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Chapter 1
Introduction
never know what they are talking about and for students who do not perform well in
this subject they find it irrelevant in their daily lives. Indeed, no matter how much
attention they pay in understanding Mathematics still the students find it boring and
not interesting at all. As a result, they neglect the idea of Mathematics because of
oftentimes result to poor achievement. This is the reality and the reason why most
of the teachers have been facing and struggling right now to find a solution to the
(2013), who wrote the information about the result of TIMSS 2011 in the blog of
Philippine Basic Education (2013), that the Philippines participated only in 1999
and 2003 with a ranked in the third and fourth-to the last-among the countries who
the following scores, 345 and 378, respectively. However, the country took part in
the Advanced TIMSS 2008 where it scored 355. Students only from the science
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high schools and the elite private institution in Philippines participated in 2008. The
results of students achievement test indicated are very poor performance. Even
though, the Philippines chose to represent the students in science high schools
and elite private institution in Advanced TIMSS 2008 still the performance is poor.
Alliance of Concerned Teacher (ACT) party-list Rep. Antonio Tinio said in the
interview of (Philippine Star 2011) that the Department of Education (DepEd) and
students because of the sad state that education should be neglected in the
Philippines. Nonetheless, Rep. Tinio said that these are the issue that should be
resources.
acquisition but fare considerably low in lessons requiring higher order thinking
According to de Leon (2011), the Philippines rank a poor seventh among nine
Southeast Asian nations in the area of education and innovation. Guillermo M. Luz,
economic forum which showed that the Philippines only fared better than the
Cambodia, among the eight Southeast Asian countries that were surveyed in the
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education, the Philippines ranked 99th out of 138 economics, the Philippines
ranked 69th in educational system 112th in science and math, and 76th on
international access.
(COMSTE), stated that in the basic level, there is a decreasing trend in science
and math oriented education despite the establishment of science high schools.
However, COMSTE beg to disagree, stating that the main reason why Philippines
leak low in international test in the secondary level is because many math and
science teachers in public high schools are not math and science majors. Even the
competitiveness level, the Philippines slid down from 47 in 2001 to 77 in 2007 out
of 117 countries that were evaluated, which COMSTE attributed to the many
provide more attention to adopt the science and Mathematics curriculum through
this the students’ performance improve, based on Republic Act 7678 which states
that “the state shall give a priority to research and development, invention and their
One of the strategies that have been recently gaining its popularity across
educators, the process is about being responsive to the students learning needs,
and most importantly, knowing when and how to introduce students to ideas that
will move them forward in their inquiry. Together, educators and students co-author
From the standpoints elaborated above in the light of this dilemma that is
being faced by the Mathematics students, this study was conducted. This research
Mathematics achievement.
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Theoretical Framework
The main concept which serves as a basis for undertaking the research is the use
Socrates believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the
human reason rather than theological doctrine. Ultimate wisdom comes from
knowing oneself. The more a person knows, the greater is his or her ability to
Socrates does not believe that any one person or any one school of thought
his own knowledge and his own methods. However, this appears to be a technique
question which requires generative answer. Ideally, the answers to questions are
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not a stopping point for thought but are instead a beginning for further analysis and
research.
In the modern era, these historical threads of inquiry found a home in the work
of John Dewey in the early part of the 20th century namely Theory of Inquiry. As
one of the key leaders of the progressive movement in education, Dewey, who had
hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, revising with rigorous tests, and acting on the
acquiring facts at the expense of fostering modes of thinking and attitudes of the
knowledge. Also he believed that the teacher should not simply stand in front of
students must be actively involved in the learning process and given a degree of
John Dewey (1938a) argues that although children construct their own
“cooperative” where student and teacher work together. A teacher may guide
emphasize that this process did not involve anything-goes, free-for-all exploration;
learning positions children as innately equipped with the curiosity to explore the
world and the capacity to find meaning in the objects, images, relationships, and
Jean Piaget (1954, 1969, 1973a, 1973b) was highly influential in the
knowledge acquisition,
Piaget (1954) stated, “ intelligence constructs the external world”. During the
develop and shape throughout a human’s life starting with broad categories and
everything that a child learns from school and family. The psychological is “what the
child learns by himself, what none can teach him and must discover alone”
Doolittle also add that Piaget emphasized the role of discovery and
structure”.
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Conceptual Framework
School for school year 2017-2018. This is presented on the figure below.
