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# Chapter

4. Which of the following is a correct 8. Which graph supports the hypothesis that
1 Introduction to Physics representation of scientific notation? y is directly proportional to x?
A 3.142 × 10–1.5 C 314.2 × 103 A y
Objective Questions
B 31.42 × 10–2 D 3.142 × 101900
1. Which physical quantity has the correct 5. A tank is needed to hold 125 m3 of
S.I. unit? water. Which tank is most suitable?
A 3.5 m × 4.5 m × 6.0 m tank
Physical quantity S.I. unit B 3.8 m × 2.8 m × 11.5 m tank 0 x
C 4.0 m × 4.2 m × 7.2 m tank B y
A Time Hour
D 4.3 m × 3.6 m × 8.6 m tank
B Mass Newton 6. Which of the following is consistent but
not accurate?
C Length Metre A C
0 x
D Temperature Celsius
C y
2. Which of the following is not a base
quantity?
A Time B D
B Force
C Electric current 0 x
D Length D y
3. 500 kilometres is equivalent to
A 5 × 104 metres 7. Error in measurement due to wrong
B 5 × 105 metres positioning of the eye is known as
C 5 × 106 metres A parallax error. C zero error.
D 5 × 107 metres B technical error. D biological error. 0 x

Subjective Questions (a) Arrange the data in the form of a table. [3 marks]
1. Table 1 shows 3 measurements of various lengths. (b) State the responding variable. [1 mark]
(c) Calculate the average temperature from 6 am to 12 noon.
Measurement P Q R [2 marks]

## Table 1 1. A student carried out an experiment to investigate the

(a) Convert all the measurements into metres and write the relationship between the temperature of a solid when heated and
answer in scientific notation. its mass m. The student used the same immersion heater to heat
(i) P. up the different masses of the solid for the same length of time.
(ii) Q. The initial temperature, θ0, of the solid which is constant and the
(iii) R. [3 marks] final temperature, θ, of the solid after being heated are recorded.
The result of the experiment is shown as a graph of θ against ––1
(b) If the measurements are for that of the thickness of a book, m
the height of a boy and the height of a building, which of in Diagram 1.
the measurements are most likely to correspond to each of (a) Extend the graph until it intersects the θ-axis. This gives the
the items? initial temperature, θ0, of the solid. Write the value of θ0.
(i) P. [2 marks]
(ii) Q. State the relationship between θ and –– . 1
(b)
m [1 mark]
(iii) R. [3 marks]
2. A student carried out an experiment to determine the temperature (c) The specific heat capacity, c, of the solid is given by the
of a garden starting from 6 o’clock in the morning. He took the equation c = 3.6 × 104 where k is the gradient of the graph.
––––––––
k
temperature at intervals of one hour and, starting from 6 am,
the temperatures measured are 25.5°C, 26.5°C, 27.0°C, 28.0°C,
29.0°C, 29.5°C, 31.5°C.

## © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd. TC – 22

θ / °C

(i) 1
40 Calculate the gradient of the graph θ against ––   m.
Show on the graph how you determine the gradient.
38 [3 marks]
(ii) Calculate the value of the specific heat capacity, c, of
36 the solid. [2 marks]
(d) Determine the mass, m, of the heated solid if the final
34 temperature, θ, is 34 oC. Show on the graph how you
determine the value of m. [3 marks]
32 (e) State one precaution that should be taken during this
experiment. [1 mark]
30

28

1
0 –– / kg–1
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 m

Diagram 1
Chapter

## 2 Forces and Motion v A Area, volume and mass

B Speed, velocity and acceleration
Objective Questions C Velocity, acceleration and force
P Q D Time, mass, velocity
1. Which of the following pairs is correct?
8. The diagram shows a piece of paper, an
Scalar Vector iron ball and a paper clip being released
t at the same time in a vacuum cylinder.
quantity quantity O R

## A Mass Weight The momentum of the car is constant

from
B Distance Speed A O to P C Q to R
C Displacement Distance B P to Q D O to R Paper Iron Paper
ball clip
D Velocity Acceleration 5. The diagram shows 4 forces acting on a
block. Vacuum
2. A crane moves to and fro along a 5 m
steel railing. 3N 4N Which observation is correct?
P Q A All the three objects will reach the
5m 4N 2N base at the same time.

