You are on page 1of 164

SEBU8607-01

March 2013

Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
C4.4 (Mech) Marine Generator Set MCS-
3
L1K 1-Up (Generator
Set)
S1M 1-Up (Generator
Set)

SAFETY.CAT.COM
i05086812

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe
basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous
situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards, including human factors
that can affect safety. This person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these
functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could
result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you verify
that you are authorized to perform this work, and have read and understood the operation,
lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings
are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially
presented.
A non-exhaustive list of operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on
the product and in this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard.
The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. You must not
use this product in any manner different from that considered by this manual without first satisfying
yourself that you have considered all safety rules and precautions applicable to the operation of the
product in the location of use, including site-specific rules and precautions applicable to the
worksite. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating technique that is not specifically
recommended by Caterpillar is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others.
You should also ensure that you are authorized to perform this work, and that the product will not be
damaged or become unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair procedures that
you intend to use.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that was
available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you
start any job. Cat dealers have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Cat re-
placement parts or parts with equivalent speci-
fications including, but not limited to, physical
dimensions, type, strength and material.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-
ture failures, product damage, personal injury
or death.

In the United States, the maintenance, replacement, or repair of the emission control devices and
systems may be performed by any repair establishment or individual of the owner's choosing.
SEBU8607 3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 73

Foreword.............................. ............................. 4 Maintenance Section

Safety Section Refill Capacities....................... ....................... 77

Maintenance Recommendations.......... .......... 84


Safety Messages....................... ....................... 5
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Naturally
General Hazard Information .............. ............. 10
Aspirated Marine Generator Sets) ........ ........ 91
Burn Prevention....................... ....................... 13
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Turbocharged
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ... .. 13 Marine Generator Set Without Aftercooler).. . 92

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention . 15 Maintenance Interval Schedule (Turbocharged


Aftercooled Marine Generator Sets Rated at 50
Mounting and Dismounting............... .............. 15 Hz 86 ekW and 60 Hz 93 ekW)........... .......... 94

Before Starting Engine ................. .................. 16 Maintenance Interval Schedule (Turbocharged


Aftercooled Marine Generator Set Rated at 50
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 16 Hz 69 ekW and 60 Hz 76 ekW)........... .......... 95

Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 17 Warranty Section

Electrical System ...................... ...................... 17 Warranty Information .................. .................. 150

Generator Isolating for Maintenance ....... ....... 17 Reference Information Section

Product Information Section Engine Ratings ....................... ...................... 151

General Information.................... .................... 19 Customer Service ..................... .................... 152

Product Identification Information.......... ......... 26 Reference Materials .................. ................... 154

Operation Section Index Section

Lifting and Storage..................... ..................... 31 Index............................... .............................. 157

Installation ........................... ........................... 35

Features and Controls .................. .................. 36

Engine Diagnostics..................... .................... 46

Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 48

Engine Operation...................... ...................... 53

Generator Operation.................... ................... 54

Cold Weather Operation................. ................ 71


4 SEBU8607
Foreword

Foreword Recommended service should be performed at the


appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
Literature Information of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty,
This manual contains safety, operation instructions, wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more
lubrication and maintenance information. This manual frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
should be stored in or near the engine area in a specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
literature holder or literature storage area. Read, be necessary.
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information. The maintenance schedule items are organized for a
preventive maintenance management program. If the
English is the primary language for all Cat preventive maintenance program is followed, a
publications. The English used facilitates translation periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
and consistency in electronic media delivery. of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
show details or attachments that may be different downtime and failures.
from your engine. Guards and covers may have been
removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing Maintenance Intervals
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
not included in this manual. Whenever a question original requirement. Each level and/or individual
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please items in each level should be shifted ahead or back
consult with your Cat dealer for the latest available depending upon your specific maintenance practices,
information. operation and application. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
Safety near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In as part of the engine's permanent record.
addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning
situations. Read and understand the basic See the section in the Operation and Maintenance
precautions listed in the safety section before Manual, “Maintenance Records” for information
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and regarding documents that are generally accepted as
repair on this product. proof of maintenance or repair. Your authorized Cat
dealer can assist you in adjusting your maintenance
schedule to meet the needs of your operating
Operation environment.
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and Overhaul
techniques required to operate the engine more Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
engine and its capabilities. Major repairs are best left to trained personnel or an
authorized Cat dealer. Your Cat dealer offers a
The operation section is a reference for operators. variety of options regarding overhaul programs. If you
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator experience a major engine failure, there are also
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating numerous after failure overhaul options available
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a from your Cat dealer. Consult with your dealer for
discussion of electronic diagnostic information. information regarding these options.
Maintenance California Proposition 65 Warning
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care. Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
by fuel consumption, service hours and/or calendar birth defects, and other reproductive harm.
time maintenance intervals. Items in the maintenance
schedule are referenced to detailed instructions that Battery posts, terminals and related accessories
follow. contain lead and lead compounds. Wash hands after
Use fuel consumption or service hours to determine handling.
intervals. Calendar intervals shown (daily, annually,
etc.) may be used instead of service meter intervals if
they provide more convenient schedules and
approximate the indicated service meter reading.
SEBU8607 5
Safety Section
Safety Messages

Safety Section
i03904028

Safety Messages
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
There may be several specific safety messages on
your engine. The exact location and a description of
the safety messages are reviewed in this section.
Please become familiar with all of the messages.
Ensure that all of the safety messages are legible.
Clean the safety messages or replace the safety
messages if the words cannot be read or if the
illustrations are not visible. Use a cloth, water, and
soap for cleaning the safety messages. Do not use
solvents, gasoline, or other harsh chemicals.
Solvents, gasoline, or harsh chemicals could loosen
the adhesive that secures the safety messages. The
safety messages that are loosened could drop off the
engine.
Replace any safety message that is damaged or
missing. If a safety message is attached to a part of
the engine that is replaced, install a new safety
message on the replacement part. Your Caterpillar
dealer can provide new safety messages.
6 SEBU8607
Safety Section
Safety Messages

Illustration 1 g02162595
Typical example
SEBU8607 7
Safety Section
Safety Messages

Illustration 2 g02163184
Typical example
8 SEBU8607
Safety Section
Safety Messages

(1) Universal Warning


The Universal Warning label is located in the
following location. Top cover of the MCS panel