Control
Group
Traditional
Method
Pre-test Post-test
Experimental
Group
Inquiry- Based
Learning
Achievement of the students are conducted in the two groups which is control and
experimental groups and were given a validated pre-test. The students in the
control group were taught using Traditional Method while the experimental group
was taught using Inquiry- Based Learning. Subsequently, both groups were given
the post-test to determine if there’s an improvement after the intervention. With this,
the effect of using Inquiry- Based Learning in teaching Mathematics among Grade
This study will determine the effect of using Inquiry- Based Learning on the
1. What are the mean pre-test and post-test scores of the students in the control
2. Is there a significant difference between the pre-test scores of the control and
experimental groups?
3. Is there a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the:
A. Control group,
B. Experimental group?
The following are the null hypotheses that will be tested in this study:
1.There is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the
control group.
2.There is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the
experimental group.
3.There is no significant difference between the mean post-test scores of the control
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of using Inquiry- Based Learning
Maria Clara High School for school year 2017-2018. Moreover, topics to be
covered during the experimental period are Multiplying and Dividing Rational
Equations. This study did not cover external factors that may affect the
achievement.
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The results of this study may be significant to the following groups of people:
student’s centered approach and they develop their critical thinking skills. Inquiry-
Based Learning (IBL) helps the students to examine their beliefs, knowledge and
understanding of the topics. Also, when they are up to an idea, they will realize that
employed inside the classroom. This can also add to the long list of effective
Based Learning will determine the strengths and weaknesses of this study as being
applied in the classroom to improve the students’ performance. Also, it may serve
as a motivational tool for Mathematics teacher not just asking a question but
enhance the students critical thinking skills and reasoning in their own perspective.
This may serve as their tool in developing Mathematics achievement among the
Mathematics. This study can be an alternative way of teaching and may serve
motivate them to conduct training for teachers regarding of using an Inquiry- Based
Learning as a strategies.
Definition of Terms
Control Group refers to the group that was taught in traditional method or
Experimental Group refers to the group that was taught using the Inquiry-
challenges students to develop their critical thinking skills and engage in analytical
Mathematics.
Chapter 2
students carry out the inquiry based learning and discusses the existing literature,
as well as proposed study. Also, it synthesized the key themes emerged from the
literature. In the aim of presenting the review clearly, informing the researchers
about what had been known and had not been known and what it meant. The
The researcher’s also examine other research studies and articles that show
student what he or she wants to know. It’s about triggering curiosity, and activating
a students’ curiosity is, I would argue, a far more important and complex goal than
active participant while the teacher’s role is decentralized they identify (IBLM) in
characteristics:
The main work of the course, both within and outside of class, is problem
solving. Students are empowered by playing roles- determining how class time is
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spent, initiating communication, and taking responsibility for learning. Students use
new modes of thought, new learning strategies, and new mathematical schema.
know’ that motivates and deepens learning it requires guidance form the teacher in
the role of facilitator providing structure and support for students as appropriate to
their developmental stage in short, Inquiry- Based Learning (IBL) characterized by:
tasks and issues. Encouraging students to become co- creators of their learning.
enables students to experience the processes of knowledge creation and the key
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instructional materials.
constructivist learning theories, such as the work of Piaget, Dewey, Vygotsky, and
Fiere among others, and can be considered as constructivist philosophy. IBL can
Preston (2015) the value of Inquiry- Based Learning (IBL) have long been
Often, associated with the work of Dewey (1938) and Bruner (1966) and
transmitted.
The Inquiry- Based Learning (IBL) features strongly in the new Australian
an array of humanities teacher’s education textbooks. Yet, while inquiry has a long
history and currently endorsed in the national curriculum, there is remarkably little
research into use in the humanities, particularly in the primary school context.
According to the study of Lazares (2010). She further defined inquiry- based
knowledge. She further explains that any belief occurs through inquiry process:
based learning as a strategy in teaching to let the students solve a problems and
students in activities that require a higher level of cognitive effort and skills.
Additionally, in this study she stated that the inquiry- based lessons is under a
cooperative learning environment which implies that the students can improve their
cognitive thinking skills through help of others and developing the essentials
According to the study of Mawirat (2010). She defined Inquiry- based learning
“ What happen if….? Questions. She explain that through this type of questions the
discussion will be on the student- centered to develop the critical thinking skills and
Not all the research on specific approaches to inquiry learning has been
that often portray inquiry as unstructured, leading to what Barron called “doing for
the sake of doing” (as cited in Barron & Darling-Hammond 2008). They said that
the outcome of inquiry based learning is not always positive and it is important that
involves students working in small groups to identifying what they need to know in
order to solve the problem, and coming up with strategies for solutions”. Unlike
many textbook word problems commonly found in math, these problems are
realistic in that they are ill-structured, offering the possibility of multiple solutions
from a textbook that asked students to find the surface area and volume of a water
first instance students were presented a drawing of a water tank, all the dimensions
they needed to solve the problem were provided, and solving the problem required
filled up with a garden hose. In this instance students were not provided with any of
the dimensions of the water tank. Students had to decide what information was
needed to solve the problem and how they could find the answers. Students were
encouraged to discuss possible solutions with their peers and work with the
hypotheses on the board .Overall, the impact of problem-based learning has been
positive.
