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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Mathematics is a human endeavor in which student finds it difficult that they

never know what they are talking about and for students who do not perform well in

this subject they find it irrelevant in their daily lives. Indeed, no matter how much

attention they pay in understanding Mathematics still the students find it boring and

not interesting at all. As a result, they neglect the idea of Mathematics because of

this negative perception. Consequently, these difficulties in learning Mathematics

oftentimes result to poor achievement. This is the reality and the reason why most

of the teachers have been facing and struggling right now to find a solution to the

students' poor achievement in Mathematics.

The increasing pressure of a students' in Mathematics continue to place for

improving the performance of the students toward Mathematics are reflected on

their steadfast poor achievement. This is constantly supported by the Trend in

International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). As stated by de Dios

(2013), who wrote the information about the result of TIMSS 2011 in the blog of

Philippine Basic Education (2013), that the Philippines participated only in 1999

and 2003 with a ranked in the third and fourth-to the last-among the countries who

participated in Trend in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) with

the following scores, 345 and 378, respectively. However, the country took part in

the Advanced TIMSS 2008 where it scored 355. Students only from the science
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high schools and the elite private institution in Philippines participated in 2008. The

results of students achievement test indicated are very poor performance. Even

though, the Philippines chose to represent the students in science high schools

and elite private institution in Advanced TIMSS 2008 still the performance is poor.

Alliance of Concerned Teacher (ACT) party-list Rep. Antonio Tinio said in the

interview of (Philippine Star 2011) that the Department of Education (DepEd) and

Commission of Head Education (CHED) take a closer look in the performance of

students because of the sad state that education should be neglected in the

Philippines. Nonetheless, Rep. Tinio said that these are the issue that should be

highlighted to force the government to take more action to improve the

achievement of students and give more attention to education using more

resources.

As cited by Leongson (2013) reveals that Filipino students excel in knowledge

acquisition but fare considerably low in lessons requiring higher order thinking

skills. This disappointing condition is evident in the performance of students in

national and international surveys on Mathematics and science competencies.

According to de Leon (2011), the Philippines rank a poor seventh among nine

Southeast Asian nations in the area of education and innovation. Guillermo M. Luz,

Co-chairman of the National Competitiveness Council (NCC). Luz presented the

disturbing results of the 2010-2011 Global Competitiveness Report of world

economic forum which showed that the Philippines only fared better than the

Cambodia, among the eight Southeast Asian countries that were surveyed in the
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fields of education, science in technology and innovation. In the area of primary

education, the Philippines ranked 99th out of 138 economics, the Philippines

ranked 69th in educational system 112th in science and math, and 76th on

international access.

The Congressional Commission of Science and Technology and Engineering

(COMSTE), stated that in the basic level, there is a decreasing trend in science

and math oriented education despite the establishment of science high schools.

However, COMSTE beg to disagree, stating that the main reason why Philippines

leak low in international test in the secondary level is because many math and

science teachers in public high schools are not math and science majors. Even the

competitiveness level, the Philippines slid down from 47 in 2001 to 77 in 2007 out

of 117 countries that were evaluated, which COMSTE attributed to the many

problems of the country's basic education system, particulary in specialization in

math and science.

With all this, status and present performance of students in Mathematics,

Pascual (2016) said to address the need to develop Mathematics performance of

students, the Philippine governments should encourage school instructions and

provide more attention to adopt the science and Mathematics curriculum through

this the students’ performance improve, based on Republic Act 7678 which states

that “the state shall give a priority to research and development, invention and their

utilization and to science and technology education, training and services.


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One of the strategies that have been recently gaining its popularity across

nations is the Inquiry- Based Learning (IBL). This strategy, as defined by

Scardamala (2002), is an approach to teaching and learning that places students’

questions, ideas and observation at the center of the learning experience.

Educators play an active role throughout the process by establishing a culture

where ideas are respectfully challenged, tested, redefined and viewed as

improvable, moving children from a position of wondering to a position of enacted

understanding and further questioning.

Fielding (2012) for students, the process involves open-ended investigations

into a question or a problem, requiring them to engage in evidence-based

reasoning and creative problem-solving, as well as “problem finding”. For

educators, the process is about being responsive to the students learning needs,

and most importantly, knowing when and how to introduce students to ideas that

will move them forward in their inquiry. Together, educators and students co-author

the learning experience, accepting mutual responsibility for planning, assessment

for learning and the advancement of individual as well as class-wide understanding

of personally meaningful content and ideas.

From the standpoints elaborated above in the light of this dilemma that is

being faced by the Mathematics students, this study was conducted. This research

is aimed at determining the effect of Inquiry- Based Learning on students'

Mathematics achievement.
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Theoretical Framework

The main concept which serves as a basis for undertaking the research is the use

of Inquiry- Based Learning in Mathematics Achievement of Grade 8 students. In

Inquiry- Based Learning defined as a “seeking for truth, information, or knowledge-

seeking information by questioning.” Through the process of inquiry, individuals

construct much of their understanding on the natural and human-designed worlds.

Inquiry- Based Learning implies a “need or want to know” premise.

Socrates believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the

greater well-being of society. He attempted to establish an ethical system based on

human reason rather than theological doctrine. Ultimate wisdom comes from

knowing oneself. The more a person knows, the greater is his or her ability to

reason and make choices that will bring true knowledge.

Socrates does not believe that any one person or any one school of thought

is authoritative or has the wisdom to teach "things." Socrates repeatedly disavows

his own knowledge and his own methods. However, this appears to be a technique

for engaging others and empowering the conversation to openly dialogue.

In the Socratic method of teaching, teachers engage students by asking

question which requires generative answer. Ideally, the answers to questions are
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not a stopping point for thought but are instead a beginning for further analysis and

research.

In the modern era, these historical threads of inquiry found a home in the work

of John Dewey in the early part of the 20th century namely Theory of Inquiry. As

one of the key leaders of the progressive movement in education, Dewey, who had

worked as a science teacher, encouraged K–12 teachers to use inquiry as the

primary teaching strategy in their science classrooms. Modeled on the scientific

method, the particular process of inquiry Dewey (1910) advocated involved

“sensing perplexing situations clarifying the problem, formulating a tentative

hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, revising with rigorous tests, and acting on the

solution” (Barrow, 2006, p. 266).

Dewey was critical of transmission-based pedagogies that emphasized

acquiring facts at the expense of fostering modes of thinking and attitudes of the

mind related to the ways scientific knowledge is created. As Dewey’s thinking on

education evolved, he broadened the scope of topics and subjects in which to

engage students with inquiry.

He also encouraged students to formulate problems related to their own

experiences and augment their emerging understandings with their personal

knowledge. Also he believed that the teacher should not simply stand in front of

the class and transmit information to be passively absorbed by students. Instead,

students must be actively involved in the learning process and given a degree of

control over what they are learning.


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John Dewey (1938a) argues that although children construct their own

knowledge, the teacher is not to be completely withdrawn rather learning should be

“cooperative” where student and teacher work together. A teacher may guide

students in the construction of knowledge giving suggestions as a starting point

and along the way, facilitating exploration and discovery. It is important to

emphasize that this process did not involve anything-goes, free-for-all exploration;

it was to be guided by empirical approaches to knowledge creation.

Constructivism. Inquiry-based learning is highly influenced by a constructivist

view on learning. Constructivism is a theory that views humans as actively

constructing or discovering their own knowledge.

According to Thompson (2015) states that “a constructivist perspective on

learning positions children as innately equipped with the curiosity to explore the

world and the capacity to find meaning in the objects, images, relationships, and

events they encounter”.

Jean Piaget (1954, 1969, 1973a, 1973b) was highly influential in the

development of constructivism. He was an epistemologist who studied human

development in order to investigate how humans acquire knowledge. In regards to

knowledge acquisition,

Piaget (1954) stated, “ intelligence constructs the external world”. During the

early stages of development, a construction of knowledge in the form of schemes

develop and shape throughout a human’s life starting with broad categories and

later including substructures that will correspond to them.


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Moreover, Piaget (1969) is well known for establishing theories of

constructing knowledge that include adaptation through assimilation and

accommodation in response to new experiences.

Discussing the work of Piaget, Peter Doolittle (2014) explains, “Knowledge

is constructed from both external experiences and earlier mental structures.

Learning or knowledge acquisition is the reconstruction and reorganization of old

knowledge structures in light of new experiences”.

