting Wires Single strand As required

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure1(a).


2. Short circuit the port -2 & note the readings of V1, I1 & I2.
3. Repeat the above step for different values of V1.
4. Now connect the circuit as shown in fig 1(b).
5. Open circuit port-1 & note the readings of V1. V2 & I2
6. Repeat the above step for different values of V2 & Calculate the hybrid parameters.
Observations:

Equations describing hybrid parameters:


V1 = h11 I1 + h12 V2
I2 = h21 I1 + h22V2
To measure h11 & h21 To measure h12 & h22

When V2 = 0 When I1 = 0

S.No V1 I1 I2 h11 h21 S.No V1 V2 I2 h12 h22

1 1

2 2

h11=V1/I1 h12=V1/V2
h21=I2/I1 h22=I2/V2

Transmission Parameters:

Transmission Parameters:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 2(a)


2. Open circuit port-2 & note down the readings of V1, V2 & I1.
3. Repeat the above step for different values of V1.
4. Now connect the circuit as shown in figure 2(b).
5. Short circuit port-2 & note down the readings of V1, I1 & I2.
6. Repeat the above step for different values of V1 & calculate the A, B, C, D parameters.
For A, B, C, D Parameters:

Equation Describing A B C D parameters

V1 = AV2 – BI2

I1 = CV2 – DI2

To Calculate A & C To calculate B & D

When I2 = 0 When V2 = 0

S.No V1 I1 V2 A C S.No V1 I1 I2 B D

1 1

2 2

A=V1/V2 C=I1/V2

B=V1/I2 D=I1/I2
CONCLUSION:

h11 h11 h12 h12 h22 h22 h21 h21


theoretical Practical theoretical Practical theoretical Practical theoretical Practical

A A B B C C D D
theoretical Practical theoretical Practical theoretical Practical theoretical Practical
Result:

VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:

1. What do you mean by a 2-port network?


2. What are impedance, admittance and immittance?
3. What is input impedance?
4. What is forward current gain?
5. What is output admittance?
6. What is reverse voltage gain
7. Write equations for h-parameter.
8. Write equations for Transmission-parameter.
9. What is the condition for reciprocity for h-parameter network?
10. What is the condition for reciprocity for ABCD parameter network?
11. What is the condition for symmetry for h-parameter network?
12. What is the condition for symmetry for ABCD parameter network?
7. MAGNETIZATION CHARACTERISTICS OF
A D.C. SHUNT GENERATOR
AIM: To obtain the Magnetization Characteristics of a D.C. Shunt Generator and to determine
its Critical field resistance & Critical speed.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
Type DC Shunt Motor DC Shunt Generator
Ratings 3.0HP 2 KW
Volts 220 V DC 220 V DC
Current 12 A 12 A
Exc. Volts 220 V DC 220 V DC
Exc. Current 0.6 A 0.7 A
Duty S1 S1
Ins. Class B B
Speed 1500 rpm 1500 rpm

APPARATUS:
S.No Apparatus Required Rating Type Qty
01 Voltmeter (0-300)V M.C 1
02 Ammeter (0-1)A M.C 1
03 Rheostat 360 ohm/1.2A - 3
04 Rheostat 360 ohm/1.2A -
05 Tachometer - Digital 1