Illustration 4 g00930639

Illustration 3 g00934493
Pressurized system! Hot coolant can cause seri-
ous burns, injury or death. To open the cooling
system filler cap, stop the engine and wait until
the cooling system components are cool. Loosen
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless the cooling system pressure cap slowly in order
you have read and understand the instructions to relieve the pressure. Read and understand the
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Operation and Maintenance Manual before per-
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or heed forming any cooling system maintenance.
the warnings could result in serious injury or
death.
Do Not Use Ether (3)
Hot Fluid Under Pressure (2) The safety message for no ether is located on the rain
cap for the air cleaner.
This safety message is located in the following
location. Top of the expansion tank

Illustration 5 g00930690

Explosion hazard! Do not use ether! This machine


is equipped with an air inlet heater. Using ether
can create explosions or fires that can cause per-
sonal injury or death. Read and follow the starting
procedure in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual.
SEBU8607 9
Safety Section
Safety Messages

Electrocution (4)
This safety message is located on the following six
different locations. Top cover of the MCS panel, top of
the generator and on each of the four sides of
generator

Illustration 7 g01154070

When the engine is in the AUTOMATIC mode, the


Illustration 6 g00928349 engine can start at any moment. To avoid person-
al injury, always remain clear of the the engine
when the engine is in the AUTOMATIC mode.

DANGER: Shock/Electrocution Hazard-Do not


operate this equipment or work on this equipment
Lifting the Generator Set (6)
unless you have read and understand the This safety message is located on the following two
instructions and warnings in the Operation and different locations. On the base on the open
Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the generator sets, close to one of the front engine
instructions or heed the warnings will result in mounts and on the base on the open generator sets,
serious injury or death. close to the generator.

Do not connect generator to a utility electrical dis-


tribution system unless it is isolated from the sys-
tem. Electrical feedback into the distribution
system can occur and could cause personal in-
jury or death.
Open and secure main distribution system switch,
or if the connection is permanent, install a double
throw transfer switch to prevent electrical feed-
back. Some generators are specifically approved
by a utility to run in parallel with the distribution
system and isolation may not be required. Always
check with your utility as to the applicable
circumstances.

Automatic Starting (5)


This safety message is located on the following
location. Top cover of the MCS panel
10 SEBU8607
Safety Section
General Hazard Information

i03901105

General Hazard Information


SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405

Illustration 9 g00104545
Illustration 8 g00928085
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before the engine is serviced or before the engine is
repaired. These warning tags (Special Instruction,
Crushing Hazard! Improper lifting could cause SEHS7332) are available from your Caterpillar
serious injury or death. Follow the lifting instruc- dealer. Attach the warning tags to the engine and to
tions in the Operation and Maintenance Manual each operator control station. When it is appropriate,
for safe lifting procedures. disconnect the starting controls.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
Cautiously remove the following parts. To help
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,
hold a rag over the part that is being removed.
• Filler caps

• Grease fittings
• Pressure taps

• Breathers
• Drain plugs
Use caution when cover plates are removed.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two bolts
or nuts that are located at opposite ends of the cover
plate or the device. Before removing the last two bolts
or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to relieve any
spring pressure or other pressure.
SEBU8607 11
Safety Section
General Hazard Information

The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes


must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum water
pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).

Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
Illustration 10 g00702020 or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other relieve the hydraulic pressure.
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.

• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are


secured in place on the engine.

• Never put maintenance fluids into glass


containers. Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
Illustration 11 g00687600

• Report all necessary repairs.


Always use a board or cardboard when you check for
Unless other instructions are provided, perform a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
the maintenance under the following conditions: penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
cannot be started. you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is
performed or when the electrical system is Containing Fluid Spillage
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks. Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids are
contained during performance of inspection,
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Prepare to collect the fluid with suitable
understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any containers before opening any compartment or
equipment that is damaged or repair the disassembling any component that contains fluids.
equipment.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Dealer
Pressurized Air and Water Service Tool Catalog for the following items:
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or • Tools that are suitable for collecting fluids and
hot water to be blown out. This could result in equipment that is suitable for collecting fluids
personal injury.
When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is • Tools that are suitable for containing fluids and
used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective equipment that is suitable for containing fluids
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield. Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
12 SEBU8607
Safety Section
General Hazard Information

Asbestos Information • Never use compressed air for cleaning.


• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.

• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.


• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
materials.

• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high


efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.

• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other


way to control the dust.
Illustration 12 g00702022
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations for
Caterpillar equipment and replacement parts that the work place. In the United States , use
are shipped from Caterpillar are asbestos free.
Caterpillar recommends the use of only genuine Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Caterpillar replacement parts. Use the following (OSHA) requirements. These OSHA
guidelines when you handle any replacement parts requirements can be found in 29 CFR 1910.1001.
that contain asbestos or when you handle asbestos
debris. • Obey environmental regulations for the disposal of
asbestos.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain • Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous particles in the air.
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining Dispose of Waste Properly
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there are
several guidelines that should be followed:

Illustration 13 g00706404

Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the


environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
SEBU8607 13
Safety Section
Burn Prevention

i01480768 i04090689

Burn Prevention Fire Prevention and Explosion


SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405 Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine. Allow SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
the engine to cool before any maintenance is
performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure in the
air system, in the hydraulic system, in the lubrication
system, in the fuel system, or in the cooling system
before any lines, fittings or related items are
disconnected.

Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Illustration 14 g00704000
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool. Use of personal protection equipment (PPE) may be
needed.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in are flammable.
order to relieve pressure.
Always perform a Walk-Around Inspection, which
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can may help you identify a fire hazard. Do not operate a
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact product when a fire hazard exists. Contact your Cat
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth. dealer for service.

Oils Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot


surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the damage.
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact the
skin. A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine
crankcase are removed within 15 minutes after an
emergency shutdown.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the
property damage, or engine damage could result.
batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is
recommended. If the application involves the presence of
combustible gases, consult your Cat dealer for
additional information about suitable protection
devices.
Remove all flammable materials such as fuel, oil, and
debris from the engine. Do not allow any flammable
materials to accumulate on the engine.
All fluids that are captured in the fluid spill
containment basin should be cleaned up immediately.
Failure to clean up spilled fluids can cause a fire. Fire
may cause personal injury and property damage.
14 SEBU8607
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

Store fuels and lubricants in properly marked


containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in a line, a tube, or
a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be installed
correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. Properly route
and attach all electrical wires. Check all electrical
wires daily. Repair any wires that are loose or frayed
before you operate the engine. Clean all electrical
connections and tighten all electrical connections.
Illustration 15 g00704059
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do not
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
and/or circuit breakers. refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and properly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for
deterioration. Properly route all hoses. The lines and
hoses must have adequate support and secure
clamps. Tighten all connections to the recommended
torque. Leaks can cause fires.
Properly install all oil filters and fuel filters. The filter
housings must be tightened to the proper torque.