What is the resultant force? B All the three objects will remain in
A 0 N their respective positions.
C The iron ball will reach the base
B 1 N to the right
first, followed by the paper clip and
C 1 N to the left
then the piece of paper.
D 13 N
D The iron ball and paper clip will
6. The diagram shows a speedboat reach the base around the same time
decelerating as it is approaching a jetty. but the piece of paper will reach the
What is the average velocity of the crane
if it starts from P and travels to Q and Q base last.
back to P in 10 seconds? 9. A long-jumper lands on a pit filled with
A 0 m s–1 D 1.5 m s-1 loose sand. The loose sand is to
B 0.5 m s –1
E 2.0 m s–1 P R A increase the impulsive force.
C 1.0 m s–1 B increase the stopping time of the
long-jumper.
3. A bus travels at a speed of 80 kilometres
C help the long-jumper to balance his
per hour. What is the distance travelled S
body.
by the bus in 1 hour 15 minutes? Which relationship between the forces P,
10. The work done to stretch a spring to an
A 80 km D 115 km Q, R and S acting on the boat is correct?
extension of 4 cm is 80 J. What is the
B 92 km E 120 km A P > R C Q > S
spring constant of the spring?
C 100 km B P < R D Q < S
A 800 N cm–1 D 1600 N cm–1
4. The diagram shows a velocity-time graph 7. Which of the following lists of physical B 1000 N cm E 2400 N cm–1
–1

for the motion of a car. quantities consists of only vectors? C 1200 N cm–1

## TC – 23 © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Subjective Questions by attaching different loads, F, to the spring and its extension, x
is measured. Diagram 3 shows the F-x graph of the experiment.
1. The length of a swimming pool is 50 m. A swimmer swims to
and fro twice and covers a total distance of 200 m. The total time F/N
taken by the swimmer is 1 minute.
(a) What is the magnitude of his displacement when he 25
completes the swim? [1 mark]
20
(b) (i) Calculate the average speed of the swimmer. [2 marks]
15
(ii) Calculate the average velocity of the swimmer.
[1 mark] 10

s/m 5

35 x / cm

30 Diagram 3

## 25 (a) What is the extension of the spring when the load is 20 N?

[1 mark]
20
(b) Mark the x-axis of the graph for values of x corresponding
15
to the values of F = 5 N, 10 N, 15 N, 20 N and 25 N.
10 [2 marks]
5 (c) The relationship of F and x can be represented by the
t/s equation F = kx. Find the value of k with correct units.
0
2 4 6 8 10 [2 marks]
Diagram 1
Written Practical
(c) Diagram 1 shows the displacement-time graph of the
swimmer during the first 10 seconds. 1. A student carries out an experiment to find out the relationship
(i) What is the distance covered by the swimmer during between the change in pulling force, F, and the displacement,
this time? [1 mark] x, of an elastic band. The arrangement of the apparatus for the
(ii) What is his average velocity during this time? experiment is shown in Diagram 1.
[2 marks]
Nail
2. An astronaut weighs 750 N on Earth where the acceleration of
free fall is 10 m s-2. Elastic
band
(a) (i) What is the mass of the astronaut? [2 marks] FN
(ii) How much will he weigh on Mars where the
x cm
acceleration of free fall is 4 m s-2? [2 marks]
(b) Another astronaut carries out an experiment on the surface Spring balance
of the Moon by dropping a piece of paper and a stone from
the same height at the same time as shown in Diagram 2. He
observed that both the paper and the stone reach the ground
Nail
at the same time.
Diagram 1

## At the beginning, when x = 0 cm, F = 0 N.

The experiment is repeated by displacing the elastic band with
a displacement, x, equal to 2.0 cm, 4.0 cm, 6.0 cm, 8.0 cm
and 10.0 cm. The readings of the spring balance are shown in
Diagrams 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