cue from what the field of study requires of those coming to know it. As they pose
recognize as important, students and teachers work and learn from experts to
discipline and connects students to the world beyond the school while also
honoring the outcomes within the program of the study. Teachers should have a
ethical engagement,
goals, objectives, and specific outcomes for lessons, units, and courses by
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meaningfully
connect students with the world in which they live. Further, the through line
approach
helps students and teachers better understand how current conditions came to be.
They explore the ways in which current sense-making practices constrain individual
Wiggins & McTighe ( 2008) The inquiry strategies all seek to foster subject-
matter understanding and impart disciplinary means and processes. However, they
differ in their approach and pedagogical focus. Critical questions allow students to
content in the curriculum. For Case and Wright (1997), an inquiry question
among options, use criteria to make that judgments and connect to outcomes in the
Guven & Duman (2007) designed a study “to determine the effectiveness of an
inquiry based program delivered for students with mild mental disabilities (aged 6
-7 years) over a six day period. The total duration of the project was two and half
weeks. This short study had positive results with the data indicating “that inquiry
based learning was effective for children with mild mental disabilities as all stages.
However, this was a very small study using sevens objects who attended a special
and high schools that had implemented authentic pedagogy and authentic
academic
‘The research team observed 504 lessons, analyzed 234 assessment tasks,
achievement among all students. They concluded that differences between high-
and low-performing students greatly decreased when students who were normally
involves original application of knowledge and skills, rather than just routine use of
facts and procedures. It also entails disciplined inquiry into the details of a
In conclusion of Smith (2008) according to her study that the Inquiry based
student or learning- centered approach in which the role of the teacher is to act as
She also state that students should develop research skills and be prepared for
lifelong learning.
The research on learning styles gives rise to caution, as many students may be
uncomfortable with inquiry based learning and thus need adequate support to
make inquiry based effective in students. Inquiry based learning were presented
showing that the approach is applicable in all disciplines and scenario at all stages
of higher education it can be range from more structured and guided activities,
discrete activity through to the design principle for the whole degree. Moreover,
even though there is lack of such studies for inquiry based learning activities
there’s a studies that all occur in inquiry based learning producing improved
higher order learning outcomes. Inquiry based through integration of this studies as
Other studies optimal to compare the Inquiry- based learning for how the
experience has changed the perceptions of the researcher and students’ abilities.
undergraduate research elective. They found that the inquiry based learning
based learning version with those students taking a more traditional course.
experiences two approaches were gained from interviews, questions during the
experiment of self-evaluations. The key findings of this study were that students
taking the open-inquiry experiment version had more positive outcomes including a
Justice (2007) used five years of data to examine whether taking a first year
course and those who did not, and, taking into consideration factors such as age,
gender, high school grade point averages etc., they found that students who took
the inquiry course had statistically significant positive gains in passing grades,
assisting learning in inquiry based learning courses. Most studies in the literature
begin by issue defining Inquiry based learning and then go on to describe how IBL
Many studies also undertake some form of evaluation elicit feedback from
students and/or teachers. However, often this feedback is anecdotal, rather than
the approach. Contrary to the commonly held belief that Inquiry based learning
According to Dr. Sabine Little (2010), this section is looking at the impact of
IBL may have had on the way student engaged with their learning on a variety of
levels. Changes made as part of some projects impacted on the way students
learn, and the way they thought their studies. From the students perspective the
researchers and has afforded their leverage to carry out research in an organized
plaguing the education system. IBL has helped them to see themselves a part of a
professional community, rather than on the outside, looking in. this small but
significant shift appears to have had, in and of itself, a great impact on how
students experienced the projects, and, as a result, their attitudes toward others.