Piaget (1973) distinguishes between two aspects of a child’s cognitive

development: the psychosocial and the psychological. The psychosocial aspect is

everything that a child learns from school and family. The psychological is “what the

child learns by himself, what none can teach him and must discover alone”

Doolittle also add that Piaget emphasized the role of discovery and

exploration as activities or experiences that fostered these changes in mental

structure”.
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Conceptual Framework

The present study aims to determine the effect of using Inquiry-Based

Learning to the Mathematics Achievement of Grade 8 students of Maria Clara High

School for school year 2017-2018. This is presented on the figure below.

Control
Group
Traditional
Method

Pre-test Post-test
Experimental
Group
Inquiry- Based
Learning

Figure 1. The Research Paradigm

As shown in the figure above, initial assessments of the Mathematics

Achievement of the students are conducted in the two groups which is control and

experimental groups and were given a validated pre-test. The students in the

control group were taught using Traditional Method while the experimental group

was taught using Inquiry- Based Learning. Subsequently, both groups were given

the post-test to determine if there’s an improvement after the intervention. With this,

the effect of using Inquiry- Based Learning in teaching Mathematics among Grade

8 students can be established.


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Statement of the Problem

This study will determine the effect of using Inquiry- Based Learning on the

Mathematics achievement of Grade 8 students of Maria Clara High School.

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions.

1. What are the mean pre-test and post-test scores of the students in the control

and experimental groups?

2. Is there a significant difference between the pre-test scores of the control and

experimental groups?

3. Is there a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the:

A. Control group,

B. Experimental group?

4. Is there a significant difference between the post-test scores of the control

group and experimental group?

Hypotheses of the Study


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The following are the null hypotheses that will be tested in this study:

1.There is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the

control group.

2.There is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the

experimental group.

3.There is no significant difference between the mean post-test scores of the control

and experimental groups.

Scope and Limitation

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of using Inquiry- Based Learning

(IBL) as compared to the conventional way of teaching method towards

Mathematics achievement. This study were conducted among Grade 8 students of

Maria Clara High School for school year 2017-2018. Moreover, topics to be

covered during the experimental period are Multiplying and Dividing Rational

Expressions, Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions and Rational

Equations. This study did not cover external factors that may affect the

achievement in Mathematics of the students. Furthermore, the mathematics

achievement test scores serve as a fair indicator of their mathematical

achievement.
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Significance of the Study

The results of this study may be significant to the following groups of people:

Students. In this study the students may be beneficial because this is

student’s centered approach and they develop their critical thinking skills. Inquiry-

Based Learning (IBL) helps the students to examine their beliefs, knowledge and

logic. Moreover, to helps students to process information and engage in deeper

understanding of the topics. Also, when they are up to an idea, they will realize that

Mathematics is not complicated. Furthermore, it will help them to become active

learners and not passive one.

Mathematics Teachers. This study can be beneficial them because they

gain knowledge on the effectiveness of using Inquiry- Based Learning when

employed inside the classroom. This can also add to the long list of effective

learning strategies responsive to the needs of Mathematics learners. Using Inquiry-

Based Learning will determine the strengths and weaknesses of this study as being

applied in the classroom to improve the students’ performance. Also, it may serve

as a motivational tool for Mathematics teacher not just asking a question but

enhance the students critical thinking skills and reasoning in their own perspective.

This may serve as their tool in developing Mathematics achievement among the

students in teaching different fields of Mathematics.


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School Administrators. This study may serve as a guide in decision making

in terms of adapting methods tested to improve the level of achievement in

Mathematics. This study can be an alternative way of teaching and may serve

strategies in teaching Mathematics. Furthermore, the research outcome can

motivate them to conduct training for teachers regarding of using an Inquiry- Based

Learning as a strategies.

Future Researchers. This study can be beneficial them as their guidelines,

regarding the effectiveness of Inquiry- Based Learning in developing the

Mathematics achievement of the students in the field of Mathematics. Also, this

research may lead them in conducting related studies on Mathematics.

Definition of Terms

For enlightenment and thorough understanding of this study, the following

terms are operationally defined.

Control Group refers to the group that was taught in traditional method or

conventional way of teaching.

Experimental Group refers to the group that was taught using the Inquiry-

Based Learning (IBL).


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Inquiry- Based Learning refers to the student’s centered approach that

challenges students to develop their critical thinking skills and engage in analytical

discussion. Through asking a question by answering a question.

Mathematics Achievement refers to the test scores of the students in

Mathematics.

Traditional Method refers to the conventional way of teaching.


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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description how

students carry out the inquiry based learning and discusses the existing literature,

as well as proposed study. Also, it synthesized the key themes emerged from the

literature. In the aim of presenting the review clearly, informing the researchers

about what had been known and had not been known and what it meant. The

related literatures are sectioned and discussed as follows:

Inquiry- Based Learning

The researcher’s also examine other research studies and articles that show

how the variables are related.

Inquiry- Based Learning as defined edutopia.org.com, is more than asking a

student what he or she wants to know. It’s about triggering curiosity, and activating

a students’ curiosity is, I would argue, a far more important and complex goal than

the objective of mere information delivery.

As defined by Hotchkiss & Fleron (2014) is an approach to teaching and

learning in which the classroom environment is characterized by student being the

active participant while the teacher’s role is decentralized they identify (IBLM) in

secondary education with classroom practices that have the following

characteristics:

The main work of the course, both within and outside of class, is problem

solving. Students are empowered by playing roles- determining how class time is
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spent, initiating communication, and taking responsibility for learning. Students use

reflection as well as active communication, both verbal and written, to assimilate

new modes of thought, new learning strategies, and new mathematical schema.

Felder & Brent (2009) is a more structured approach to developmental learning.

Students operate within a framework supported by a driving question or

problematic scenario. As a curriculum approach, Inquiry- Based Learning (IBL)

builds from a natural process of inquiry in which students experience a ‘need to

know’ that motivates and deepens learning it requires guidance form the teacher in

the role of facilitator providing structure and support for students as appropriate to

their developmental stage in short, Inquiry- Based Learning (IBL) characterized by:

Motivating learning through a sense of purposes and authenticity to ‘real world’

tasks and issues. Encouraging students to become co- creators of their learning.

Developing student skills in self-direction, research, critical thinking and problem

solving. Developing discipline knowledge and skills.

McKinney (2014) describes a range of learner-centered pedagogies

increasingly employed in higher education where students learn through engaging

in open-ended research and inquiry. It is acknowledged that this type of

pedagogical requires advanced information literacy capabilities in students, and

that there is a need to support the development of information literacy capabilities

in inquiry-based learning curricula.

Smith (2013) Inquiry- Based Learning(IBL) is a pedagogy which best

enables students to experience the processes of knowledge creation and the key
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attributes are learning stimulated by inquiry, a student-centered approach, a move

to self-directed learning, and an active approach to learning. Students should

develop research skills and become life-long learners.

Inquiry- Based Learning (IBL) is primarily a pedagogical method, developed

during the discovery learning movement of the 1960’s as a response to traditional

forms of instruction where people were required to memorize information from

instructional materials.

The philosophy of Inquiry- Based Learning (IBL) finds its antecedents in

constructivist learning theories, such as the work of Piaget, Dewey, Vygotsky, and

Fiere among others, and can be considered as constructivist philosophy. IBL can

be conducted through experiential learning because inquiry values the same

concepts, which include engaging with content/ material in questioning, as well as

investigating and collaborating to make meaning.

Preston (2015) the value of Inquiry- Based Learning (IBL) have long been

recognized in school of education and there growing evidence of efficacy, and

movement towards inquiry approach in higher education, undergraduate courses.

Often, associated with the work of Dewey (1938) and Bruner (1966) and

constructivists learning theory, inquiry-based learning is community described an

interactive, student-driven process, where knowledge is constructed rather than

transmitted.

The Inquiry- Based Learning (IBL) features strongly in the new Australian

Humanities and Social Sciences curriculum and is supported by various models in


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an array of humanities teacher’s education textbooks. Yet, while inquiry has a long

history and currently endorsed in the national curriculum, there is remarkably little

research into use in the humanities, particularly in the primary school context.

According to the study of Lazares (2010). She further defined inquiry- based

learning as the active, persistent, and careful consideration or supposed form of

knowledge. She further explains that any belief occurs through inquiry process:

reason, inference and generalizations. Furthermore, she described the inquiry-

based learning as a strategy in teaching to let the students solve a problems and

answer questions by themselves and maintaining the curiosity and involves

students in activities that require a higher level of cognitive effort and skills.