Circuit Diagram:
THEORY:
I) Magnetization Characteristics
 The magnetization characteristics shows the relation between the no load generated emf
in armature, E0 and the field (or) exciting current, If at a given fixed speed as shown in
model graph.
 These characteristics are also known as the No load saturation characteristics or Open
circuit characteristics. The shape of these characteristics is practically same for all
generators whether separately excited or self excited
 Due to the residual magnetism in the poles, some emf is generated even when If = 0
represented by OD**. Hence, the curve starts a little way up.
 The slight curvature, DE** at the lower end is due to magnetic inertia. It is seen that the
first part of the curve, EC** is practically straight. This is due to the fact that at low flux
densities, reluctance of iron path being negligible (due to high permeability), total
reluctance is given by the air gap reluctance, which is constant. Hence, the flux and
consequentially the generated emf are directly proportional to the exciting current.
 How ever at high flux densities, where m is small, iron path reluctance becomes
appreciable and straight relation, CF** between Eo and If no longer holds good, i.e.,
saturation of poles start.
(** refers to the model graph)
II) Critical resistance
 It is that maximum value of the field resistance, above which the machine fails to excite
i.e. there will be no build up of the voltage.
 This resistance corresponds to the straight-line position of the magnetization
characteristic because the magnetic circuit does not offer any appreciable reluctance to
the magnetic flux.
III) Critical speed
 It is that speed for which the given shunt field resistance will represent critical field
resistance
(OR)It is that minimum value of the speed of the machine below which the machine fails
to excite.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Initially the starter must be in OFF & SPST Switch in open positions.
3. Switch on the D.C. Motor to 220V D.C. Supply by closing the DPST Switch.
4. Start the D.C. motor using the three point starter and thereby adjust the speed of it to the rated
speed of the D.C. Generator using field method of speed control.
5. Note down the voltage of the voltmeter which represents the residual voltage of the generator
when SPST switch is in open condition.
6. Excite the field winding D.C. Generator in steps by decreasing its external resistance gradually
and note down various corresponding readings of ammeter and voltmeter till 1.1 to 1.25 times
the rated voltage of the generator is reached, maintaining constant speed .
7. Gradually reduce the field current of generator and make it to zero finally by opening SPST
switch. and disconnect the D.C. Motor from the 220V D.C. Supply

OBSERVATION TABLE:
At constant speed of 1500r.p.m.
S.No Field Current (𝐈𝒇 ) A Armature Voltage (𝐄𝒐 ) V

MODEL GRAPHS:
CALCULATIONS:
TO FIND CRITICAL FIELD RESISTANCE:
1. Plot the magnetization curve.
2. Draw the tangent such that it touches most of the linear part of the curve. This line is the
Critical field resistance line.
3. The slope of the above line gives the Critical field resistance.
TO FIND CRITICAL SPEED:
1. Draw the constant field resistance line Rf .
2. From point draw a line on to the Critical field resistance line.
Now the Critical speed, Nc = (AB /AC) ×N, where N is the rated speed of
D.C. generator i.e., 1500 r.p.m.
PRECAUTIONS:-
1. The field rheostat of the motor must be kept in minimum & for the generator in
maximum positions before switching on the D.C. supply.
2. Ensure that the starter arm is at extreme left position.
3. Avoid loose connections
4. Note down the readings form the meters without any parallax error
RESULT:
 Critical field resistance = ________ ohms.
 Critical speed = ________ r.p.m.
VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:

1. Why the speed maintained constant during the experiment?


2. What is residual magnetism?
3. Define critical resistance?
4. Define critical speed?
5. How do you determine critical resistance with the help of O.C.C.?
6. Explain magnetization curve?
7. How do you determine critical speed graphically?
8. What is residual voltage?
9. How does the speed of a prime mover affect the generator characteristics?
10. How you classify the parts of a D.C generator?
8.SWINBURNE’S TEST OF D.C. SHUNT MACHINE
AIM : To Pre-determine the efficiency and performance characteristics of a DC Shunt machine.
(both as a generator & motor).
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
S.No Type DC Shunt Motor
01 Ratings 3.0HP
02 Volts 220 V DC
03 Current 12 A
04 Exc. Volts 220 V DC
05 Exc. Current 0.6 A
06 Duty S1
07 Ins. Class B
08 Speed 1500 rpm