Moreover, the teaching of IBL had an impact on the students, to open their minds to
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involve in a critical teaching and design their experiences through giving their own
In the study of Panaoura (2013), he used the Inquiry based learning by using
mathematical concepts. Chin and Lin (2013), claim that there obstacles and
difficulties such as: (1) teachers did not experience inquiry based learning in
mathematics in their own school years, (2) they do not have complete
such as that the allocated teaching hours are not enough, (4) the influence of
Mathematics Achievement
their critical-thinking skills (Köksal, 2008; Blanchard et al., 2010). Moreover, based
on the fact that some inquiry-based learning environments differ from traditional
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This study made use of a pre-test and post-test how the study effect the
The studies done by Lazares (2010), Mawirat (2010) made use of similar
This is one of the gaps that this research would like to fill in. This study would
answer questions about the strength and capability of such strategy in other areas
by themselves that can maintain their curiosity and involving in a higher order level
cognitive skills. Not only in solving word problems, they will also improve their
critical thinking skills on how they will discover the concept of a specific lesson, so
that, they will now improve their achievement in different areas in Mathematics.
(2010), Lazares (2010), Friesen (2012), Meyer (2010), Newman (2009) and Smith
(2008) in a manner that the teaching strategy is another way of learning which is
the inquiry- based learning. Their studies, including the present one, attempted to
dealing the own perspective of the students and their capability to stand in their
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own beliefs by asking a questions and answering questions. Moreover, none of the
above literature considered using the pre-test and post-test as they learning tool in
respect to their own perspective and beliefs as they were exposed to Inquiry-
Based Learning.
Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
the method of research, the population, sample size, and sampling techniques, the
Method of Research
. This study utilized a quasi – experimental research that employed a pre- test
The absence of “ ” in the control group indicates non- treatment or non- use
respondents of the groups were not randomly chosen. According to Clause (2015)
experimental groups they have an equal chance of being designed to any condition
For Howard (2014) in his briefly description the quasi- experimental is the
the elements of the policy being evaluated is tested for how well it achieves its
In this research two sections took the pre-test based on their scores. The
sections that get the highest score underwent Inquiry-Based Learning, this is the
experimental group. On the other hand, the control group was taught in traditional
teaching. The respondents of this study were the two section of Grade 8 students
from Maria Clara High School which is not randomly selected. The respondents are
the (70) Grade 8 students divided into two sections having equal number of
students.
Description of Respondents
A total of 70 Grade 8 students from Maria Clara High School were the
actual experiment. The basis for excluding 2 members of the class is their low
Research Instrument
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In order to obtain the needed data for this research, the following instrument
were used:
A researcher made a pre- testing and post- testing in Mathematics was used to
measure students’ achievement before and after instructions. The test was
composed of 30 items in multiple- choice format. The same instrument was used in
the post- testing but the researcher intermix the pre- testing to serve as post-
testing to be able to know if the two groups understand and analyze the test.
to be included in the initial draft of the instrument with the guide of table of
specifications. The table of specifications used in drafting the test can be seen in
Algebraic Expressions to Rational Equations the specific topic which were tested in
Validity- To establish content validity of the instrument, the initial draft was
the content and appropriateness of the instrument. This validity sheet appears in
Appendix H.
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Data interpretation- to interpret the data obtained from this instrument, range of
0.00-6.00 Poor
6.01-12.00 Fair
12.01-18.00 Satisfactory
24.01-30.00 Outstanding
Data-Gathering Procedure
The data gathering procedure was divided into two phases namely the
preliminary phase and the actual phase. In both phases, the researcher
guaranteed. Rest assured that all the data were acquired throughout the research
study will be treated in full confidentiality by assuring that only the researchers had
Preliminary Phase
During this phase, the researchers gathered all the needed data prior to the
conduct of the actual experiment. The procedures involved were the following:
The researchers secured a permit to conduct the study in their chosen school. This
was done by a writing a letter asking for permission from the authorities. Copies of
The researchers also conduct a pre- testing and post- testing of the Grade 8
Mathematics Expert.
Actual Phase
During this phase, the researcher gathered all the needed data during the
The respondents from the control and experimental group took the pre-
testing and post- testing. The test results gave the information about their
achievements before they were exposed for different strategies. These tests were
allocated during the Math classes of one of the researchers as a student teacher of
B. Experimental Stage
This is the stage where the two groups were taught using Inquiry- Based
Learning (IBL) for the experimental group and Traditional method in the control
group. Separate instructional plans were prepared for experimental group and
control groups but have the same topic. The sample copies of the instructional
plans for the control and experimental groups can be seen in Appendices A and B
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Appendix D. The worksheets designed for the students who were exposed to the
To ensure that the planned flow of the execution of the lesson is achieved, the
experience. The instructional materials and activities were prepared before the
study.
Teaching the Control Group. A set of separated instructional plans was used
in control group the students were not exposed in Inquiry- Based Learning. Instead,
the students were taught in Traditional method were the teacher use the learning
Module of Grade 8 Mathematics. The classes in control group start with the daily
used in delivering the lessons covered in the experiment to the experimental group.