Illustration 16 g02298225

Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open


flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a
hydrometer.
Improper jumper cable connections can cause an
explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the
Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
SEBU8607 15
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

Do not charge a frozen battery. Charging a frozen • End fittings are damaged or leaking.
battery may result in an explosion.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if
equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the • Wires are exposed.
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated. • Outer coverings are ballooning.

Fire Extinguisher • Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.

Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be • Outer covers have embedded armoring.
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire • End fittings are displaced.
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations on
the instruction plate. Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly in order to prevent vibration,
rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.
Ether
Ether is flammable and poisonous. i01359666

Use ether in well ventilated areas. Do not smoke


while you are replacing an ether cylinder or while you Crushing Prevention and
are using an ether spray. Cutting Prevention
Do not store ether cylinders in living areas or in the SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
engine compartment. Do not store ether cylinders in
direct sunlight or in temperatures above 49 °C Support the component properly when work beneath
(120 °F). Keep ether cylinders away from open the component is performed.
flames or sparks.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
Dispose of used ether cylinders properly. Do not never attempt adjustments while the engine is
puncture an ether cylinder. Keep ether cylinders away running.
from unauthorized personnel.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts.
Do not spray ether into an engine if the engine is Leave the guards in place until maintenance is
equipped with a thermal starting aid for cold weather performed. After the maintenance is performed,
starting. reinstall the guards.

Lines, Tubes, and Hoses Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike high-
pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are bent or When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
damaged. order to avoid injury to the eyes.

Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
can cause fires. Consult your Cat dealer for repair or are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
for replacement parts. one will be injured by flying debris.

Check lines, tubes, and hoses carefully. Do not use i01372247


your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or
cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections
to the recommended torque. Mounting and Dismounting
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present: Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area
before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean
and keep these items in good repair.
Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at
locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not
climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.
16 SEBU8607
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine

Face the engine in order to mount the engine or See the Service Manual for repairs and for
dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact adjustments.
with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one
hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any
i03901111
controls as handholds.
Do not stand on components which cannot support Engine Starting
your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work
platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the SMCS Code: 1000
equipment will not move.
Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the
engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand
line to raise and lower tools or supplies. Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
i03901110

Before Starting Engine If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
SMCS Code: 1000 the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
NOTICE All protective guards and all protective covers must
For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for be installed if the engine must be started in order to
start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make perform service procedures. To help prevent an
provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the around the parts carefully.
air and/or fuel supply to the engine.
Start the engine from the operators compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
which may be harmful to your health. Always start Section. Knowing that the correct procedure will help
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area to prevent major damage to the engine components.
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the Knowing that the procedure will also help to prevent
outside. personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
Inspect the engine for potential hazards. and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge and/or
Do not start the engine or move any of the controls if the oil temperature gauge during the heater
there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or operation.
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or to
the controls. Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on, engine and operate the engine in a ventilated area. If
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent the
area is free of personnel. engine exhaust to the outside.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the Note: The engine is equipped with a device for cold
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all starting. If the engine will be operated in cold
lights work properly, if equipped. conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
All protective guards and all protective covers must
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an operation.
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work These engines are equipped with a glow plug starting
around the parts carefully. aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake air
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not in order to improve starting.
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
SEBU8607 17
Safety Section
Engine Stopping

i03901112 To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical


systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
Engine Stopping ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
SMCS Code: 1000 engine ground to the frame.
To avoid overheating of the engine and accelerated All grounds should be tight and free of corrosion. The
wear of the engine components, stop the engine engine alternator must be grounded to the negative
according to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “-” battery terminal. For the grounding a wire that is
“Engine Stopping” topic (Operation Section). adequate to handle the full charging current of the
alternator must be used.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. DO NOT use the
Emergency Stop Button for engine stopping. After an i03901113
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been Generator Isolating for
corrected.
Maintenance
On the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine SMCS Code: 4450
that has been serviced, make provisions to stop the
engine if an overspeed condition occurs. When you service an electric power generation set or
when you repair an electric power generation set,
To stop an electronic controlled engine, cut the power follow the procedure below:
to the engine and/or the air supply to the engine.
1. Stop the engine.
i03905591

Electrical System
SMCS Code: 1000; 1400
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is
operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases
that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” jump-start cable should be connected
last from the external power source to the negative
“−” terminal of the starting motor. If the starting motor
is not equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect
the jump-start cable to the engine block.
Illustration 17 g00104545
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires 2. Attach “DO NOT OPERATE” or similar warning
before the engine is started. Repair all frayed tag to the engine prime mover starting circuit.
electrical wires before the engine is started. See the Disconnect the engine starting circuit.
Operation and Maintenance Manual for specific
starting instructions. 3. Disconnect the generator from the distribution
system.
Grounding Practices
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system is 4. Lock out the circuit breaker. Attach “DO NOT
necessary for optimum engine performance and OPERATE” or similar warning tag to the circuit
reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in breaker. Refer to the electrical diagram. Verify that
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable all points of possible reverse power flow have been
electrical circuit paths. locked out.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in 5. For the following circuitry, remove the fuses of the
damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing transformer:
journal surfaces, and to aluminum components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame • power
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge. • sensing
18 SEBU8607
Safety Section
Generator Isolating for Maintenance

• control
6. Attach “DO NOT OPERATE” or similar warning
tag to the generator excitation controls.

7. Remove the terminal box cover of the generator.

8. Use an audio/visual proximity tester in order to


verify that the generator is de-energized. This
tester must be insulated for the proper voltage
rating. Follow all guidelines in order to verify that
the tester is operational.