APPARATUS:
S.No Apparatus Required Rating Type Qty
01 Voltmeter (0-300) M.C 1
02 Ammeter (0-10) M.C 1
03 Ammeter (0-5) M.C 2
04 Rheostat 360 Ohm / 1.2 A M.C 1
05 Tachometer Digital 1
06 Fuse 20 2
THEORY:
SWINBURNE’S TEST:-
 It is a simple method in which losses are measured separately and from their knowledge,
efficiency at any load can be pre-determined in advance. The onlyrunning test needed is
a no load test.
 Swinburne s test is applicable to those machines in which flux is practically constant i.e.
Shunt wound and Compound wound machines.
 The machine is running as a motor on no-load at its rated voltage and its speed be
adjusted to its rated value using Shunt regulator.
 The no-load armature current Iao is measured using an ammeter, where as shunt field
current Ish is given by another ammeter. The no-load input current is given by
Io = Iao + Ish
 Let the supply voltage be V volts
No-load input = V Io watts
Power input to armature = V Iao watts
Power input to shunt = V Ish watts
No-load input supplies Copper losses (Armature & Field), Iron losses (Hysteresis &
Eddy current) & Mechanical losses ( Friction losses & Windage).
Constant losses = No load input power - Armature copper losses
Wc = V Io – Iao² Ra watts.
 Predetermination of efficiency of a motor at any load
Input = V IL watts. Rated value IL = 12A
Armature Cu losses = Ia 2 Ra
Constant losses = Wc
Total losses = Wc + ( IL - Ish)² Ra
Efficiency = (Input - Total losses) / (Input)
ɳ (Efficiency)x = (x Input - Wc + ( x IL - Ish)² Ra) / x input
X may be ¼, ½, ¾, full load(1)
 Predetermination of efficiency of a generator at any load
Output = V IL watts.
Armature Cu losses = Ia 2 Ra
Constant losses = Wc
Total losses = Wc + ( IL + Ish)² Ra
Efficiency = (Output) / (Output + Total losses)
ɳ (Efficiency)x = (x Output) / (x output+ Wc + ( x IL + Ish)² Ra)
X may be ¼, ½, ¾, full load (1)
 Maximum Efficiency condition : Variable losses (Ia² Ra) = Constant losses ( Wc)

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the Circuit diagram.
2. Initially the starter must be in off position.
3. Switch on the D.C. Motor to 220V D.C. Supply by closing the DPST Switch.
4. Start the D.C. motor using the three point starter and thereby adjust the speed to its rated speed
using field rheostat.230
5. Note down the readings of Voltmeter & Ammeters in Table
6. Switch off the D.C. Motor from 220V D.C. Supply by opening the DPST Switch.

OBSERVATION TABLES:
SWINBURNE’S TEST
At Constant speed of 1500r.p.m.

S.No. Input Voltage V Armature Current Field Current

Wc = V Io – Iao² Ra Watts = ________ Watts


CALCULATION TABLE:
SWINBURNE’S TEST:
I) For Motor
S.No Input Input Field Armature Total Input ɳ
Voltage Current Current Copper Losses Power
(V) (I) (Ish) Losses

For Generator
S.No Output Output Field Armature Total Input ɳ
Voltage Current Current Copper Losses Power
(V) (I) (Ish) Losses
MODEL GRAPHS:
SWINBURNE’S TEST

PRECAUTIONS:-
1. The field rheostat of the motor must be kept in minimum before switching on the 220V D.C
supply.
2. Ensure that the starter arm is at extreme left position.
3. Avoid loose connections
4. Note down the readings from the meters without any parallax error
RESULTS:
 Maximum Efficiency for motor = __ %.
 Maximum Efficiency for generator = __________ %.

VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS :

1. What are the advantages of SWINBURN’S test?


2. Why SWINBURN’S test cannot perform on series machines? Explain.
3. How do you obtain accurate measurements in this experiment?
4. Comment on the accuracy of SWINBURN'S test over other methods?
5. Why the SWINBURN’S test is called as indirect test?
6. What will happen in a motor if armature coil is opened?
7. Why output is not equal to input?
8. What is the Fleming’s left hand rule? How the direction of torque is determined?
9. Why the magnetic losses calculated by SWINBURN’S test is differant from the
actual value?
10. What is the meant by indirect testing?
9.BRAKE TEST ON A D.C. SHUNT MOTOR
AIM : To obtain the Performance characteristics curves of a D.C. shunt motor by conducting
brake test on it.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
S.No Type DC Shunt Motor
01 Ratings 3.0HP
02 Volts 220 V DC
03 Current 12 A
04 Exc. Volts 220 V DC
05 Exc. Current 0.6 A
06 Duty S1
07 Ins. Class B
08 Speed 1500 rpm