The parts of these instructional plans are carefully performed to ensure proper
implementation of the treatment of the study. The class begins with the usual
The opening activity will be the discovery of the concept of the topic.
the post- test were administered in the end of execution of the lessons in
Mathematics in two weeks. These were determined to know the effect of the study
To interpret the gathered data, the researchers will use the following:
groups.
2. T-test for dependent samples- this was used to determine if there is any
3. T-test for independent samples- this test was utilized to find out if there is
any significant difference between the performance (1) pre- test of the control and
experimental group (2) post- test of the control and experimental group.
All the statistical tool were performed through the use of computer software
known as Microsoft Excel 2010. The statistical output obtained from Microsoft
Chapter 4
This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of the
data obtained from the respondents of the study. The result of the study were
the study.
Problem number 1: What are the mean pre-test and post-test scores of the
The table below shows the summary of the mean pre- test and post- test
Table 1
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Mean scores of Pre-test and Post-test of the Control and Experimental groups
Mean
Group Test Mean Standard Descriptive Gains in
Deviation Meaning Scores
Table 3 shows the mean scores of Control group before and after the
experiment of the study Pre-test is 14.228 wherein the result of Pre-test is less than
the result of Post-test which is 16.571 . However, the Experimental group before
and after the experiment the result of Pre-test is 10.629 which is less than the
in the control group have remained to be in the satisfactory level while in the
experimental group, the pre-test is in the fair level and the post-test is in the
satisfactory level. At the same time, improvements in their mean scores after the
intervention are remarkable through the mean gain in scores. The control group
posed a mean gain of 2.343 which is less than the mean gain in scores of the
The researcher performed t-test for independent sample means and the result
Table 2
Groups
Table 4 above shows the computed t- value, which was 3.039, greater than
significance, the null hypothesis was rejected. Thus, there is a significant difference
between pre- test scores of the control and experimental groups. This only proves
that before the two groups were exposed to the intervention, they have different
level of achievement.
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The table below shows the significance difference of the mean of the pre-test
Table 3
Difference between the pre- test and post-test scores of the Control Group
Pre-test 14.2286
Table 3 reveals, that the t-value is 4.6060, which is greater than the critical
value 2.0322 (p>0.05). This implies that the null hypothesis was rejected at 0.05
difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of control group after
experimentation. This implies that learning occurred when students were taught
through the use of Traditional Method; still they are learned and it have significant
change in their achievement before and after using the method. In particular, it
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signifies that the students who expose in Traditional method will develop their
Mathematics achievement.
Similarly, Table 4 below presents the results of the same test for the
experimental group.
Table 4
Group
Pre-test 10.6286
As shown in Table 4, the t- value is 3.6176 is greater than the critical value
which is 2.0322 (p>0.05). This implies that at 0.05 level of significance, the null
significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental
group after they were exposed to the intervention. This implies that the students
were taught using the Inquiry- Based Learning improved their Mathematics
after the intervention. As a result, the use of Inquiry- Based Learning will develop
their critical thinking skills and by using higher order thinking skills in solving Math
The table below compares the achievements of the experimental group and
control group after the intervention; t-test for independent sample means was
employed.
Table 5
Groups
The t-test yields a t-value of 3.5301, which is greater than the critical- value of
1.997 (p<0.05). This means that the null hypothesis was rejected. Hence, there is a
significant difference between the post- test scores of the experimental and control
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groups. The result implies that students who were exposed to the use of the
Inquiry- Based Learning performed better than those who were taught using the
goes to show that the Inquiry- Based Learning, when used as an instructional
method, can effectively help the students in getting the higher mathematical
achievement. Specifically, the result obtained the critical thinking skills, perspective
This is also evident as it was said by Meyer (2010) in the article he used a
problem from a textbook that asked students to find the surface area of a water
mathematical problem solving using the inquiry- based learning. In his study he
finds out that the Inquiry-Based Learning has a positive impact to the students
Mathematics achievement.
effectiveness of an inquiry- based learning delivered for students with mild mental
disabilities. They short study had a positive results with the data indicating that
inquiry- based learning was effective for children with mild mental disabilities as all
stages. However, this was a very small study still the result has a positive impact.