Diagram 2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

## (i) Explain the observation. [2 marks] 2.0

cm
(ii) However when the same experiment is carried out on
Earth, the stone will reach the ground first. Explain the
observation. [2 marks]
3. A spring with an original length of 10 cm is used to hang a load
of 20 N. Its length becomes 12 cm. An experiment is carried out Diagram 2

## © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd. TC – 24

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

4.0 cm 10.0 cm

Diagram 3 Diagram 6

(a) Based on the aim and procedure of the experiment, state the:
(i) manipulated variable. [1 mark]
(ii) responding variable. [1 mark]
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
(iii) fixed variable. [1 mark]
6.0 cm
(b) Take the reading of the spring balance, F, from the diagrams
and tabulate your results for, x and F. [5 marks]

## (c) Plot a graph of F against x. [5 marks]

Diagram 4 (d) Based on your graph, state the relationship between F and x.
[1 mark]

## (e) From your graph, determine the pulling force required to

result in a displacement of 7.0 cm. [2 marks]
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

8.0 cm

Diagram 5

Chapter
B A barefooted man standing on a 4. The diagram shows a simplified
3 Forces and Pressure concrete floor. hydraulic pump used to lift a car.
C A knife cutting an apple.
Objective Questions Car
D A pineapple resting on a plate.
1. An 8 kg stool has a base area of 0.04 m2. 3. The diagram shows the water levels in F

## a water manometer used to measure the

pressure of gas supply. Piston P Piston Q

## Base area = 0.04 m2 Gas supply 45 cm Which comparison is true?

What is the pressure exerted by the stool 20 cm Water A The force F must be greater than the
on the floor? 10 cm weight of the car in order to lift it.
A 200 N m–2 B The force F can be smaller than the
B 800 N m–2 How much greater is the pressure of the weight of the car and still lift the car.
C 1200 N m–2 gas supply compared to atmospheric C The pressure on piston P must be
D 1600 N m–2 pressure? the same as the pressure on piston Q
E 2000 N m–2 A 10 cm of water in order to lift the car.
2. In which of the following examples is B 20 cm of water D The car cannot be lifted at all because
the greatest pressure exerted? C 25 cm of water the cross-sectional area of piston P is
A A book resting on a table. D 35 cm of water smaller than that of piston Q.

## TC – 25 © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

5. The diagram shows an egg which floats A P C R A Hot air rises up.
in liquid P but sinks in liquid Q. B Q D S B The average speed of the air
molecules in the ball increases.
7. The diagram shows a spinning ball
C The pressure of the air in the ball
Egg moving in a curve.
increases.
D The rate of molecules in the ball
Spinning ball hitting its wall increases.
Liquid P Liquid Q Direction of
movement
Which of the following inference is not of ball
9. The fact that a hot air balloon rises to the
correct? sky can be explained using
A Liquid P is denser than liquid Q. This phenomenon can be explained using A Newton’s third law.
B The egg is denser than liquid Q. A equilibrium of forces. B Archimedes’ principle.
C The egg is less dense than liquid P. B Archimedes’ principle. C Pascal’s principle.
D The buoyant force that acts on the egg C Pascal’s principle. D Bernoulli’s principle.
is more in liquid P than in liquid Q. D Bernoulli’s principle.
10. Which of the following shape will result
6. The diagram shows four objects floating 8. A dented ping pong ball can be returned in a lifting effect when attached to a
on the surface of a liquid. to its spherical shape when placed in hot moving object?
S water.
A
Hot water
P Q R
B

C
Which of the following does not explain
Which object has the highest density? what happens in the ball?