Additionally, in this study she stated that the inquiry- based lessons is under a

cooperative learning environment which implies that the students can improve their

cognitive thinking skills through help of others and developing the essentials

question through collaborating opinions.

According to the study of Mawirat (2010). She defined Inquiry- based learning

as related to the hands-on learning, minds-on investigation learning. The teacher

leads student in discovery of a certain concept or relationship by posing a series of

“ What happen if….? Questions. She explain that through this type of questions the

discussion will be on the student- centered to develop the critical thinking skills and

higher order thinking skills of students.

Not all the research on specific approaches to inquiry learning has been

positive. It is important to respond to detractors of these approaches to learning


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that often portray inquiry as unstructured, leading to what Barron called “doing for

the sake of doing” (as cited in Barron & Darling-Hammond 2008). They said that

the outcome of inquiry based learning is not always positive and it is important that

we respond to the effectiveness of inquiry based learning this approaches is

unplanned it can happen. Moreover, inquiry based learning can be used

unexpectedly because we often use the questioning technique.

According to Barron and Darling-Hammond (2008), problem- based learning

involves students working in small groups to identifying what they need to know in

order to solve the problem, and coming up with strategies for solutions”. Unlike

many textbook word problems commonly found in math, these problems are

realistic in that they are ill-structured, offering the possibility of multiple solutions

and methods to solve the problem.

Dan Meyer(2010), a prominent advocate of this approach, used a problem

from a textbook that asked students to find the surface area and volume of a water

tank. He highlighted the difference between traditional approaches to mathematical

problem solving and authentic problem-based approaches to mathematics. In the

first instance students were presented a drawing of a water tank, all the dimensions

they needed to solve the problem were provided, and solving the problem required

a series of sequential steps.

In contrast, as shown in a video Meyer (2010) posted online, a more

authentically approach to this problem demonstrated an actual water tank being


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filled up with a garden hose. In this instance students were not provided with any of

the dimensions of the water tank. Students had to decide what information was

needed to solve the problem and how they could find the answers. Students were

encouraged to discuss possible solutions with their peers and work with the

teacher in a dialogical environment where the teacher recorded possible

hypotheses on the board .Overall, the impact of problem-based learning has been

positive.

As Friesen (2012) notes, inquiry involves a spirit of investigation always linked

to a particular topic or field of study. Consequently, inquiry moves away from a

purely teacher- or student-centered approach to a form of learning that takes its

cue from what the field of study requires of those coming to know it. As they pose

guiding questions, problems, or tasks that professionals in the field would

recognize as important, students and teachers work and learn from experts to

develop responses and performances of learning that are meaningful,

sophisticated, and powerful. A powerful question should be significant to the

discipline and connects students to the world beyond the school while also

honoring the outcomes within the program of the study. Teachers should have a

number of sources to support in designing inquiry projects.

By encouraging students and teachers to respond to questions that call for

ethical engagement,

According to Heyer’s (2009) through line notion seeks to interconnect program

goals, objectives, and specific outcomes for lessons, units, and courses by
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asking relevant and provocative questions about issues of concern that

meaningfully

connect students with the world in which they live. Further, the through line

approach

helps students and teachers better understand how current conditions came to be.

They explore the ways in which current sense-making practices constrain individual

and collective agency to imagine and shape the future.

Wiggins & McTighe ( 2008) The inquiry strategies all seek to foster subject-

matter understanding and impart disciplinary means and processes. However, they

differ in their approach and pedagogical focus. Critical questions allow students to

structure their inquiry to demonstrate their understanding of ideas, concepts and

content in the curriculum. For Case and Wright (1997), an inquiry question

becomes a critical question if it requires students to make reasoned judgment

among options, use criteria to make that judgments and connect to outcomes in the

core of the curriculum.

Guven & Duman (2007) designed a study “to determine the effectiveness of an

inquiry based program delivered for students with mild mental disabilities (aged 6

-7 years) over a six day period. The total duration of the project was two and half

weeks. This short study had positive results with the data indicating “that inquiry

based learning was effective for children with mild mental disabilities as all stages.

However, this was a very small study using sevens objects who attended a special

class for students with disabilities, conducted over a short period.


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Newman (2009) conducted a large study evaluating elementary, middle,

and high schools that had implemented authentic pedagogy and authentic

academic

performance approaches in their mathematics and social studies classrooms. They

sought to determine to what extent student achievement improved in schools with

high levels of authentic pedagogy involving higher-order thinking, deep-knowledge

approaches, and connections to the world beyond the classroom.

‘The research team observed 504 lessons, analyzed 234 assessment tasks,

and systematically sampled student work. The researchers found that

environments with high levels of authentic pedagogy led to higher academic

achievement among all students. They concluded that differences between high-

and low-performing students greatly decreased when students who were normally

low-achieving were offered authentic pedagogy and assessments. In another study

examining 2,128 students in 23 schools in Chicago, Newman (2010) found that

students instructed in mathematics and writing organized around more authentic

work made higher-than-normal gains on standardized tests.

They defined authentic intellectual work as follows: Authentic intellectual work

involves original application of knowledge and skills, rather than just routine use of

facts and procedures. It also entails disciplined inquiry into the details of a

particular problem and results in a product or presentation that has meaning or

value beyond success in school.


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In conclusion of Smith (2008) according to her study that the Inquiry based

learning is a pedagogy which best enables students to experience the processes of

knowledge creation. The key attributes include learning stimulated by inquiry, a

student or learning- centered approach in which the role of the teacher is to act as

a facilitator, a move to self- directed learning, and an active approach to learning.

She also state that students should develop research skills and be prepared for

lifelong learning.

Furthermore, is an enticing and convincing pedagogy that offers a way for

teaching and research to be strongly integrated to the benefit of all stakeholders.

The research on learning styles gives rise to caution, as many students may be

uncomfortable with inquiry based learning and thus need adequate support to

make inquiry based effective in students. Inquiry based learning were presented

showing that the approach is applicable in all disciplines and scenario at all stages

of higher education it can be range from more structured and guided activities,

particularly at lower levels, through to independent research at advanced levels.

Additionally, it can be occurring at a range of scales within the curriculum from

discrete activity through to the design principle for the whole degree. Moreover,

even though there is lack of such studies for inquiry based learning activities

there’s a studies that all occur in inquiry based learning producing improved

student learning in terms of student engagement, academic achievement and

higher order learning outcomes. Inquiry based through integration of this studies as

a strategy increases enjoyment and interaction with the students.


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Other studies optimal to compare the Inquiry- based learning for how the

experience has changed the perceptions of the researcher and students’ abilities.

For example, Houlden (2009), examined a medical students’ perception of an

undergraduate research elective. They found that the inquiry based learning

elective resulted in students being more confident in their ability to pursue a

research career as well as more interested in such an option.

Some studies compare the learning outcomes of students taking an inquiry

based learning version with those students taking a more traditional course.

According to Berg (2009) compared the learning outcomes of an open-inquiry

and an expository version of a year chemistry laboratory experiment. The students’

experiences two approaches were gained from interviews, questions during the

experiment of self-evaluations. The key findings of this study were that students

taking the open-inquiry experiment version had more positive outcomes including a

deeper understanding, higher degree of perception, the achievement of higher

order learning and more motivation.

Justice (2007) used five years of data to examine whether taking a first year

Inquiry based learning course made a difference in students’ learning and

performance. in a comparative between students taking an inquiry based learning

course and those who did not, and, taking into consideration factors such as age,

gender, high school grade point averages etc., they found that students who took

the inquiry course had statistically significant positive gains in passing grades,

achieving honor’s and remaining in the universities.


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Several of the studies seek to determine whether technology is effective in

assisting learning in inquiry based learning courses. Most studies in the literature

begin by issue defining Inquiry based learning and then go on to describe how IBL

is implemented in their course of program.

Many studies also undertake some form of evaluation elicit feedback from

students and/or teachers. However, often this feedback is anecdotal, rather than

systematic attempt to triangulate evidence regarding the success or otherwise, of

the approach. Contrary to the commonly held belief that Inquiry based learning

courses are best suited to more advanced student.