9. Determine that the generator is in a de-energized


condition. Add ground straps to the conductors or
terminals. During the entire work period, these
ground straps must remain connected to the
conductors and to the terminals.
SEBU8607 19
Product Information Section
Model View Illustrations

Product Information
Section

General Information
i03903864

Model View Illustrations


SMCS Code: 1000
These model views show typical features of C4.4
(Mech)marine generator sets . Due to your individual
applications, your engine may appear different from
the illustrations.
Sea Water Cooled

Illustration 18 g02162614
Typical example
(1) Expansion tank (6) Rain cap for air cleaner (11) Fuel priming pump
(2) Filler for engine coolant (7) MCS control panel (12) Duplex oil filters
(3) Aftercooler (8) Generator terminal box (13) Water inlet for auxiliary water pump
(4) Air cleaner (9) Crankcase breather
(5) Indicator for the air cleaner (10) Duplex fuel filters
20 SEBU8607
General Information
Model View Illustrations

Illustration 19 g02163145
Typical example
(14) Engine alternator (15) Exhaust manifold (16) Intercooler
SEBU8607 21
General Information
Model View Illustrations

A Keel Cooled System

Illustration 20 g02162615
Typical example
(1) Cover for belts (6) Rain cap for air cleaner (11) Fuel priming pump
(2) Top oil filler cap (7) MCS control panel (12) Duplex oil filters
(3) Aftercooler (8) Generator terminal box (13) Water pump
(4) Air cleaner (9) Crankcase breather
(5) Indicator for the air cleaner (10) Duplex fuel filters
22 SEBU8607
General Information
Model View Illustrations

Illustration 21 g02163146
Typical example
(14) Engine alternator (16) Intercooler
(15) Exhaust manifold (17) Electric starting motor
SEBU8607 23
General Information
Model View Illustrations

Radiator Cooled System

Illustration 22 g02168837
Typical example
(1) Water temperature regulator (3) Filler cap for radiator (5) Tube from aftercooler to the inlet manifold
(2) Vent lines for cooling system (4) Air to air aftercooler
24 SEBU8607
General Information
Product Description

Illustration 23 g02168874
Typical example
(6) Cover on tube for the boost pressure

i03901119 Engine Specifications


Product Description Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 4491 sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
The Caterpillar C4.4 (Mech)marine generator sets
are available in the following types of aspiration:
• Naturally aspirated

• Turbocharged
• Turbocharged aftercooled
SEBU8607 25
General Information
Product Description

• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump


• Water temperature regulator which regulates the
engine coolant temperature
• Auxiliary water pump
• Sea water cooled

• Keel cooled system


• Radiator cooled

• Gear-driven oil pump (gear type)


• Oil cooler
Illustration 24 g00984281
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gear type
A typical example of the layout of the valves pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and the
(A) Inlet valves engine lubricating oil is filtered. Bypass valves
(B) Exhaust valves provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the
engine parts when oil viscosity is high. Bypass valves
Table 1 can also provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to
C4.4 (Mech)Marine Generator Set Specifications the engine parts if the oil cooler should become
plugged or if the oil filter element should become
Number of Cylinders 4 In-Line plugged.
Bore 105 mm (4.134 inch) Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
Stroke 127 mm (5.0 inch)
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Aspiration Naturally aspirated Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
Turbocharged the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
Turbocharged aftercooled coolants. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
Compression Ratio NA 19.3:1 information on maintenance items.
T, TA 18.2:1

Displacement 4.4 L (268 in 3)


Engine Service Life
Firing Order 1342
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
Rotation (flywheel end) Counterclockwise operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet) 0.20 mm (0.008 inch) lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust) 0.45 mm (0.018 inch)
Expected engine life is predicted by the average
power that is demanded. The average power that is
Engine Cooling and Lubrication demanded is based on fuel consumption of the
engine over a time period. Reduced hours of
The cooling system consists of the following operation at the full throttle and/or operating at
components: reduced throttle settings result in a lower average
power demand. Reduced hours of operation will
increase the length of operating time before an
engine overhaul is required.
26 SEBU8607
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations

Product Identification
Information
i05042129

Plate Locations and Film


Locations
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Cat products are identified with serial numbers and
with arrangement numbers. In some of the cases,
modification numbers are used. These numbers are
shown on the serial number plates and the Engine
Information Plates. The numbers are shown on the
Generator Identification plates that are mounted on
the product.
Cat dealers need these numbers in order to
determine the components that were included with
the product. The Cat dealers can accurately obtain
replacement part numbers.

Illustration 25 g02162619
Typical example
SEBU8607 27
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations

Engine Information Plate 1


The engine information plate is located on the left
side of the cylinder block behind the engine oil gauge.

Illustration 26 g01332986

Cat dealers need all of these numbers in order to


determine the components that were included with
the engine. The Cat dealers can accurately obtain
replacement part numbers.

Serial Number Plate 2


The serial number plate is located on the left-hand
side of the base frame.
Cat dealers need all of these numbers in order to
determine the components that were included with
the engine. The Cat dealers can accurately obtain
replacement part numbers.

Generator Identification Plate 3


The generator identification plate is located on the
left-hand side of the terminal box.
Cat dealers need all of these numbers in order to
determine the components that were included with
the engine. The Cat dealers can accurately obtain
replacement part numbers.
28 SEBU8607
Product Identification Information
Declaration of Conformity

i03903992

Declaration of Conformity
SMCS Code: 1000

Table 2
An EC Declaration of Conformity document was provided with the product if the product was manufactured to comply with specific requirements
for the European Union. In order to determine the details of the applicable Directives, review the complete EC Declaration of Conformity provided
with the product. The extract shown below from an EC Declaration of Conformity for products that are declared compliant to 2006/42/EC applies
only to those products originally “CE” marked by the manufacturer listed and which have not since been modified.

EC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTS

Manufacturer:CATERPILLAR INC . 100 N.E. ADAMS STREET PEORIA, IL 61629 USA

Person authorized to compile the Technical File and to communicate relevant part (s) of the Technical File to the Authorities of Euro-
pean Union Member States on request:

Standards & Regulations Manager,Caterpillar France S.A.S 40


Avenue Leon-Blum, B.P. 55, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France

I, the undersigned, _________, hereby certify that the equipment specified hereunder

Description: Generic Denomination: Power Generation Equipment

Function: Power Generator


Model/Type: C4.4

Serial Number:
Commercial Name: Caterpillar

Fulfills all the relevant provisions of the following Directives

Directives Notified Body Document No.