Subjective Questions 2. Diagram 2 shows a hydraulic press used to crush metal cans. A
downward force, F, is applied on piston P to result in an upward
1. Diagram 1 shows a crane lifting a piece of glass with the help of
force on piston Q to crush the metal can.
a suction cup.
F
Metal Super
support milk
To vacuum Piston P Piston Q
Suction pump
cup

Rubber
Partial Oil
seal Glass
vacuum

Diagram 1
Initially, the suction cup is placed on the glass and air is removed
from the cup by a vacuum pump. When a partial vacuum is Diagram 2
created in the cup, the glass can be lifted. The cross-sectional area of piston P and Q are 15 cm2 and 45
(a) Explain why the glass can be lifted when a partial vacuum is cm2 respectively.
created in the cup. [2 marks] (a) A force, F = 300 N, is applied on piston P.
(b) What is the function of the rubber seal attached to the brim (i) Calculate the pressure, in N cm-2, exerted by piston P
of the suction cup? [1 mark] on the oil. [2 marks]
(c) When the glass is lifted to a certain location, the suction cup (ii) What is the pressure exerted by the oil on piston Q?
needs to be separated from it. Explain how this can be done. [1 mark]
[2 marks] (iii) Calculate the force exerted by the oil on piston Q.
[2 marks]
(d) State one modification that can be done to the suction cup
so that it can lift a heavier piece of glass. Explain your (b) State the physics principle that is involved in the calculation
answer. [2 marks] in (a). [1 mark]

## © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd. TC – 26

3. A test-tube with a marble in it is placed in liquid P and then in Written Practical
liquid Q. Diagram 3 shows the floating position of the test tube 1. Diagram 1 shows a graph of how the pressure, P of a liquid
in both the liquids. column varies with depth, h for a liquid.
P / N m–2
5000

4000

3000

2.5 cm 2000
4.0 cm
1000

h/m
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

## Liquid P Liquid Q Diagram 1

(a) Based on the graph,
Diagram 3
(i) State the relationship between P and h. [1 mark]
(a) (i) Which of the two liquids has a higher density? (ii) Determine the value of P when h is equal to 0.26 m.
[1 mark] [2 marks]
(ii) Explain your answer in (a)(i). [3 marks] (iii) Determine the value of h when P is equal to
(b) State the physical principle used in the above explanation. 1600 N m–2. [2 marks]
[1 mark] (b) (i) Determine the gradient, k, of the graph. [3 marks]
(c) If the density of liquid P is 1000 kg m–3, what is the density (ii) The pressure of a liquid is given by the formula P =
of liquid Q? [2 marks] hρg, where ρ is the density of the liquid and g is the
gravitational acceleration. (g = 10 m s–2)
Determine the density of the liquid used in kg m–3.
[4 marks]

Chapter
coffee, the mercury level is marked and Temperature
4 Heat the diagram shows the markings of the
P
three levels mentioned.
Objective Questions
Steam Coffee Ice Q R
1. When water is heated, its temperature 1 cm S
rises. Its temperature will stop rising 6 cm 3 cm
when
Time
A some salt is added to the water.
What is the approximate temperature of At which part of the curve would the
B some cubes of ice is placed in the
the coffee? wax be a mixture of solid and liquid?
water.
A 30°C A PQ
B 33°C B QR
D the water starts to boil.
C 40°C C RS
2. The sensitivity of a liquid-in-glass D 50°C 7. Hot water at 100 oC is added to 200 g of
thermometer can be increased by E 67°C ice at 0 oC. What is the minimum mass
A using a transparent liquid. of hot water needed to melt the ice?
5. Why do people feel cool if they do not
B using a thin-walled bulb. (Specific latent heat of fusion of ice is
dry their sweat and stand under a moving
C using a longer tube. 336 000 J kg–1. Specific heat capacity of
fan?
D using a liquid with lower boiling water is 4200 J kg–1 oC–1.)
A The sweat is cooled by the fan and
point. A 71 g D 200 g
in turn cools down the body.
B 84 g E 210 g
3. If heat is removed from an object, its B The sweat is a good conductor of
C 160 g
temperature will normally heat and transfer the heat away from
A rise. the body. 8. An electric kettle with a 2.5 kW heater
B rise then fall. C The sweat evaporates and causes the contains 0.5 kg of water at boiling point.
If the water is left boiling, how long will
C fall. cooling of the body.
it take to boil all the water away?
D remain unchanged. D The sweat prevents heat from getting
(Specific latent heat of vaporisation of
4. A mercury-in-glass thermometer is into the body.
water is 2 × 106 J kg-1)
marked with the mercury level of 6. The graph shows how the temperature of A 200 s D 500 s
melting ice and steam respectively. When some wax changes as it cools from the B 250 s E 750 s
the thermometer is placed into a cup of liquid state to solid state. C 400 s