According to Dr. Sabine Little (2010), this section is looking at the impact of

IBL may have had on the way student engaged with their learning on a variety of

levels. Changes made as part of some projects impacted on the way students

learn, and the way they thought their studies. From the students perspective the

approach employed in this module has definitely enhanced their skills as

researchers and has afforded their leverage to carry out research in an organized

fashion. Having been engaged in a research assignment they boosted their

confidence and self-worth to continue finding answers to issues and problems

plaguing the education system. IBL has helped them to see themselves a part of a

professional community, rather than on the outside, looking in. this small but

significant shift appears to have had, in and of itself, a great impact on how

students experienced the projects, and, as a result, their attitudes toward others.

Moreover, the teaching of IBL had an impact on the students, to open their minds to
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involve in a critical teaching and design their experiences through giving their own

perspective and depend their own understanding.

In the study of Panaoura (2013), he used the Inquiry based learning by using

history of mathematics in a case study he further explain the IBL as teaching

approach ion mathematics education it is supposed to promote the engagement

and ownership and a “human view” of science as knowledge in the making.

Moreover, it requires teachers to use pedagogical methods which actively

participate the students in developing their conceptual understanding of

mathematical concepts. Chin and Lin (2013), claim that there obstacles and

difficulties such as: (1) teachers did not experience inquiry based learning in

mathematics in their own school years, (2) they do not have complete

understanding of the inquiry-based teaching, (3) there are practical constraints

such as that the allocated teaching hours are not enough, (4) the influence of

teaching for success in test.

Mathematics Achievement

When we compared with the traditional teacher-centered method of teaching,

the inquiry-based teaching method is seen as more effective in increasing overall

achievement by encouraging students to discover new information and fostering

their critical-thinking skills (Köksal, 2008; Blanchard et al., 2010). Moreover, based

on the fact that some inquiry-based learning environments differ from traditional
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learning environments, Llewellyn (2002) defined inquiry-based learning

environments as primarily student-centered and interactive.

Synthesis and Relevance of the Related Literature and Studies

This study made use of a pre-test and post-test how the study effect the

students’ achievement in Mathematics as a teaching- learning tool in evaluating

selected lessons in Grade 8 Mathematics.

The studies done by Lazares (2010), Mawirat (2010) made use of similar

strategies but were applied in solving a word problem in Mathematics concept.

This is one of the gaps that this research would like to fill in. This study would

answer questions about the strength and capability of such strategy in other areas

of learning such as Mathematics.

Additionally, by letting the students to solve problems and answer a problem

by themselves that can maintain their curiosity and involving in a higher order level

cognitive skills. Not only in solving word problems, they will also improve their

critical thinking skills on how they will discover the concept of a specific lesson, so

that, they will now improve their achievement in different areas in Mathematics.

Furthermore, the nature of the present study is similar to those of Mawirat

(2010), Lazares (2010), Friesen (2012), Meyer (2010), Newman (2009) and Smith

(2008) in a manner that the teaching strategy is another way of learning which is

the inquiry- based learning. Their studies, including the present one, attempted to

look at its effect on students’ achievement. Nevertheless, it is only this study

dealing the own perspective of the students and their capability to stand in their
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own beliefs by asking a questions and answering questions. Moreover, none of the

above literature considered using the pre-test and post-test as they learning tool in

Mathematics. This study opened the minds on achievement in Mathematics with

respect to their own perspective and beliefs as they were exposed to Inquiry-

Based Learning.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter concentrates on the discussion of the research methodology and

other pertinent procedures needed in conducting the study. Specifically, it explains

the method of research, the population, sample size, and sampling techniques, the

description of respondents, the data gathering instruments and procedures, and

the statistical treatment of data employed in the study.

Method of Research

. This study utilized a quasi – experimental research that employed a pre- test

and post- test presented below:

Where, is the pre- test for the control groups,


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is the pre- test for the experimental groups,

is the treatment (use of Inquiry- Based Learning)

is the post- test for the control, and

is the post- test for the experimental group

The absence of “ ” in the control group indicates non- treatment or non- use

of the Inquiry- Based Learning.

The study was considered to be a quasi- experimental research because the

respondents of the groups were not randomly chosen. According to Clause (2015)

the respondents of a quasi- experimental design are not randomly assigned to

experimental groups they have an equal chance of being designed to any condition

of the independent variable. Quasi- experiments are employed when the

researchers is interested in independent variables that cannot be randomly

assigned. Usually this happens when the independent variable in question is

something that is an innate characteristic of respondents involved.

For Howard (2014) in his briefly description the quasi- experimental is the

programme or policy is viewed as an “intervention” in which treatment- comprising

the elements of the policy being evaluated is tested for how well it achieves its

objectives, as measured by a pre-specified set of indicators.

A quasi- experimental design by definition lacks random assignment.

However, assignment to conditions (treatment versus no treatment or comparison)


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is by means self-selection. Furthermore, he identifies the quasi-experimental as a

comparison group that is as similar as possible to the treatment group in terms of

baseline (pre-intervention) characteristics.

Population, Sample Size and Sampling Technique

In this research two sections took the pre-test based on their scores. The

sections that get the highest score underwent Inquiry-Based Learning, this is the

experimental group. On the other hand, the control group was taught in traditional

teaching. The respondents of this study were the two section of Grade 8 students

from Maria Clara High School which is not randomly selected. The respondents are

the (70) Grade 8 students divided into two sections having equal number of

students.

Description of Respondents

A total of 70 Grade 8 students from Maria Clara High School were the

respondents of the study. The students were described according to their

demographic profile such as sex male and female.

However, of the 37 students in the experimental group, 35 participated in the

actual experiment. The basis for excluding 2 members of the class is their low

scores in pre- test that the researchers were taken.

Research Instrument
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In order to obtain the needed data for this research, the following instrument

were used:

1. Achievement Test in Mathematics

A researcher made a pre- testing and post- testing in Mathematics was used to

measure students’ achievement before and after instructions. The test was

composed of 30 items in multiple- choice format. The same instrument was used in

the post- testing but the researcher intermix the pre- testing to serve as post-

testing to be able to know if the two groups understand and analyze the test.

Development of the Instrument- The researcher carefully constructed 30 items

to be included in the initial draft of the instrument with the guide of table of

specifications. The table of specifications used in drafting the test can be seen in

Appendix F. The test comprehensively covered topics taken from Rational

Algebraic Expressions to Rational Equations the specific topic which were tested in

this instrument are rational algebraic expressions, simplifying rational, algebraic

expressions, multiplying rational algebraic expressions, dividing rational algebraic

expressions, adding rational algebraic expressions, subtracting rational algebraic

expressions, finding least common denominator, solving rational equations

Validity- To establish content validity of the instrument, the initial draft was

presented to three Mathematics experts. They were given a checklist to evaluate

the content and appropriateness of the instrument. This validity sheet appears in

Appendix H.
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Data interpretation- to interpret the data obtained from this instrument, range of

values with equal size was constructed as shown below.

Mean Score Descriptive Meaning

0.00-6.00 Poor

6.01-12.00 Fair

12.01-18.00 Satisfactory

18.01-24.00 Very Satisfactory

24.01-30.00 Outstanding

Data-Gathering Procedure

The data gathering procedure was divided into two phases namely the

preliminary phase and the actual phase. In both phases, the researcher

guaranteed. Rest assured that all the data were acquired throughout the research

study will be treated in full confidentiality by assuring that only the researchers had

access on such data. The following phases were described as follows:

Preliminary Phase

During this phase, the researchers gathered all the needed data prior to the

conduct of the actual experiment. The procedures involved were the following:

The researchers secured a permit to conduct the study in their chosen school. This

was done by a writing a letter asking for permission from the authorities. Copies of

these letters appear in Appendix I.


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The researchers also conduct a pre- testing and post- testing of the Grade 8

Mathematics students to be used in determining the students’ mathematical ability.

1. The researchers presented an instructional plan for the experimental and

control group wherein were validated to three Mathematics Expert.

2. The researchers presented a table of specification with a validation of the three

Mathematics Expert.

Actual Phase

During this phase, the researcher gathered all the needed data during the

experiment proper. The stages of this phase were explained below:

A. Pre- experimental Stage

The respondents from the control and experimental group took the pre-

testing and post- testing. The test results gave the information about their

achievements before they were exposed for different strategies. These tests were

allocated during the Math classes of one of the researchers as a student teacher of

the said school for two weeks.