2006/42/EC N/A
2006/95/EC N/A
2004/108/EC N/A
2000/14/EC amended by 2005/88/EC, Note (1) Note (2)

Note (1) Annex -_____ Guaranteed Sound Power Level -_____dB (A)
Representative Equipment Type Sound Power Level - _____dB (A)
Engine Power per ____-____ kW Rated engine speed - _____ rpm
Technical Documentation accessible through the person listed above authorized to compile the Technical File

Note (2) Notified body name and address

Done at: Signature

Date: Name/Position

Note: The above information was correct as of July, 2009, but may be subject to change, please refer to the individual declaration of conformity
issued with the product for exact details.
SEBU8607 29
Product Identification Information
Generator Set Intended for Stationary Use Only

i01297919

Generator Set Intended for


Stationary Use Only
SMCS Code: 1000; 7002
THE FOLLOWING NOTICE IS INTENDED ONLY
FOR UNITS SHIPPED INTO THE UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA, CANADA OR UNITED STATES
TERRITORIES
For units marked as being intended for stationary use
only, which are used in the United States of America,
United States Territories or Canada, the following
restrictions apply:
This generating set may only be used in stationary
applications, as defined by the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) Regulation in Title 40 of the
Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 89.2(2)).
The definition of stationary, per the regulations, is that
a) the unit will remain at a single site at a building,
structure, facility or installation for more than 12
consecutive months, or b) will remain at a seasonal
source during it's full annual operation period, as
defined in 40 CFR 89.2(2)(iii).
The following United States Territories must comply
with United States EPA regulations: Puerto Rico,
Virgin Islands, Guam, American Somoa and the
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

i03903859

Emissions Certification Film


SMCS Code: 1000; 7405

Note: This information is pertinent in the United


States, in Canada, and in Europe.
30 SEBU8607
Product Identification Information
Reference Information

Illustration 27 g02163676
Typical example

The IMO label is mounted on the engine. Supplemental Coolant Additive Maintenance Element
Number (Optional)
i03903750 Total Lubrication System Capacity
Reference Information Total Cooling System Capacity
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450 Air Cleaner Element Number
Information for the following items may be needed to Alternator Belt Number
order parts for your marine engine. Locate the
information for your engine. Record the information
on the appropriate space. Make a copy of this list for
a record. Keep this information for future reference.

Record for Reference


Engine Model
Engine Serial Number
Engine Arrangement Number
Modification Number
Engine Low Idle rpm
Engine Full Load rpm
Performance Specification Number
Primary Fuel Filter Number
Water Separator Element Number
Secondary Fuel Filter Element Number
Lubrication Oil Filter Element Number
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element Number
SEBU8607 31
Operation Section
Product Lifting

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage


i03903754

Product Lifting
SMCS Code: 7000; 7002

NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remem-
ber that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object be-
comes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.

Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an


adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance. Lifting fixtures also help to
provide safety.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for the specific
engine arrangement. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that
proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for information regarding fixtures
for proper engine lifting.

Engine Views
32 SEBU8607
Lifting and Storage
Product Lifting

MCS

Illustration 28 g02163637
Typical example
SEBU8607 33
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage

Lifting the Entire Package • Dust

Do NOT use the engine lifting eyes or the • Dirt


generator lifting eyes to lift the entire package.
Lifting points (3) have been provided on the base rails • Moisture
of the generator set for lifting the entire package.
However, lifting the engine and the generator together • Other airborne abrasive substances
requires special equipment and procedures. Consult
your Caterpillar dealer for information regarding Long Time Storage
fixtures for proper lifting of your complete package.
Engine Storage
Lifting the Engine Only
If the engine will not be started for several weeks, the
lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and
from the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinder
liner surface, which will increase engine wear which
can reduce engine service life.
To help prevent excessive engine wear, use the
following guidelines:

• Complete all of the lubrication recommendations


that are listed in this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”
(Maintenance Section).
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
cooling system for adequate protection against
Illustration 29 g01625206 freezing. See this Operation and Maintenance
Typical example Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
(Maintenance Section).
To remove the engine ONLY, use lifting eyes (2) that
are on the engine. Refer to illustration 29 . The engine If an engine is out of operation and if use of the
lifting eyes have blanks (4) that must be removed engine is not planned, special precautions should be
before the engine lifting eyes are used. Refer to 29 . made. If the engine will be stored for more than 1
These blanks must be installed after use. month, a complete protection procedure is
recommended.
Lifting the Generator Only Your Caterpillar dealer will have instructions for
preparing the engine for extended storage periods.
To remove the generator ONLY, use lifting eyes (1)
that are on the generator. The generator lifting eyes For more detailed information on engine storage, see
have blanks (4) that must be removed before the Special Instruction, SEHS9031, “Storage Procedure
generator lifting eyes are used. Refer to illustration 29 for Caterpillar Products”.
. These blanks must be installed after use.
Generator Storage
i03902896
A storage period in excess of 6 months should be
Product Storage preceded by the following preparation:
SMCS Code: 7002 1. Install desiccant bags inside the exciter's cover and
install desiccant bags inside the screen of the fan.
Short Time Storage
2. Seal the unit in a covering of plastic or other
If the generator is not installed immediately, store the material that has been designed for that purpose.
generator in a clean area. This area should also have
the following conditions: low humidity, stable humidity 3. Adequately tag the generator. This will ensure that
and stable temperature. Space heaters must be preservative greases and desiccant bags are
energized in order to keep condensation from the
windings. All accessory equipment that is supplied removed before the generator is placed in
with the unit should be stored with the generator. The operation.
combined unit should be covered with a durable
cover in order to protect against the following
contaminants:
34 SEBU8607
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage

Bearing Inspection
Ball bearing generators use grease. This grease is
subject to deterioration. If the generator is stored
more than 1 year, new ball bearings may be required.
These bearings should be greased prior to being put
into operation. If inspection indicates that bearings
are free of rust or corrosion, and no noise or
excessive vibration appear on start-up, replacement
is not necessary.