Berg (2009) His respondents experiences two approaches were gained from
interviews, questions during the experiment of self- evaluation. The findings of his
study using in the chemistry laboratory experiment the Inquiry- Based Learning had
Inquiry- Based Learning and those who did not undergo the study. He find out that
the students who exposed in Inquiry- Based Learning had statistically significant
Chapter 5
conclusions gather from them. It also presents the recommendation based on the
Summary
The study was conducted to determine the effect of using Inquiry- Based
following questions: (1) What are the mean pre-test and post-test scores of the
difference between the pre-test scores of the control and experimental groups?;(3)
Is there a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the: (a)
design. During the experimentation, the study made use of two entire Grade 8
classes of Maria Clara High School in teaching the topics designated for the
second grading period of the school year 2017-2018. The classes which served as
their mathematical abilities as reflected from their pre- test scores before executing
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the experiment. The experimental group was exposed to the use of Inquiry- Based
Learning; while the control group was taught using the Traditional Method.
The main instruments were prepared as data gathering tools for this research.
These are the researcher made pre- test and post- test where the researchers
Separate instructional plans for experimental and control groups were also prepared.
They were presented to experts for validation before they were used as teaching
plans for the two groups. Also, pre- test and post- test underwent validity test.
informed in their teachers and principal of the school. It was assured that all the data
will acquire throughout the research study will be treated in full confidentiality. After
all the needed data were gathered, they were treated, analyzed, and interpreted to
1. The students from the both experimental and control groups registered a
2. The students were taught with the use of Inquiry- Based Learning performed
better than those who were taught using the Traditional method in terms of their
post-test scores. Also, this implies that the learning process of the students
exposed in Inquiry- Based Learning and Traditional method in their pre-test and
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post- test significantly affect their Mathematics achievement and has an impact
even when their exposed in Inquiry- Based Learning and Traditional method.
3. The students who were exposed to the Inquiry- Based Learning and Traditional
method fairly developed answering the pre- test and post-test of the control and
experimental group.
Conclusion
1. The students in both experimental and control groups develop their critical
thinking skills and discovery learning when they solve Mathematical problems
and equations.
Traditional method.
3. Inquiry- Based Learning gives a good experience for students to discover the
Recommendation
heads and coordinators may conduct seminars about Inquiry- Based Learning
2. Mathematics and Science teachers may adapt the use of Inquiry- Based
this study. These studies may be done with other subjects and grade levels, in a
longer time frame, or may include other variables such as learning style and
Appendices
Appendix A
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Control Group
(Instructional Plan)
I. Objectives
At the end of 60 minute period, at least 75% of students with 60% of
proficiency should be able to:
A. Define rational equation
B. Identify the steps in solving rational equation
C. Solve rational equation
1. , 5. ,
2. x+ 2 , 6.
3. 7.
4. 8. ,
C. Lesson Proper
Concept:
An equation that contains one or more rational expressions is called
RATIONAL EQUATION.
Steps in solving Rational Equation
1. Find the LCD of all denominators
2. Multiply each form of the equation by the LCD
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Solve:
The LCD of 5, 4, and 2 is 20 multiply the equation by 20
20
4x + 5 = 10x
5 = 6x
Example 2:
y+3=4
y=1
Division by 0 is undefined
D. Application
Solve the ff. rational equations
1. 3.
2. 4.
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E. Generalization
What is rational equation?
How do you solve rational equation? State the steps.
F. Values Integration
What is your favorite photography and tell a story behind the
photo.
But life is not like a still photography, like time, it keeps moving
forward most each day that we live. “Carpe Diem”
IV. Evaluation
Solve the following rational equation.
1. 4.
2. 5.
3.
V. Assignment:
Solve for x.
1.
2.
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Appendix B
Experimental Group
(Instructional Plan)
I. Objectives
At the end of 60 minute period, at least 75% of students with 60% of
proficiency should be able to:
A. Define Rational Equation
B. Solve rational equations
C. Develop accuracy in solving rational equations
ll.Subject Matter
A .Topic: Solving rational equation
B. References: Nivera, G.(2014) Grade 8 Mathematics Patterns
and Practicalities, Makati City: Salesiana BOOKS,pp. 118-122
C. Materials: Cartolina, Marker, Picture
How can you say that the expression is rational algebraic expression?
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Suppose a lens has a focal length of 36 millimeter, how far must the
girl from the lens be if the distance from the lens to the image is 90mm?
Do you have any idea how far the distance of the girl from the lens of the
camera? Anyone can guess?
C. Lesson Proper
The focal length f of a lens in a close-up photography is given by the
formula
Solution:
Given: f=36mm
d1 = _________
d2 = 90mm
180d
Therefore, the distance of the girl from the lens must be 60mm.
Concept:
An equation that contains one or more rational expressions is called
RATIONAL EQUATION.
What is the difference between rational algebraic expression and rational
equation?