B. Experimental Stage

This is the stage where the two groups were taught using Inquiry- Based

Learning (IBL) for the experimental group and Traditional method in the control

group. Separate instructional plans were prepared for experimental group and

control groups but have the same topic. The sample copies of the instructional

plans for the control and experimental groups can be seen in Appendices A and B
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respectively. Using the checklist in Appendix C, the instructional plans were

validated by three experts in the field of Education whose profiles appear in

Appendix D. The worksheets designed for the students who were exposed to the

treatment is included in the lesson plans.

To ensure that the planned flow of the execution of the lesson is achieved, the

critic teacher conducted regular observations to the researcher. This is done to

minimize variation in teaching style, level of competence and length of teaching

experience. The instructional materials and activities were prepared before the

study.

Teaching the Control Group. A set of separated instructional plans was used

in control group the students were not exposed in Inquiry- Based Learning. Instead,

the students were taught in Traditional method were the teacher use the learning

Module of Grade 8 Mathematics. The classes in control group start with the daily

routine, motivational activity as a usual teaching inside the classroom.

Teaching the Experimental Group. A set of validated instructional plans was

used in delivering the lessons covered in the experiment to the experimental group.

The parts of these instructional plans are carefully performed to ensure proper

implementation of the treatment of the study. The class begins with the usual

routine of monitoring attendance, checking of assignment, and an open activity.

The opening activity will be the discovery of the concept of the topic.

C. Post- experimental Stage


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The students conceptual understanding was determined through post-testing,

the post- test were administered in the end of execution of the lessons in

Mathematics in two weeks. These were determined to know the effect of the study

to the students Mathematics achievement.

Statistical Treatment of Data

To interpret the gathered data, the researchers will use the following:

1. Percentage, arithmetic mean to described the average scores of the two

groups.

2. T-test for dependent samples- this was used to determine if there is any

significant difference between the performance (Pre-test and Post-test) of the

students in the Experimental and Control Group.

3. T-test for independent samples- this test was utilized to find out if there is

any significant difference between the performance (1) pre- test of the control and

experimental group (2) post- test of the control and experimental group.

All the statistical tool were performed through the use of computer software

known as Microsoft Excel 2010. The statistical output obtained from Microsoft

Excel 2010 is seen in Appendix K.


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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of the

data obtained from the respondents of the study. The result of the study were

presented, organized, analyzed, and discussed as follows to meet the objectives of

the study.

Problem number 1: What are the mean pre-test and post-test scores of the

students in the control and experimental groups?

The table below shows the summary of the mean pre- test and post- test

scores of the students of the experimental and control groups.

Table 1
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Mean scores of Pre-test and Post-test of the Control and Experimental groups

Mean
Group Test Mean Standard Descriptive Gains in
Deviation Meaning Scores

Pre-test 14.228 5.140 Satisfactory


Post-test 16.571 3.301 Satisfactory 2.343
Control
Pre-test 10.629 4.766 Fair
Post-test 13.486 4.032 Satisfactory 2.857
Experimental

Table 3 shows the mean scores of Control group before and after the

experiment of the study Pre-test is 14.228 wherein the result of Pre-test is less than

the result of Post-test which is 16.571 . However, the Experimental group before

and after the experiment the result of Pre-test is 10.629 which is less than the

result of Post-test which is 13.486. The Mathematics achievement of the students

in the control group have remained to be in the satisfactory level while in the

experimental group, the pre-test is in the fair level and the post-test is in the

satisfactory level. At the same time, improvements in their mean scores after the

intervention are remarkable through the mean gain in scores. The control group

posed a mean gain of 2.343 which is less than the mean gain in scores of the

experimental group who gain 2.857.


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Problem number 2: Is there a significant difference between the pre-test scores

of the control and experimental groups?

The researcher performed t-test for independent sample means and the result

of this test shown in Table 2

Table 2

Difference between the Pre-test scores of the Control and Experimental

Groups

Group Mean Standard Mean t-value critical- Decision

Deviation Difference value

Control 14.2286 5.1397 Reject

3.6 3.039 1.995

Experimental 10.6286 4.7655

Table 4 above shows the computed t- value, which was 3.039, greater than

the critical value that is 1.995(p<0.05). So it follows that at 0.05 level of

significance, the null hypothesis was rejected. Thus, there is a significant difference

between pre- test scores of the control and experimental groups. This only proves

that before the two groups were exposed to the intervention, they have different

level of achievement.
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Problem number 3: Is there a significant difference between the pre-test and

post-test scores of the: (a) Control group (b) Experimental group?

The table below shows the significance difference of the mean of the pre-test

and post-test of the control group.

Table 3

Difference between the pre- test and post-test scores of the Control Group

Test Mean Standard Mean t-value critical- Decision

Deviation Difference value

Pre-test 14.2286

4.4474 2.3455 4.6060 2.0322 Reject

Post- test 16.5714

Table 3 reveals, that the t-value is 4.6060, which is greater than the critical

value 2.0322 (p>0.05). This implies that the null hypothesis was rejected at 0.05

level of significance. Therefore, the increase in their achievement test scores is

statistically significant, and the researchers conclude that there is a significant

difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of control group after

experimentation. This implies that learning occurred when students were taught

through the use of Traditional Method; still they are learned and it have significant

change in their achievement before and after using the method. In particular, it
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signifies that the students who expose in Traditional method will develop their

Mathematics achievement.

Similarly, Table 4 below presents the results of the same test for the

experimental group.

Table 4

Difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the Experimental

Group

Test Mean Standard Mean t-value critical- Decision

Deviation Difference value

Pre-test 10.6286

4.6121 2.8571 3.6176 2.0322 Reject


Post-test 13.4857

As shown in Table 4, the t- value is 3.6176 is greater than the critical value

which is 2.0322 (p>0.05). This implies that at 0.05 level of significance, the null

hypothesis was rejected. Hence, the researchers conclude that there is a

significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental

group after they were exposed to the intervention. This implies that the students

were taught using the Inquiry- Based Learning improved their Mathematics

achievement as it impacts a significant change in their achievement before and


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after the intervention. As a result, the use of Inquiry- Based Learning will develop

their critical thinking skills and by using higher order thinking skills in solving Math

problems and equations.

Problem number 4: Is there a significant difference between the post-test scores

of the control group and experimental group?

The table below compares the achievements of the experimental group and

control group after the intervention; t-test for independent sample means was

employed.

Table 5

Difference between the Post-test scores of the Control and Experimental

Groups

Group Mean Standard Mean t-value critical- Decision

Deviation Difference value

Control 16.5714 3.3013

3.0857 3.5301 1.997 Reject


Experimental 13.4857 4.032

The t-test yields a t-value of 3.5301, which is greater than the critical- value of

1.997 (p<0.05). This means that the null hypothesis was rejected. Hence, there is a

significant difference between the post- test scores of the experimental and control
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groups. The result implies that students who were exposed to the use of the

Inquiry- Based Learning performed better than those who were taught using the

Traditional method in terms of their Mathematics achievement test scores. This

goes to show that the Inquiry- Based Learning, when used as an instructional

method, can effectively help the students in getting the higher mathematical

achievement. Specifically, the result obtained the critical thinking skills, perspective

and curiosity of the students with help of the study.

This is also evident as it was said by Meyer (2010) in the article he used a

problem from a textbook that asked students to find the surface area of a water

tank. He highlighted the difference between traditional approaches to the

mathematical problem solving using the inquiry- based learning. In his study he

finds out that the Inquiry-Based Learning has a positive impact to the students

Mathematics achievement.

According to Guven & Duman (2007). Designed a study to determine the

effectiveness of an inquiry- based learning delivered for students with mild mental

disabilities. They short study had a positive results with the data indicating that

inquiry- based learning was effective for children with mild mental disabilities as all

stages. However, this was a very small study still the result has a positive impact.

Berg (2009) His respondents experiences two approaches were gained from

interviews, questions during the experiment of self- evaluation. The findings of his

study using in the chemistry laboratory experiment the Inquiry- Based Learning had

more positive outcomes. Justice (2007) he compare between students taking an


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Inquiry- Based Learning and those who did not undergo the study. He find out that

the students who exposed in Inquiry- Based Learning had statistically significant

positive in gaining their Mathematics achievement.


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Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter comprises a discussion of the summary of findings and the

conclusions gather from them. It also presents the recommendation based on the

results of the study.