Electrical Measurements
Measure the insulation resistance of each winding if
the generator was exposed to the following
conditions:

• Rapid changes in temperature


• Freezing

• Wet climate during storage


Note: These tests should be conducted prior to any
power connections that are being made. These tests
should be conducted prior to any control connections
that are made.
Refer to the Generator Maintenance section of this
manual in order to measure the following items:
• Exciter Field (Stator)

• Exciter Armature (Rotor)


• Generator Field (Rotor)

• Generator Armature (Stator)


For additional information on generator storage,
consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
SEBU8607 35
Installation
Product Installation

Installation Location
The location of the generator must comply with all
i03903752 local regulations. The location of the generator must
also comply with all special industrial regulations.
Product Installation Locate the generator in an area that meets the
following requirements:
SMCS Code: 1000; 1404; 4450; 7002
• Clean
Receiving Inspection • Dry
If the generator is received during cold weather, allow
• Well ventilated
the unit to reach room temperature before you
remove the protective packing material. Warming the • Easily accessible for inspection and maintenance
generator to room temperature will prevent the
following problems: Do not obstruct air inlet openings. Do not obstruct
discharge openings. Coolant flow must reach these
• Water condensation on cold surfaces openings. If the generator is exposed to harsh
environmental conditions, the generator can be
• Early failures due to wet windings modified in the field in order to add filters and space
heaters. In addition, a more rigid periodic
• Early failures due to wet insulating materials maintenance schedule should be established.
Unpacking Electrical Measurements
Moving the Generator Measure the insulation resistance of each winding if
the generator was exposed to the following
Unpack the equipment with care in order to avoid conditions:
scratching painted surfaces.
• Rapid changes in temperature
• Freezing

Improper lift rigging can allow unit to tumble • Wet climate during shipment
causing injury and damage.
• Wet climate during storage
Note: These tests should be conducted prior to any
NOTICE power connections that are being made. These tests
Do not use the engine lifting eyes to remove the en- should be conducted prior to any control connections
gine and generator together. that are being made.
Refer to the Generator Maintenance section of this
Move the unit to the mounting location. The unit can manual in order to measure the following items:
be moved by either of the following methods:
• Exciter field (stator)
• Attach an overhead crane to the eyebolts that are
installed on the generator frame. • Exciter armature (rotor)
• Use a lift truck in order to lift the generator. • Generator field (rotor)
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, • Generator armature (stator)
“Product Lifting” section.
The hoist and the hoist cables should have a rating
Protective Devices
that is greater than the weight of the generator. When The output to the load of the generator should always
the unit is moved, ensure that the generator is be protected with an overload protection device such
supported by the lift truck's fork tines. Also ensure as a circuit breaker or fuses. Fuses should be sized
that the generator is balanced on the lift truck's fork by using the lowest possible current rating. However,
tines. Slide the fork tines beneath the attached skid in this rating must be above the current rating for full
order to lift the generator, if equipped. load. A common recommendation is 115 percent of
rated current. Determine the size of fuses or
determine the size of circuit breakers in accordance
with NEMA , IEC, and Local Electrical Codes.
36 SEBU8607
Features and Controls
Alarms and Shutoffs

Features and Controls Coolant level – The low coolant level switch
indicates when the coolant level is low.
i03905629 Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature
sensor indicates high jacket water coolant
Alarms and Shutoffs temperature.

SMCS Code: 7400 Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure
sensor indicates when oil pressure drops below rated
This section contains some general information about system pressure, at a set engine speed.
the function of typical engine protective devices.
Engine overspeed – The primary speed/timing
The alarms and shutoffs are set at critical operating sensor checks the engine speed.
temperatures, pressures, fluid levels, or speeds in
order to protect the engine from damage.
Note: The sensing element of the coolant
An alarm warns the operator when an abnormal temperature switch must be submerged in coolant in
operating condition occurs. The shutoffs shut down order to operate.
the engine if a more critical operating condition
occurs. The shutoffs help to prevent damage to the Engines may be equipped with alarms in order to
engine. alert the operator when undesirable operating
conditions occur.
If an engine protective device shuts off the engine,
always determine the cause of the shutoff. Always NOTICE
make the necessary repairs before attempting to start When an alarm is activated, corrective measures
the engine. must be taken before the situation becomes an emer-
gency in order to avoid possible engine damage.
Become familiar with the following information:
• Types of the alarms and shutoffs If corrective measures are not taken within a
reasonable time, engine damage could result. The
• Locations of the alarm and shutoff controls alarm will continue until the condition is corrected.
The alarm may need to be reset.
• Conditions which cause each control to function
Testing Alarms and Shutoffs
• The procedure that is required before starting the
engine Alarms must function properly in order to provide
timely warning to the operator. Shutoffs help to
Shutoffs prevent damage to the engine. It is impossible to
determine if the engine protective devices are in good
The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically working order during normal operation. Malfunctions
operated. The alarms for the MCS are controlled by must be simulated in order to test the engine
the control panel. protective devices. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Engine Protective Devices -
The particular shutoff may need to be reset before the Check” for more information.
engine will start.

NOTICE
Prevention of Start-up
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown. The engine will not start if any of the conditions that
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart cause a shutoff are present. An overcrank will also
the engine. prevent starting of the engine. If any situation that
causes a shutoff occurs, the following conditions
must be met before the engine can be started:
Alarms
• The condition that prevented starting is not
The alarms are electrically operated. The operation of present.
the alarms are controlled by the control panel.
• The fault must be reset or cleared in the controller.
The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.
When the sensor or the switch is activated a signal is
sent to the control panel. An event code is created by
the control panel. The control panel will send a signal
in order to illuminate the lamp.
Your engine may be equipped with the following
sensors or switches:
SEBU8607 37
Features and Controls
Control Panel

i03902899

Control Panel
SMCS Code: 7451

Marine Classification Society (MCS)


Control Panel
Note: The power for the panel is supplied by the
isolator keyswitch .

Illustration 30 g02160513

(1) Emergency stop push button (5) Low oil pressure shutdown indicator (10) Engine harness connector DC and
(2) Control panel (6) Isolator Keyswitch governor
(3) High coolant temperature shutdown (7) Glow plug circuit breaker (11) AC isolator jacket water heater (if
indicator (8) Engine harness connector DC and starter equipped)
(4) High oil temperature shutdown indicator (9) Generator harness connector
38 SEBU8607
Features and Controls
Control Panel

Illustration 31 g02160517

(1) Circuit breaker F1 Main controller (6) Relay K2 Primary power on (11) Starter relay
(2) Circuit breaker F2 Shutdown controls (7) Relay K3 Alternator charging (12) Engine shutdown override switch
(3) Circuit breaker F3 Sensor feeds (8) Relay K4 Generator running 2 (13) Backup start/stop switch
(4) Power dip capacitor (9) Glow plug relay
(5) Relay K1 Generator running 1 (10) Glow plug earth relay
SEBU8607 39
Features and Controls
Control Panel