APPARATUS:
S.No Apparatus Required Rating Type Qty
01 Voltmeter (0-300)V M.C 1
02 Ammeter (0-20)A M.C 2
03 Ammeter (0-10)A M.C 1
04 Rheostat 360 ohm/1.2A - 1
05 Tachometer - Digital 1
06 Fuse 20A - 2
THEORY:
 It is a simple method of testing low rating DC machines and consists of applying a brake
to a water-cooled drum mounted on the motor shaft.
 The four important characteristics curves of a D.C. Shunt Motor, namely, Torque, Speed,
Armature Current & efficiency, each plotted against the useful Power, as shown in the
model graph are known as Performance characteristics
 A belt is wound round the brake drum and its two ends are attached to two spring
balances S1 & S2. The tension of the belt can be adjusted with the help of swivels.
 The force acting tangentially on the drum is equal to the difference between the readings
of the two spring balances the readings of Spring balances 1& 2 in Kg.f.
 Shaft torque, T developed by the motor is 9.81 (S1 S2) R Nm where, R is the radius of
the pulley in meters & N is the speed in rpm
 Useful Output Power = (2𝜋𝑁𝑇)/60 Watts
 Input Power = V IL Watts, where IL = (Ia + Ish)
 % Efficiency , = (Output power / Input power) x 100.
𝑁0 −𝑁𝑠
 Speed Regulation = [ (No Load speed ) - ( Full load speed )] / Full Load. Speed = 𝑁𝑠

 The size of the motor that can be tested by this method is limited from the consideration
of the heat that can be dissipated at the brake drum
 Where the output power exceeds about 2 H.P., or where the test is of long duration, it s
necessary to use a water cooled brake drum.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per the Circuit diagram.
2. Initially the starter must be in off position.
3. Switch on the D.C. Motor to 220V D.C. Supply by closing the DPST Switch.
4. Start the D.C. motor using the three point starter and thereby adjust the speed to its rated speed
using field rheostat.
5. Note down the readings of Voltmeter & Ammeters in Table under No Load condition.
6. Apply the Load on the drum gradually in steps by tightening the belt around it. At each step,
note down the readings of the Ammeters, Voltmeter, two Spring balances and the Tachometer.
7. Pour water in the pulley and cool it often when the motor is loaded.
8. When the full load is reached, slowly reduce the load and switch off the Motor from 220V
D.C. Supply by opening the DPST Switch
FORMULAE:

The induced voltage Eb =V-Ia Ra and

Eb= KΦN, Thus, KΦ=Eb /N

V= applied voltage,

Ia =armature current,

Ra =armature resistance.

Total power input to the motor Pin =Field circuit power + Armature power= VfIf + Va Ia

If ‘R’ is the radius of the pulley, then torque at the pulley is given by

Tshaft = 9.81* (T1~T2 )*R = 1.5* (T1~T2) N-m

2 N
ω = is the angular velocity of the pulley, in rad/sec.
60

Radius of pulley R = ……..

2 N
Motor output power Pout =Tshaft * ω = 1.5* (T1~T2)*
60

Pout
% Efficiency = X 100
Pin

OBSERVATION TABLE:
S.No Input Armature Field Spring Balances Speed
Voltage (V) Current Current 𝐒𝟏 𝐒𝟐 (N)
(𝐈𝒂 ) (𝐈𝒔𝒉 )
CALCULATION TABLE:
Radius of the Brake Drum, R = ______ mts.
S.No Input Input Torque, Output Input
Voltage Current N-m Power Power %𝜼
(V) (𝐈𝑳 ) (T)