## TC – 27 © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

9. The table gives the melting points and boiling points of 4 10. The air pressure of a tyre is 210 kPa at a temperature of 27 oC.
materials. Which material is a liquid at 500 oC? After a journey, the temperature of the air in the tyre rises to
37 oC. Assuming the volume of the tyre is constant, what is the
Boiling pressure of the air in the tyre?
Melting
Material point /
point / oC A 153 kPa
o
C
B 203 kPa
A P 850 1380
C 217 kPa
B Q –100 –28
D 288 kPa
C R 56 235
E 443 kPa
D S 250 1250

Subjective Questions (a) (i) When the volume of the air trapped in the syringe
1. (a) Why is mercury a suitable liquid to be used in a liquid-in- decreases, what happens to the average speed of the air
glass thermometer? [1 mark] molecules? [1 mark]
(b) Diagram 1 shows two mercury-in-glass thermometers P
and Q which are identical except that the bulb of P is much (b) If the initial pressure of the air is 100 kPa, calculate its
smaller than that of Q. pressure when its volume decreases. [2 marks]

P
(c) State the law used in (b). [1 mark]

Written Practical
Q
1. Diagram 1 shows a graph of temperature, θ against time, t of a
substance P which is obtained from an experiment.

Diagram 1
θ / °C
(i) Which thermometer can measure a larger range of
80
(ii) Which thermometer is more sensitive? Explain your
2. Table 1 shows some properties of a substance, P. 60

Specific heat
Melting Boiling
Substance capacity of liquid 40
point / oC point / oC
P / J kg–1 oC–1
P –210 –195 1400
20
Table 1
(a) At the temperature of –211°C, will P be a solid, liquid or
gas? [1 mark] 0 t / minute
5 10 15 20 25 30
(b) What is meant by specific heat capacity of a substance?
[1 mark] Diagram 1
(c) How much energy is required to heat 50 g of P from (a) Based on the graph,
–200°C to –198°C? [3 marks] (i) What is the melting point of P? [2 marks]
3. A syringe with its nozzle sealed has an initial volume of 20 cm3 (ii) What is the boiling point of P? [2 marks]
of air trapped in it. The piston is slowly pushed inward until the (iii) What is the temperature of P when t = 15 minutes?
volume of the air trapped in the syringe becomes 12 cm3. The [2 marks]
temperature of the air remains unchanged.
(b) (i) Determine the gradient of the graph for t = 10 minutes
to t = 15 minutes. [3 marks]
20 cm3
(ii) If the power supplied to heat up P is 300 W, determine
the amount of heat per oC of increase in temperature
required when heating P from t = 10 minutes to t = 15
minutes. [3 marks]
12 cm3