Summary

The study was conducted to determine the effect of using Inquiry- Based

Learning on Mathematics achievement. Specifically, it sought answers to the

following questions: (1) What are the mean pre-test and post-test scores of the

students in the control and experimental groups?; (2) Is there a significant

difference between the pre-test scores of the control and experimental groups?;(3)

Is there a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the: (a)

Control group (b) Experimental group?;(4) Is there a significant difference between

the post-test scores of the control group and experimental group?.

It is a quasi- experimental research that employed pre-test and post-test

design. During the experimentation, the study made use of two entire Grade 8

classes of Maria Clara High School in teaching the topics designated for the

second grading period of the school year 2017-2018. The classes which served as

the respondents of this research were intentionally selected on the equivalence of

their mathematical abilities as reflected from their pre- test scores before executing
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the experiment. The experimental group was exposed to the use of Inquiry- Based

Learning; while the control group was taught using the Traditional Method.

The main instruments were prepared as data gathering tools for this research.

These are the researcher made pre- test and post- test where the researchers

intermix the question of the pre- test to serve as a post-test in Mathematics.

Separate instructional plans for experimental and control groups were also prepared.

They were presented to experts for validation before they were used as teaching

plans for the two groups. Also, pre- test and post- test underwent validity test.

For ethical reasons, students’ willingness to participate in the study was

informed in their teachers and principal of the school. It was assured that all the data

will acquire throughout the research study will be treated in full confidentiality. After

all the needed data were gathered, they were treated, analyzed, and interpreted to

give answers to the specific problems raised in the study.

Findings of the Study

The following were the findings obtained in this study:

1. The students from the both experimental and control groups registered a

satisfactory level achievement in the pre-test and post-test given to them.

2. The students were taught with the use of Inquiry- Based Learning performed

better than those who were taught using the Traditional method in terms of their

post-test scores. Also, this implies that the learning process of the students

exposed in Inquiry- Based Learning and Traditional method in their pre-test and
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post- test significantly affect their Mathematics achievement and has an impact

even when their exposed in Inquiry- Based Learning and Traditional method.

3. The students who were exposed to the Inquiry- Based Learning and Traditional

method fairly developed answering the pre- test and post-test of the control and

experimental group.

Conclusion

Based on the above findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. The students in both experimental and control groups develop their critical

thinking skills and discovery learning when they solve Mathematical problems

and equations.

2. The use of Inquiry- Based Learning in a classroom environment is better to

improve the Mathematics achievement of the students rather than in using

Traditional method.

3. Inquiry- Based Learning gives a good experience for students to discover the

concepts and improve their art of questioning on their own.

Recommendation

Based on the mentioned findings and conclusions of the study, the

researchers recommend the following:


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1. It is suggested that Mathematics supervisors, school administrators, department

heads and coordinators may conduct seminars about Inquiry- Based Learning

on Mathematics Achievement to enhance their skills.

2. Mathematics and Science teachers may adapt the use of Inquiry- Based

Learning as a teaching method to raise higher achievement rather than using

the traditional method.

3. Parallel studies can be made by future researchers to validate the findings of

this study. These studies may be done with other subjects and grade levels, in a

longer time frame, or may include other variables such as learning style and

others that they want to discover.

Appendices

Appendix A
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Control Group
(Instructional Plan)

I. Objectives
At the end of 60 minute period, at least 75% of students with 60% of
proficiency should be able to:
A. Define rational equation
B. Identify the steps in solving rational equation
C. Solve rational equation

II. Subject Matter


A. Topic: Solving rational equation
B. Reference: Nivera, G. (2014) Grade 8 Mathematics Patterns and
Practicalities, Makati City: Salesiana BOOKS, pp. 118-122
C. Materials: Cartolina, Marker, Flashcards
III. Procedure:
A. Preparatory Activities
1. Prayer
2. Greetings
3. Checking of attendance
B. Motivation
The students will form a group consist of 3 members. Then
each member of the group will find the LCD shows in the flash cards.
The group who got the highest points will be the winner.

1. , 5. ,

2. x+ 2 , 6.

3. 7.

4. 8. ,

C. Lesson Proper
Concept:
An equation that contains one or more rational expressions is called
RATIONAL EQUATION.
Steps in solving Rational Equation
1. Find the LCD of all denominators
2. Multiply each form of the equation by the LCD
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3. Simplify and solve for the value x.


4. Check your solution. If the value makes the denominator
equal to zero, there is no solution, such false solution is called
extraneous roots.
Example 1:

Solve:
The LCD of 5, 4, and 2 is 20 multiply the equation by 20

20
4x + 5 = 10x
5 = 6x

Example 2:

Solve: The LCD is y – 1

(y – 1) Multiply the equation by the LCD

y+3=4
y=1

Check: Substitute 1 to y and simplify

Division by 0 is undefined

D. Application
Solve the ff. rational equations
1. 3.

2. 4.
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E. Generalization
What is rational equation?
How do you solve rational equation? State the steps.
F. Values Integration
What is your favorite photography and tell a story behind the
photo.
But life is not like a still photography, like time, it keeps moving
forward most each day that we live. “Carpe Diem”

IV. Evaluation
Solve the following rational equation.

1. 4.

2. 5.

3.

V. Assignment:

Solve for x.

1.

2.
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Appendix B

Experimental Group
(Instructional Plan)
I. Objectives
At the end of 60 minute period, at least 75% of students with 60% of
proficiency should be able to:
A. Define Rational Equation
B. Solve rational equations
C. Develop accuracy in solving rational equations

ll.Subject Matter
A .Topic: Solving rational equation
B. References: Nivera, G.(2014) Grade 8 Mathematics Patterns
and Practicalities, Makati City: Salesiana BOOKS,pp. 118-122
C. Materials: Cartolina, Marker, Picture

Activity sheet (see attached), Scissors, glue


lll.Procedure:
A.Preparatory Activities
1. Prayer
2. Greetings
3. Checking of Attendance
B. Motivation

How can you say that the expression is rational algebraic expression?
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Matthew goes on a trip with his friends


to capture the beautiful creation of
God. They hike the Mt. Arayat and he
saw a beautiful girl who captures his
heart.

Then, let’s help Matthew know what


his distance from the girl is.

Suppose a lens has a focal length of 36 millimeter, how far must the
girl from the lens be if the distance from the lens to the image is 90mm?
Do you have any idea how far the distance of the girl from the lens of the
camera? Anyone can guess?

C. Lesson Proper
The focal length f of a lens in a close-up photography is given by the
formula

Where: is the distance from the object to the lens

is the distance from the lens to the image

Anyone can give the given of the problem?

Solution:

Given: f=36mm

d1 = _________
d2 = 90mm

By substituting the values to the formula


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What do you noticed about the equation?

LCD: 180d multiplying both sides of the equation by LCD(180d)

180d

Therefore, the distance of the girl from the lens must be 60mm.

Concept:
An equation that contains one or more rational expressions is called
RATIONAL EQUATION.
What is the difference between rational algebraic expression and rational
equation?
Steps:
1.Find the LCD of all denominators.
2.Multiply each term of the equation by LCD.
3.Simplify and solve for the value of x.
4.Check your solutions. If the value makes the denominator equal to zero,
there is no solution, such false solution is called extraneous root.

Example 1:

Solve:
The LCD of 5, 4, and 2 is 20 multiply the equation by 20

20
4x + 5 = 10x
5 = 6x
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Example 2:

Solve: The LCD is y – 1

(y – 1) Multiply the equation by the LCD

y+3=4
y=1

Check: Substitute 1 to y and simplify

Division by 0 is undefined

D. Application
An air force plane flies at a speed that is 30 kilometers per hour
faster that a cargo plane. The air force plane flies 500km in the
Amount of time that the cargo plane flies 440km. Find the speed of
each plane.

E. Generalization

What is rational equation?


How do you solve rational equation? State the steps.
Why is it important to check your solution, when you solve an
equation?

F. Value Integration

What is your favorite photography and tell a story behind the photo.

But life is not like a still photography, like time, it keeps moving forward
most each day that we live. “ Carpe Diem”

IV. Evaluation
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Description of how to use the activity:


1. Make a copy of the octahedron activity sheets found on the following pageand
distribute to each student/group in the class. Suggestion: Copies should be
made on cardstock.
2. Have students solve each problem and write the number of the problem on
the flap that has the correct solution(s).
3. Have students cut out the circles.
4. Fold the flaps.
5.Glue the flap containing the problem to the flap containing the correct solution.