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat of the motor must be kept in minimum before switching ON the motor.
2. Ensure that the starter arm is at extreme left position.
3. Avoid loose connections
4. Note down the readings from the meters without any parallax error
5. Tachometer should be kept horizontal to the shaft while measuring the speed.
6. Before switch OFF the motor make sure that there is nos load connected to motor.
MODEL GRAPHS:

RESULTS:
At full load:
i) Torque = __________ Nm.
ii) Speed = __________ rpm
iii) Armature Current = __________ A
iv) Efficiency = __________ %.
v) Speed Regulation = _________
VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS:

1. Why the speed falls as load increases for a DC shunt motor?


2. What are the applications of DC shunt motors?
3. When is the efficiency of the motor maximum?
4. What will happen when DC shunt motor is started with load?
5. Give the expressions for various torques in DC motors.
6. What is the effect on speed if part of the field winding is shorted?
7. Where actually the mechanical energy available?
8. What do you mean by the armature drop?
9. Does the yoke carry the same flux as is the flux per pole?
10. How the D.O.R of a DC motor can changed?
10.OC & SC TESTS ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
Aim:

(a) To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of Single Phase Transformer by


conducting no-load test and short circuit test.
(b) To draw the equivalent circuit of single phase transformer referred to LV side as well as
HV side.
Apparatus:

S.N. Meter Type Range Quantity

1. Single phase Variac 0-250/270V 1

2. Ammeter MI 0-2A 1

3. Ammeter MI 0-10A 1

4. Voltmeter MI 0-150V 1

5. Voltmeter MI 0-30V 1

4. Wattmeter LPF 0-2.5A/150V 1

5. Wattmeter UPF 0-10A/75V 1

Name plate details:


OPEN CIRCUIT TEST

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:

(1) Connect the circuit for no-load test as per the circuit diagram. Shown in fig(1).
(2) Keep the variac in minimum output position and switch on the supply.
(3) Apply the rated voltage to the transformer by properly adjusting the variac.
(4) Note down the readings of various meters and switch off the supply.

Observations: (O. C. Test)

S.N. Vo (V) Io (A) Wo = W x M.F (w)


SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

Fig – 2 SHORT CIRCUIT TEST


Procedure:

1.Connect the circuit for SC test as per the circuit diagram, shown in fig (2) with appropriate
ranges of meters.

2.Keep the variac in minimum output position and switch on the supply.

3.Apply proper voltage (low voltage) to the transformer by adjusting the variac such that rated
current flows through the transformer.

4. Note down the readings of various meters and switch off the supply.

S. C. Test:

S.N. VSC (V) ISC (A) WSC = W x M.F (w)

Where

VI cos 
M. F. = Multiplication factor =
FSD
FSD = Full scale divisions

Model Calculations:

Find the equivalent circuit parameters R0, X0, R01, R02, X01 and X02 from the O. C. and S. C. test
results and draw the equivalent circuit referred to L. V. side as well as H. V. side.

Let the transformer be the step-down transformer


Primary is H. V. side.
V1
Secondary is L. V. side R0  where Iw = I0 cos 0
Iw
V1 WSC V
X0  where Im = I0 sin 0 R01  2
, Z 01  SC
Im I sc I SC
V2
X 01  Z 01  R01 : X 02  K 2 X 01 where K =  Transformation ratio.
2 2

V1

Calculations to find efficiency and regulation


For example at ½ full load
Cupper losses = Wsc x (1/2)2 watts, where WSC = full – load cupper losses
Constant losses = W0 watts
Output = ½ KVA x cos  [cos  may be assumed]
Input = output + Cu. Loss + constant loss
Output
% efficiency  x 100
Input
Efficiency at different loads and P.fs
cos  = ___________ cos  = ___________

S.N. Load Cu.loss Input % Xx S.N. Load Cu.loss Output Input %


Output
(W)
(W) (W) (W) (W) (W)

¼F.L. ¼F.L.

½F.L. ½F.L.

¾F.L. ¾F.L.