Diagram 2

## © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd. TC – 28

Chapter
What is the angle of reflection? 7. Which of the following concerning
5 Light A 10° convex lenses is correct?
B 30°
Objective Questions C 40° Object
Focal
1. The diagram shows four lighted LED D 60° distance, Image
length, f
in front of a mirror. A piece of plywood 4. A concave mirror has a focal length of u
prevents the observer from seeing the 12 cm. What are the characteristics of
LED directly. A 10 cm 8 cm Magnified
the image formed if an object is placed 6
Mirror cm from the centre of the mirror? B 15 cm 20 cm Diminished
A Virtual, upright and magnified.
S B Real, upright and diminished. C 20 cm 40 cm Magnified
C Virtual, inverted and magnified.
D Real, inverted and diminished. D 25 cm 60 cm Magnified
P R
5. Which of the following shows the correct
8. The diagram shows the arrangement of
Q direction for light rays emerging from a
Observer
a light source, a convex lens and a plane
prism? (The critical angle of the prism is
Plywood mirror.
42o.)
Which LED’s image can be seen? A C Plane mirror
A P C R Light Convex lens
B Q D S 60° source
60°
2. The diagram shows a boy having his
eyes tested. A chart with letters on it is Light
60° 60° ray
placed behind him and he sees it through 60° 60°
a mirror.   10 cm 20 cm
1.5 m B D
2.5 m What is the focal length of the convex
lens?
60° 60°
Plane A 10 cm C 20 cm
mirror B 15 cm D 30 cm
60° 60° 60° 60°
Boy Chart 9. Which optical instrument produces a real
How far away from the boy is the image   image?
of the chart? 6. The diagram shows a light ray travelling A A magnifying glass
A 3.0 m D 7.5 m from air into a glass prism. B A camera
B 4.5 m E 8.0 m Light ray C An astronomical telescope
C 5.5 m D A compound microscope
72°
3. A mirror is tilted at an angle of 10o to a 10. The human eye has a converging lens
table top. A ray of light is directed at an Prism system that produces an image at the
angle of 30o to the surface of the mirror. back of the eye. When the eye views a
65°
Light ray distant object, the image produced at the
What is the critical angle of the glass? back of the eye is
Mirror
A 42° A real, magnified and inverted.
30°
10° B 43° B virtual, magnified and upright.
C 47° C real, diminished and inverted.
D 52° D virtual, diminished and inverted.

## Subjective Questions (i)

Concave mirror
1. A boy has a convex and a concave mirror. He carries out an
experiment to determine the images formed by these mirrors.
(a) Complete the following diagrams to show the reflected rays
and the images formed.

C O F

Diagram 1
[3 marks]

## TC – 29 © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

(ii) Written Practical
Convex mirror
1. A student carries out an experiment to determine the focal
length, f, of a convex lens. The graph of v against m shows the
result of the experiment, where u is the object distance, v is the
v
image distance and m is the linear magnification, m = ––
u .
v / cm
O F C
35

30

Diagram 2
[3 marks] 25
(b) State three characteristics of each of the images formed by
the
20
(i) concave mirror in (a)(i). [2 marks]
(ii) convex mirror in (a)(ii). [2 marks]
15
2. In the ‘rising coin trick’, a coin is placed in a cup and the eye of
an observer is positioned in such a way that:
Situation I: The coin cannot be seen when the cup is empty. 10
Situation II: The coin can be seen when the cup is filled with
water.
5
Situation I Situation II

m
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Diagram 1
(a) Based on the graph,
(i) what happens to the linear magnification when the
image distance increases. [1 mark]
(ii) determine the image distance, v, when the linear
magnification, m = 1.5. Show on the graph how you
determine v. [2 marks]
Coin Coin (b) From your answer in (a)(ii), determine the object distance

when the magnification, m = 1.5. [2 marks]
Diagram 3 Diagram 4
(c) (i) Extend the graph to intersect the v-axis and determine
(a) Draw a suitable line to show why the coin in situation I
the value of v at the axis. [2 marks]
cannot be seen. [1 mark]
(ii) Determine the gradient of the graph. [2 marks]
(b) Draw a ray diagram, for situation II, to show the image of (iii) The focal length of the convex lens can be determined
the coin as seen by the observer. [3 marks] by taking the average value of the values determined in
3. Diagram 5 shows a ray of light entering a curved glass rod and (c)(i) and (c)(ii). Hence, determine the focal length of
PQR shows its path. the lens. [2 marks]
Q (d) State one precaution that should be taken during the
experiment. [1 mark]
x
P N R
30°
Curved
glass rod
Light
Diagram 5
(a) The angle of incidence of the ray entering the glass rod is
30o. Calculate the angle of refraction, x, if the refractive
index of the glass is 1.5. [2 marks]
(b) Explain why the ray PQ does not leave the glass rod at Q.
[2 marks]