V. Assignment

Solve for X.

1. 2.
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Appendix C

Checklist on the Validity


of the ”Instructional Plans in Grade 10 Mathematics
for the Experimental Group”

Name:____________________________ Date: ______________

Your responses on this checklist will be of great help in checking the validity of the
instructional plans in Grade 10 Mathematics and PSM-based worksheets which will be used
in the execution of the lessons in the experimental group during the intervention stage of an
on-going quasi - experimental research. Kindly read and rate each statement below based on
the following rating scale. Put a check mark (ü) on the appropriate box provided below.

5 – Strongly Agree
4 – Agree
3 – Neutral
2 – Disagree
1 – Strongly Disagree

STATEMENTS 5 4 3 2 1
1. The objectives are clear, specific, and appropriate.
2. The objectives are aligned with the assessment
procedures (e.g. quizzes, groupwork, seatwork, etc.)
used in the instructional plan.
3. The plans generally follow a consistent, neat, and
orderly format.
4. The flow of the lesson is well-presented in each of
the instructional plans.
5. The plans contain relevant and suited activities for
the students.
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6. The plans strongly manifest the use of both the


Problem Solving Maps (PSM) and Cooperative
Learning.
7. The plans are fit to the objective of the research and
are evident of what it needs to convey.
8. The worksheets included in the instructional plans
are correct, appropriate, and well-written.
9. The worksheets provide an opportunity for
developing critical thinking and inductive reasoning
skills.
10. The worksheets have the power to facilitate on
discovery and learning among students in a
cooperative classroom environment.

Comments/Suggestions:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________

General Evaluation on the Instrument: Valid without revisions


Valid with indicated revisions
Invalid

________________
Validator’s Signature
Checklist on the Validity
of the ”Instructional Plans in Grade 10 Mathematics
for the Control Group”
454 GRC BLDG. Rizal Avenue Ext,cor. 9th Avenue
59
Grace Park, Caloocan City

Name:____________________________ Date: ______________

Your responses on this checklist will be of great help in checking the validity of the
instructional plans in Grade 10 Mathematics which will be used in the execution of the
lessons in the control group during the intervention stage of an on-going quasi - experimental
research. Kindly read and rate each statement below based on the following rating scale. Put
a check mark (ü) on the appropriate box provided below.

5 – Strongly Agree
4 – Agree
3 – Neutral
2 – Disagree
1 – Strongly Disagree

STATEMENTS 5 4 3 2 1
1. The objectives are clear, specific, and appropriate.
2. The objectives are aligned with the assessment procedures
(e.g. quizzes, groupwork, seatwork, etc.) used in the
instructional plan.
3. The plans generally follow a consistent, neat, and orderly
format.
4. The flow of the lesson is well-presented in each of the
instructional plans.
5. The plans contain relevant and suited activities for the
students.
6. The plans strongly manifest the use of the strategies
suggested by the DepEd in the K-12 Mathematics curriculum.
7. The plans are fit to the objective of the research and are
evident of what it needs to convey.
8. The activities included in the instructional plans are correct
and appropriate.
9. The activities provide an opportunity for developing critical
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thinking and inductive reasoning skills.


10. The activities have the power to facilitate on discovery and
learning among students.

Comments/Suggestions:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________

General Evaluation on the Instrument: Valid without revisions


Valid with indicated revisions
Invalid

________________
Validator’s Signature

Appendix D

ABOUT THE VALIDATOR:


Name: Miguel G. Blanco
School/s affiliated with: Global Reciprocal Colleges
Professional Designation: Instructor
Years of Teaching Experience: ___________________
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Doctorate Degree (if in progress, indicate the no. of units


earned):_______________
School where the Doctorate degree was obtained: _________________

Year when the Doctorate degree was obtained: ______________

Master’s Degree: _______________________


School where the Master’s degree was obtained: Present ( De la Salle University-
Manila)
Year when the Master’s degree was obtained: Present

Undergraduate Degree: Philippine Normal University


School where the undergraduate degree was obtained: BS Mathematics for
Teachers
Year when the undergraduate degree was obtained: 2011

ABOUT THE VALIDATOR:

Name: Mariflor P. Santos

School/s affiliated with: Maria Clara High School

Professional Designation: Teacher 1

Years of Teaching Experience: ___________________


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Doctorate Degree (if in progress, indicate the no. of units earned): _____________

School where the Doctorate degree was obtained: __________________

Year when the Doctorate degree was obtained: ______________

Master’s Degree: ______________________________

School where the Master’s degree was obtained: _________________

Year when the Master’s degree was obtained: ________

Undergraduate Degree: BSE- Math

School where the undergraduate degree was obtained: Philippine Normal University

Year when the undergraduate degree was obtained: 2001

ABOUT THE VALIDATOR:

Name: Ivory Acebedo

School/s affiliated with: Quezon City Science High School

Professional Designation: Teacher

Years of Teaching Experience: ___________________


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Doctorate Degree (if in progress, indicate the no. of units earned): ______________

School where the Doctorate degree was obtained: ______________________

Year when the Doctorate degree was obtained: ______________

Master’s Degree: CAR (36 units)

School where the Master’s degree was obtained: Philippine Normal University

Year when the Master’s degree was obtained: ________

Undergraduate Degree: BSE- Math

School where the undergraduate degree was obtained: Philippine Normal University

Year when the undergraduate degree was obtained: 2006

Appendix E
PRE-TEST
Mathematics 8

MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the letter of the correct answer. If the answer is
not found in the choices, write the correct answer.

1. Which of the following is NOT a rational algebraic expression?


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a. 4x c.

b. d.

2. What value of X will make the expression be meaningless?


a. 2 c. 3
b. -2 d. -3
3. Which of the following is the rational expression for “the sum of two numbers
divided to their difference”?
a. c.

b. b. + d.

4. The quotient when is divided by will be____.

a. c.

b. d.
5. What is the reduced form:

a. +1 c.
b. –1 d.

6. Find the quotient:

a. c.

b. d.

7. Simplify:

a. c.
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b. d.
8. Which expression is in simplest form?

a. c.

b. d.

9. Find the difference of ?


a. 2 c. 4
b. x – 1 d. x – 2
10. The sum of
a. 10 c. 100a
b. a d. 10a

11. Solve ?

a. c.

b. d.

12. What is the value of x in the equation

a. 12 c. 9
b. 15 d. 10
13. What is the sum of ?

a. c.

b. d.

14. What is the least common denominator of the expressions and ?


a. (x+3)2(x+2) c. (x-3)(x-2)
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b. (x+3)(x+2) d.(x+3)(x-2)

15. Simplify the expression

a. c.

b. d.

16. What must be the value of x to satisfy the equation

a. c.

b. d.

17. Which is the simplest form of if the denominator is not equal to zero?

a. x-4y c.

b. x+4y d.

18 If , then x equal to__.


a. 3 c. -3
b. 8 d.
19 The one-tenth, one-fifth and one half of a number all add up to 40. Find the
number.
a. 40 c. 6
b. 50 d. 30

20 The lowest term of .

a. c.
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b. d.

21. The sum of .

a. 2b c. 5

b. 5b d. 111b

22. What is the value of x in the equation ?

a. 10 c. 9

b. 15 d. 12

23. Find the difference of ?

a. . c. .

b. d. 3x+5

24. What is the least common denominator of the expressions ?

a. (x+1)(1-x) c. (x+1)(x-2)

b. (1+x)(x-1) d. (x+1)(x-1)

25. Solve
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a. 4 c. 2

b. 3 d.1

26. Find the product:

a. c.

b. d.

27. What is the quotient of,

a. c.

b. d.

28. What is the least common denominator of the expressions

a. X+2 c. (x-2) (x-2)


b. X-2 d. (x+2) (x-2)

29. Solve

a. c.

b. d.

30.Find the product of


a. 6ax c. 12ab
b. 6ab d.12ax
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Answer Keys: (Pre- test)


1. C 16. B
2. D 17. D
3. C 18. C
4. B 19. B
5. B 20. C
6. D 21. A
7. A 22. A
8. A 23. B
9. A 24. D
10. B 25. B
11. C 26. D
12. A 27. C
13. D 28. D
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14. A 29. B
15. A 30. A

Appendix F
POST-TEST
Mathematics 8

MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the letter of the correct answer. If the answer is
not found in the choices, write the correct answer.

1. Which of the following is NOT a rational algebraic expression?

a. 4x c.

b. d.