F.L. F.L.
Regulation: From open circuit and Short circuit test

I 2 R02 cos   I 2 X 02 sin 


% Re gulation  x 100
V2

‘+’ for lagging power factors ‘-‘ for leading power factors

Lagging Pf Leading Pf

S.N. P.F. % Reg. S. N. P. F. % Reg.

1. 0.2 1. 0.2

2. 0.4 2. 0.4

3. 0.6 3. 0.5

4. 0.8 4. 0.6

5. Unity 5. Unity

Graphs: Plots drawn between

(i) % efficiency Vs output


(ii) % regulation Vs power factor

Precautions:

(i) Connections must be made tight


(ii) Before making or breaking the circuit, supply must be switched off

Result:
11. Series and Parallel Resonance
Aim: - To obtain frequency characteristics of series and parallel resonant circuits,
Resonance frequency, Band width and Q – factor for RLC network.

Apparatus required:

S.No. Name of the Component Specifications Quantity


1 Resistor 1 K 1

2 Decade Capacitors Box 0.1 F -1F 1

3 Decade Inductance Box(DIB) ImH-10mH 1

4 Function Generator 1

5 Ammeters 0-20 mA ac 2

6 CRO 1 MHz 1

Circuit Diagrams :

Procedure:-
Series Resonance:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 1(a).
2. Connect the signal generator (function generator) and keep the voltage constant i.e.,5V,
vary source frequency and note down the voltmeter reading (VR ).

3. Plot the graph VR Vs F.


4. Find “fr”,3db frequencies and Band Width from the graph.

5. Compare theoretical and practical values of “fr” and Q factor.


Parallel Resonance :

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 1(b).


2. Keep voltage source constant i.e.,5V, vary source frequency and note voltmeter readings.
Calculate I in the circuit using relation VR / R = I
3. Calculate the impedance (Z) of the circuit using Vs / I = Z where I is obtained in the
above step.
4. Plot “Z” Vs “freq” Graph.
5. Find “fr”, Band Width and Q – factor from graph.

6. Compare theoretical and practical values of “fr” and Q factor.

Expected graphs
Observations :
Series Resonance : Parallel Resonance :

S.No. Frequency Current S.No Frequency VR I=Vs/R Z=Vs/I


(kHz) (mA) (Hz)
1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5

6 6 6 6

7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9

10 10 10 10

Calculations:
B.W = f2 – f1 = ………kHz.

Q = f0 / f2 – f1 =

f0 = 1 / 2 LC =………. kHz.

Practical:

Frequency Band width Q – factor

Series resonance

Parallel resonance
Theoretical:

Frequency Band width Q – factor

Series resonance

Parallel resonance

Result:- Frequency characteristics of series and parallel resonant circuits, Resonance


frequency, Band width and Q – factor for RLC network are obtained.
12. LOAD TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM: To find the efficiency and regulation of single phase transformer by using load test.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Circuit Diagram:
PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.


2. After checking the no load condition, minimum position of auto transformer and DPST
switch is closed.
3. Ammeter, Voltmeter and Wattmeter readings on both primary side and secondary side are
noted.
4. The load is increased and for each load, Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter readings on both
primary and secondary sides are noted.
5. Again no load condition is obtained and DPST switch is opened.

FORMULAE:

Output Power = W2 x Multiplication factor

Input Power = W1 x Multiplication factor

Efficiency  % = Output Power/ Input Power x 100%

Regulation R % = VNL - VFL (Secondary) / VNL x 100%

TABULAR COLUMN:

MODEL GRAPHS:
PRECAUTIONS:

1. Auto Transformer should be in minimum position.


2. The AC supply is given and removed from the transformer under no load condition.

RESULT:

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. List the application of Transformer and types.
2. What is the function of Buchol’s Relay in transformer?
3. What do you understand by regulation of a transformer?
4. What are the other methods of testing transformers?
5. What is the disadvantage of testing a transformer using load test?
6. Is a high or low value of regulation preferred for a transformer? Give reasons.
7. What are the reasons for the drop in terminal voltage as the secondary current is increased?