Illustration 32 g02160519

(1) Alarm indicator (8) Alarm indicator (16) “MODE” key


(2) Display (9) Menu key for RIGHT (17) Indicator lamp for the status of the
(3) “LOG” (10) Menu key for SELECT generator
(4) “VIEW” (11) Lamp test switch (18) Engine operating indicator
(5) Menu key for UP (12) Menu key for DOWN (19) “STOP” key (reset)
(6) Indicator lamp for the power status of the (13) “BACK” key (20) “START” key
controller (14) Menu key for LEFT (21) “JUMP” key
(7) Indicator lamp for the status of the (15) Indicator lamp for control in remote (22) “INFO” key
controller mode

The MCS control panel is operated by keys on the of alarms. The list holds 100 events. These events
control panel. The keys (4), (5), and (10) control the are erased when the main unit is switched off.
starting and the stopping of the generator set. The
keys (2), (3), (12), (13), (14), (15), (16), (20), (21), and “ VIEW”” Key (4) – Enter a menu number selection.
(22) allow the operator to access additional All settings have a specific number. The “VIEW” key
information about the generator set. enables the user to select any setting. The “VIEW”
key enables the user to display any setting without
Alarm Indicator (1) – A flashing LED indicates that navigating through all of the menus.
alarms that have not been acknowledged are still
Menu Key for UP(5) – This key increases the value
present. A fixed LED indicates that all alarms are
acknowledged. A red LED indicates shutdown. A of the selected set point in the setting menus. This
green LED is for an alarm. key is also used for scrolling to the second line that
displays the values for the generator in the display for
Display Area (2) – The display area shows daily use.
information about the generator set.
Indicator for Status of the Controller (7) – This light
“ LOG”” Key (3) – This key shifts the display to the indicates that the unit is running a self-check and the
three lower lines in order to show the event and a list unit is functioning properly.
40 SEBU8607
Features and Controls
Control Panel

Indicator Light for “ Alarm Inhibit”” (8) – This light Setting the Password
indicates that “inhibit input” is on.
Setting the password can only be accomplished by
Menu Key for RIGHT(9) – This key moves the cursor using the “JUMP” key.
to the right in order to maneuver in the menus.
“ SEL”” Key (10) – This key is used to select the Note: Keep a record of the password. If the password
function that has been chosen. The function that has is forgotten, it will not be possible to enter the menus.
been chosen is the underlined selection in the lower
line of the display. Use the following procedure to change the password.

Lamp Test Switch (11) – The lamp test switch is 1. Press the “JUMP” key.
used to test indicators on the control panel.
2. Use the Menu key for UP and the Menu key for
Menu Key for DOWN(12) – This key decreases the
value of the selected set point in the setting menus. DOWN In order to step to channel 4976.
This key is also used for scrolling to the second line
that displays the values for the generator in the 3. Press the “SEL” key.
display for daily use.
Note: The password must be re-entered when the
“ BACK”” Key (13) – The “BACK” key jumps one display has not been used for 3 minutes.
step backward in the menu to previous display or to
the entry screen. Service Menu
Menu Key for LEFT(14) – This key moves the cursor
Accessing the Service Menu can only be
to the left for maneuvering in the menus.
accomplished by using the “JUMP” key.
Indicator Light for Control in Remote Mode (15) –
The indicator illuminated through operation of the Use the following procedure to access the Service
Mode key. (12) Menu.

“ MODE”” Key (16) – The “MODE” key switches the 1. Press the “JUMP” key.
system between LOCAL START/STOP and
“REMOTE START/STOP” . Light (13) is illuminated 2. Use the Menu key for UP and the Menu key for
for “REMOTE” control. DOWN In order to step to channel 4980.
Generator Status Indicator (17) – This light 3. Press the “SEL” key.
indicates that the voltage and frequency is present
and OK. 4. Choose the desired functions, timers, inputs, or
Engine Operating Indicator (18) – Light indicates outputs by moving the cursor and pressing the
that the generator is running. “SEL” key.
“ STOP”” Key (reset) (19) – The “STOP” key shuts
down the engine when the engine is running. Alarms
Pressing the “ STOP”” key bypasses the cooldown
period. The following steps describe the function of the
alarm.
“ START”” Key (20) – The “START” key begins the
starting sequence. The PPU must be in manual mode 1. An alarm occurs. The alarm light starts flashing.
in order for the “START” key to function. The remote
indicator light (15) cannot be illuminated. To switch off 2. The display automatically shows the alarm
the remote indicator light, press “MODE” key (14). information.
“ JUMP”” Key (21) – The “JUMP” key is used to 3. Move the cursor to “ACK” and press the “SEL”
enter a number in order to select a menu. Every key in order to acknowledge the alarm. Take the
setting has a specific number. Use the “JUMP” key necessary action for the alarm.
in order to select any setting and display any setting
without navigating all the way through the menus. 4. The alarm will disappear when the condition that
“ INFO”” Key (22) – This shifts the display in order to caused the alarm is no longer present.
show the list of alarms. The list has a maximum of 30
alarms. A history that displays the last 30 alarms can 5. Alarms that have not been acknowledged are still
be viewed. present if the alarm light flashes.