Steps:
1.Find the LCD of all denominators.
2.Multiply each term of the equation by LCD.
3.Simplify and solve for the value of x.
4.Check your solutions. If the value makes the denominator equal to zero,
there is no solution, such false solution is called extraneous root.
Example 1:
Solve:
The LCD of 5, 4, and 2 is 20 multiply the equation by 20
20
4x + 5 = 10x
5 = 6x
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Example 2:
y+3=4
y=1
Division by 0 is undefined
D. Application
An air force plane flies at a speed that is 30 kilometers per hour
faster that a cargo plane. The air force plane flies 500km in the
Amount of time that the cargo plane flies 440km. Find the speed of
each plane.
E. Generalization
F. Value Integration
What is your favorite photography and tell a story behind the photo.
But life is not like a still photography, like time, it keeps moving forward
most each day that we live. “ Carpe Diem”
IV. Evaluation
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V. Assignment
Solve for X.
1. 2.
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Appendix C
Your responses on this checklist will be of great help in checking the validity of the
instructional plans in Grade 10 Mathematics and PSM-based worksheets which will be used
in the execution of the lessons in the experimental group during the intervention stage of an
on-going quasi - experimental research. Kindly read and rate each statement below based on
the following rating scale. Put a check mark (ü) on the appropriate box provided below.
5 – Strongly Agree
4 – Agree
3 – Neutral
2 – Disagree
1 – Strongly Disagree
STATEMENTS 5 4 3 2 1
1. The objectives are clear, specific, and appropriate.
2. The objectives are aligned with the assessment
procedures (e.g. quizzes, groupwork, seatwork, etc.)
used in the instructional plan.
3. The plans generally follow a consistent, neat, and
orderly format.
4. The flow of the lesson is well-presented in each of
the instructional plans.
5. The plans contain relevant and suited activities for
the students.
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Comments/Suggestions:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________
________________
Validator’s Signature
Checklist on the Validity
of the ”Instructional Plans in Grade 10 Mathematics
for the Control Group”
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Your responses on this checklist will be of great help in checking the validity of the
instructional plans in Grade 10 Mathematics which will be used in the execution of the
lessons in the control group during the intervention stage of an on-going quasi - experimental
research. Kindly read and rate each statement below based on the following rating scale. Put
a check mark (ü) on the appropriate box provided below.
5 – Strongly Agree
4 – Agree
3 – Neutral
2 – Disagree
1 – Strongly Disagree
STATEMENTS 5 4 3 2 1
1. The objectives are clear, specific, and appropriate.
2. The objectives are aligned with the assessment procedures
(e.g. quizzes, groupwork, seatwork, etc.) used in the
instructional plan.
3. The plans generally follow a consistent, neat, and orderly
format.
4. The flow of the lesson is well-presented in each of the
instructional plans.
5. The plans contain relevant and suited activities for the
students.
6. The plans strongly manifest the use of the strategies
suggested by the DepEd in the K-12 Mathematics curriculum.
7. The plans are fit to the objective of the research and are
evident of what it needs to convey.
8. The activities included in the instructional plans are correct
and appropriate.
9. The activities provide an opportunity for developing critical
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Comments/Suggestions:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________
________________
Validator’s Signature
Appendix D
Doctorate Degree (if in progress, indicate the no. of units earned): _____________
School where the undergraduate degree was obtained: Philippine Normal University
Doctorate Degree (if in progress, indicate the no. of units earned): ______________
School where the Master’s degree was obtained: Philippine Normal University
School where the undergraduate degree was obtained: Philippine Normal University
Appendix E
PRE-TEST
Mathematics 8
MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the letter of the correct answer. If the answer is
not found in the choices, write the correct answer.
a. 4x c.
b. d.
b. b. + d.
a. c.
b. d.
5. What is the reduced form:
a. +1 c.
b. –1 d.
a. c.
b. d.
7. Simplify:
a. c.
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b. d.
8. Which expression is in simplest form?
a. c.
b. d.
11. Solve ?
a. c.
b. d.
a. 12 c. 9
b. 15 d. 10
13. What is the sum of ?
a. c.
b. d.
b. (x+3)(x+2) d.(x+3)(x-2)
a. c.
b. d.
a. c.
b. d.
17. Which is the simplest form of if the denominator is not equal to zero?
a. x-4y c.
b. x+4y d.
a. c.
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b. d.
a. 2b c. 5
b. 5b d. 111b
a. 10 c. 9
b. 15 d. 12
a. . c. .
b. d. 3x+5
a. (x+1)(1-x) c. (x+1)(x-2)
b. (1+x)(x-1) d. (x+1)(x-1)
25. Solve
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a. 4 c. 2
b. 3 d.1
a. c.
b. d.
a. c.
b. d.