2.What value of X will make the expression be meaningless?


a. 2 c. 3
b.-2 d. -3
3.Which of the following is the rational expression for “the sum of two numbers
divided to their difference”?
a. c.
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b. + d.

4.The quotient when is divided by will be____.

a. c.

b. d.
5.What is the reduced form:

a. +1 c.
b. –1 d.

6.Find the quotient:

a. c.

b. d.

7.Simplify:

a. c.

b. d.
8.Which expression is in simplest form?

a. c.

b. d.

9.Find the difference of ?


a.2 c. 4
b.x – 1 d. x – 2
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10.The sum of
a.10 c. 100a
b. a d. 10a

11.Solve ?

a. c.

b. d.

12.What is the value of x in the equation

a.12 c. 9
b.15 d. 10
13.What is the sum of ?

a. c.

b. d.

14.What is the least common denominator of the expressions and ?


a.(x+3)2(x+2) c. (x-3)(x-2)
b.(x+3)(x+2) d.(x+3)(x-2)

15.Simplify the expression

a. c.

b. d.

16.What must be the value of x to satisfy the equation


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a. c.

b. d.

17.Which is the simplest form of if the denominator is not equal to zero?

a.x-4y c.

b.x+4y d.

18.If , then x equal to__.


a.3 c. -3
b.8 d.
19.The one-tenth, one-fifth and one half of a number all add up to 40. Find the
number.
a.40 c. 6
b.50 d. 30

20.The lowest term of .

a. c.

b. d.

21. The sum of .

a. 2b c. 5

b. 5b d. 111b

22. What is the value of x in the equation ?


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a. 10 c. 9

b. 15 d. 12

23. Find the difference of ?

a. . c. .

b. d. 3x+5

24. What is the least common denominator of the expressions ?

a. (x+1)(1-x) c. (x+1)(x-2)

b. (1+x)(x-1) d. (x+1)(x-1)

25. Solve

a. 4 c. 2

b. 3 d.1

26.Find the product:

a. c.

b. d.
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27.What is the quotient of,

a. c.

b. d.

28.What is the least common denominator of the expressions


a.X+2 c. (x-2) (x-2)
b.X-2 d. (x+2) (x-2)

29. Solve

a. c.

b. d.

30.Find the product of


a.6ax c. 12ab
b.6ab d.12ax
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Answer Keys: (Post- test)


1. C 16. B
2. D 17. D
3. C 18. C
4. B 19. B
5. B 20. C
6. D 21. A
7. A 22. A
8. A 23. B
9. A 24. D
10. B 25. B
11. C 26. D
12. A 27. C
13. D 28. D
14. A 29. B
15. A 30. A
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Appendix G
Checklist on the Validity
of the Research Instrument entitled
“Achievement Test in Grade 10 Mathematics”

Name:____________________________ Date: ______________

Your responses on this checklist will be of great help in checking the validity of the
achievement test (pre-test and post-test) which will be used in determining the level
of achievement of Grade 10 students in Mathematics. Kindly read and rate each
statement below based on the following rating scale. Put a check mark () on the
appropriate box provided below.

5 – Strongly Agree
4 – Agree
3 – Neutral
2 – Disagree
1 – Strongly Disagree

STATEMENTS 5 4 3 2 1
1. The table of specifications is complete.
2. The text used in the questionnaire is readable.
3. The directions are clear, correct, and complete.
4. The items are clear and easy to understand.
5. The items are grammatically correct.
6. The test items are congruent to the learning
objectives.
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7. All the choices/ distracters are plausible.


8. The options are logically arranged.
9. The items make use of appropriate
drawings/illustrations.
10. A good number of items require higher order
thinking skills (HOTS).
11. The items are appropriately written for the level of
the students.
12. The test itself can measure what it intends to
measure.
13. The items are independent from one another.
14. The items are well-distributed as reflected from the
table of specifications.
15. The items are enough to be answered within the
allotted time.

Comments/Suggestions:
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

General Evaluation on the Instrument: Valid without revisions


Valid with indicated revisions
Invalid

________________
Validator’s Signature
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Appendix H

D r. E r m e l i n d a C . F e r r e r
Principal 3
Maria Clara High School
Caloocan City

Dear Mrs. Ferrer;


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Good Day!

The names below are Bachelor 0f Secondary Education Major


in Mathematics students of Global Reciprocal Colleges who
are currently taking their Research 1 in Mathematics and will
be conducting an Experimental Study entitled “THE EFFECT
O F I N Q U I R Y- B A S E D L E A R N I N G T O T H E M AT H E M AT I C A L
ACHIEVEMENT OF GRADE 8 STUDENTS IN MARIA CLARA
HIGH SCHOOL”.
In this regard, the researchers would like to ask your
permission to please allow us to conduct the said research in
your school. We will use selected students in their
Mathematics Class. This will be of great help in making study
possible. Rest assured that all the data we will acquire
throughout the research study will be treated in full
c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y.
We are hoping for your kind consideration and positive
response to our request.
Thank you and God bless us all!

Respectfully yours,

ARIGLO, CHRISTINE ANN A. P O S E D I O , P E R L I TA G .

ROCAFOR, JOHN ROMER R.

Noted:

M r. O L I V E R G . M A R I A N O
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Research Professor

D e a r Te a c h e r s ,

Good Day!
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The undersigned are presently conducting a research study


e n t i t l e d “ T H E E F F E C T O F I N Q U I R Y- B A S E D L E A R N I N G T O
T H E M AT H E M AT I C A L A C H I E V E M E N T O F G R A D E 8 S T U D E N T S
IN MARIA CLARA HIGH SCHOOL”.

Our research group prepared an instructional material to be

P r e - Te s t Post-Test u s e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y. I n
8 12 this connection, may we request you
18 20
to help us validate the instrument
23 22
19 19 particularly on the following
20 22 aspects.
4 11
1. Introduction
14 13
2. Content
19 21
3. Style and Presentation
14 15 4. Evaluation
15 16
16 18 Any comments or suggestions
17 18
14 15 regarding the instrument will be
15 18 highly appreciated. Thank you very
13 13
much.
12 15
16 17
19 19 Researchers,
18 17
10 15
20 22
22 22
ARIGLO, CHRISTINE ANN A.
15 14 P O S E D I O , P E R L I TA G .
10 17
16 15
7 16
19 21 ROCAFOR, JOHN ROMER R.
15 17 Appendix I
10 15
2 10
11 11
11 16
4 14
19 18
13 16
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Control Group Experimental Group

P r e - Te s t Post- Test
10 15
17 22
11 11
17 16
7 9
2 14
10 10
10 12
10 11
15 11
20 18
13 15
23 18
17 15
16 19
10 15
12 19
7 23
6 11
8 12
5 11
3 4
7 8
6 10
10 12
7 16
3 14
11 7
14 10
14 12
9 14
10 14
11 14
11 14
10 16
Appendix J
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t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

control pretest post test


14.2285714 16.5714285
Mean 3 7
26.4168067 10.8991596
Variance 2 6
Observations 35 35
Pearson Correlation 0.83274732
Hypothesized Mean
Difference 0
df 34
-
4.60600621
t Stat 4
P(T<=t) one-tail 2.76811E-05
1.69092425
t Critical one-tail 5
P(T<=t) two-tail 5.53623E-05
2.03224450
t Critical two-tail 9

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

experimental pretest post test


10.6285714 13.4857142
Mean 3 9
22.7109243 16.2571428
Variance 7 6
Observations 35 35
0.44590603
Pearson Correlation 4
Hypothesized Mean
Difference 0
df 34
-
3.61759450
t Stat 4
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0.00047708
P(T<=t) one-tail 8
1.69092425
t Critical one-tail 5
0.00095417
P(T<=t) two-tail 7
2.03224450
t Critical two-tail 9

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances

experimenta
pretest control l
Mean 14.2285714 10.62857143
Variance 26.4168067 22.71092437
Observations 35 35
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
df 68
t Stat 3.03859745
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00168542
t Critical one-tail 1.66757228
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00337084
t Critical two-tail 1.99546893

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances

experimenta
control l
Mean 16.5714286 13.48571429
Variance 10.8991597 16.25714286
Observations 35 35
Hypothesized Mean 0
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Difference
df 65
t Stat 3.50311516
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00041872
t Critical one-tail 1.66863598
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00083745
t Critical two-tail 1.99713791