29. Solve
a. c.
b. d.
14. A 29. B
15. A 30. A
Appendix F
POST-TEST
Mathematics 8
MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the letter of the correct answer. If the answer is
not found in the choices, write the correct answer.
a. 4x c.
b. d.
b. + d.
a. c.
b. d.
5.What is the reduced form:
a. +1 c.
b. –1 d.
a. c.
b. d.
7.Simplify:
a. c.
b. d.
8.Which expression is in simplest form?
a. c.
b. d.
10.The sum of
a.10 c. 100a
b. a d. 10a
11.Solve ?
a. c.
b. d.
a.12 c. 9
b.15 d. 10
13.What is the sum of ?
a. c.
b. d.
a. c.
b. d.
a. c.
b. d.
a.x-4y c.
b.x+4y d.
a. c.
b. d.
a. 2b c. 5
b. 5b d. 111b
a. 10 c. 9
b. 15 d. 12
a. . c. .
b. d. 3x+5
a. (x+1)(1-x) c. (x+1)(x-2)
b. (1+x)(x-1) d. (x+1)(x-1)
25. Solve
a. 4 c. 2
b. 3 d.1
a. c.
b. d.
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a. c.
b. d.
29. Solve
a. c.
b. d.
Appendix G
Checklist on the Validity
of the Research Instrument entitled
“Achievement Test in Grade 10 Mathematics”
Your responses on this checklist will be of great help in checking the validity of the
achievement test (pre-test and post-test) which will be used in determining the level
of achievement of Grade 10 students in Mathematics. Kindly read and rate each
statement below based on the following rating scale. Put a check mark () on the
appropriate box provided below.
5 – Strongly Agree
4 – Agree
3 – Neutral
2 – Disagree
1 – Strongly Disagree
STATEMENTS 5 4 3 2 1
1. The table of specifications is complete.
2. The text used in the questionnaire is readable.
3. The directions are clear, correct, and complete.
4. The items are clear and easy to understand.
5. The items are grammatically correct.
6. The test items are congruent to the learning
objectives.
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Comments/Suggestions:
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
________________
Validator’s Signature
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Appendix H
D r. E r m e l i n d a C . F e r r e r
Principal 3
Maria Clara High School
Caloocan City
Good Day!
Respectfully yours,
Noted:
M r. O L I V E R G . M A R I A N O
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Research Professor
D e a r Te a c h e r s ,
Good Day!
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P r e - Te s t Post-Test u s e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y. I n
8 12 this connection, may we request you
18 20
to help us validate the instrument
23 22
19 19 particularly on the following
20 22 aspects.
4 11
1. Introduction
14 13
2. Content
19 21
3. Style and Presentation
14 15 4. Evaluation
15 16
16 18 Any comments or suggestions
17 18
14 15 regarding the instrument will be
15 18 highly appreciated. Thank you very
13 13
much.
12 15
16 17
19 19 Researchers,
18 17
10 15
20 22
22 22
ARIGLO, CHRISTINE ANN A.
15 14 P O S E D I O , P E R L I TA G .
10 17
16 15
7 16
19 21 ROCAFOR, JOHN ROMER R.
15 17 Appendix I
10 15
2 10
11 11
11 16
4 14
19 18
13 16
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P r e - Te s t Post- Test
10 15
17 22
11 11
17 16
7 9
2 14
10 10
10 12
10 11
15 11
20 18
13 15
23 18
17 15
16 19
10 15
12 19
7 23
6 11
8 12
5 11
3 4
7 8
6 10
10 12
7 16
3 14
11 7
14 10
14 12
9 14
10 14
11 14
11 14
10 16
Appendix J
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0.00047708
P(T<=t) one-tail 8
1.69092425
t Critical one-tail 5
0.00095417
P(T<=t) two-tail 7
2.03224450
t Critical two-tail 9
experimenta
pretest control l
Mean 14.2285714 10.62857143
Variance 26.4168067 22.71092437
Observations 35 35
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
df 68
t Stat 3.03859745
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00168542
t Critical one-tail 1.66757228
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00337084
t Critical two-tail 1.99546893
experimenta
control l
Mean 16.5714286 13.48571429
Variance 10.8991597 16.25714286
Observations 35 35
Hypothesized Mean 0
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Difference
df 65
t Stat 3.50311516
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00041872
t Critical one-tail 1.66863598
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00083745
t Critical two-tail 1.99713791