6. Use the navigation keys in order to step through


the list of alarms.
SEBU8607 41
Features and Controls
Control Panel

Warnings engines and in excess of 130 degrees celsius for six


cylinder engines (warning), the display will show
“ WARNING BATTERY VOLTAGE”” – If the control “LUB OIL HIGH” . The alarm indicator illuminates.
module detects voltage from the alternator that is
below the setting for low voltage, the display will show “ SHUTDOWN OVERRIDE”” – If the control module
“BATTERY LOW V” . The alarm indicator illuminates, detects an override for an engine shutdown and the
and an audible alarm is activated. switch is set to OVERRIDE, the display will show “S/
D OVERRIDE” . The alarm indicator illuminates, and
“ FAIL TO STOP”” – If the control module determines an audible alarm is activated.
that the signal from the engine speed sensor
indicates that the engine is running but the engine “ STARTING AIR PRESSURE LOW ALARM
should not be running, the display will show “STOP OPTIONAL”” – If the control module detects low
FAIL” . The alarm indicator illuminates, and an starting air pressure (warning), the display will show
audible alarm is activated. “START AIR P LOW” . The alarm indicator
illuminates, and an audible alarm is activated.
“ WARNING LOW OIL PRESSURE”” – If the control
module detects engine oil pressure that has fallen “ GENERATOR WINDING OR BEARING OVER
below the setting for low oil pressure (warning), the TEMPERATURE ALARM OPTIONAL”” – If the
control module detects a generator bearing over
display will show “LOW OIL PRESS” . The alarm temperature (warning), the display will show “GEN
indicator illuminates, and an audible alarm is BRG OVER TEMP” . The alarm indicator illuminates,
activated. This warning is only active after the engine and an audible alarm is activated.
has exceeded the Safety On Timer.
“ EXTERNAL FUEL TANK LEVEL ALARM
“ WARNING HIGH COOLANT TEMP”” – If the control OPTIONAL”” – If the control module detects a low
module detects engine coolant temperature that has fuel level in an external fuel tank, the display will show
exceeded the setting for high coolant temperature “EXT FUEL T LOW” . The alarm indicator illuminates,
(warning), the display will show “HIGH ENGINE and an audible alarm is activated.
TEMP” . The alarm indicator illuminates, and an
audible alarm is activated. This warning is only active “ HIGH EXHAUST TEMPERATURE ALARM
after the engine has exceeded the “Safety On” OPTIONAL”” – If the control module detects a high
Timer. exhaust temperature (warning), the display will show
“HIGH EXH TEMP” . The alarm indicator illuminates,
“ WARNING OVERSPEED”” – If the engine speed and an audible alarm is activated.
exceeds the setting for an engine overspeed
(warning), the display will show “OVERSPEED” . The “ HIGH PRESSURE FUEL LEAK ALARM
alarm indicator illuminates, and an audible alarm is OPTIONAL”” – If the control module detects a high
activated. pressure fuel leak (warning), the display will show “H
P FUEL LEAK” . The alarm indicator illuminates, and
“ WARNING GENERATOR HIGH FREQUENCY”” – If an audible alarm is activated.
the control module detects an output frequency for
the generator that exceeds the setting for high “ WATER IN FUEL ALARM OPTIONAL”” – If the
generator frequency (warning), the display will show control module detects a signal for water in fuel
“Hz/V FAILURE” . The alarm indicator illuminates, (warning), the display will show “WATER IN FUEL” .
and an audible alarm is activated. The alarm indicator illuminates, and an audible alarm
is activated.
“ WARNING GENERATOR LOW FREQUENCY”” – If
the control module detects an output frequency for
the generator that is below the setting for low Shutdowns
generator frequency (warning), the display will show
“Hz/V FAILURE” . The alarm indicator illuminates, “ SHUTDOWN FAIL TO START”” – If the engine does
and an audible alarm is activated. not start after a preset number of attempts, the
“ GENERATOR HIGH VOLTAGE WARNING”” – If the display will show “Hz/V FAILURE” . The alarm
control module detects an output voltage for the indicator will flash, and an audible alarm is activated.
generator that exceeds the setting for high generator
voltage (warning), the display will show “OVER “ SHUTDOWN EMERGENCY STOP”” – If the voltage
VOLTAGE” . The alarm indicator illuminates, and an signal at the input for the emergency stop is
audible alarm is activated. disconnected, the display will show “E-STOP” . The
generator set will not start until the emergency stop
“ GENERATOR LOW VOLTAGE WARNING”” – If the push button has been reset. Power is removed from
control module detects an output voltage for the the fuel solenoid and the starter solenoid. The alarm
generator that is less than the setting for low indicator will flash, and an audible alarm is activated.
generator voltage (warning), the display will show
“UNDER VOLTAGE” . The alarm indicator illuminates, “ SHUTDOWN LOW OIL PRESSURE”” – If the
and an audible alarm is activated. control module detects engine oil pressure that has
fallen below the setting for low oil pressure
“ LUB OIL HIGH TEMPERATURE ALARM”” – If the (shutdown), the display will show “LOW O P S/
control module detects a high lube oil temperature in DOWN” . The alarm indicator will flash, and an
excess of 120 degrees celsius for four cylinder
42 SEBU8607
Features and Controls
Gauges and Indicators

audible alarm is activated. This warning is only active i03903869


after the engine has exceeded the Safety On Timer.
“ SHUTDOWN HIGH COOLANT TEMPERATURE””
Gauges and Indicators
– If the control module detects engine coolant SMCS Code: 7450
temperature that has exceeded the setting for high
coolant temperature (shutdown), the display will show Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
“HET S/DOWN” . The alarm indicator will flash, and the gauges that are described. For more information
an audible alarm is activated. This warning is only about the gauge package, see the literature that is
active after the engine has exceeded the “Safety On” from the OEM of the vessel.
Timer.
Most gauges and the indicator will be contained
“ SHUTDOWN OVERSPEED”” – If the engine speed within a control panel. Refer to Operation and
exceeds the setting for an engine overspeed Maintenance Manual, “Control Panel” for more
(shutdown), the display will show “Hz/V FAILURE” . information.
The alarm indicator will flash, and an audible alarm is
activated. Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
“ SHUTDOWN UNDERSPEED”” – If the engine Determine the normal operating range by observing
speed falls below the setting for engine underspeed the gauges over a time period.
(shutdown), the display will show “F/U FAIL” . The
alarm indicator will flash, and an audible alarm is Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
activated. This warning is only active after the engine potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
has exceeded the “Safety On” Timer. also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
“ SHUTDOWN GENERATOR HIGH FREQUENCY”” Determine and correct the cause of any significant
– If the control module detects an output frequency
for the generator that exceeds the setting for high change in the readings. Consult your Caterpillar
generator frequency (shutdown), the display will show dealer for assistance.
“Hz/V FAILURE” . The alarm indicator will flash, and Some engine applications are equipped with Indicator
an audible alarm is activated. Lamps. Indicator lamps can be used as a diagnostic
“ SHUTDOWN GENERATOR LOW FREQUENCY”” aid. There are two lamps. One lamp has an orange
– If the control module detects an output frequency lens and the other lamp has a red lens.
for the generator that is below the setting for low
generator frequency (shutdown), the display will show These indicator lamps can be used in two ways:
“Hz/V FAILURE” . The alarm indicator will flash, and
an audible alarm is activated. • The indicator lamps can be used to identify the
current operational status of the engine. The
“ GENERATOR HIGH VOLTAGE SHUTDOWN”” – If indicator lamps can also indicate that the engine
the control module detects an output voltage for the has a fault. This system is automatically operated
generator that exceeds the setting for high generator via the ignition switch.
voltage (shutdown), the display will show “HIGH
VOLT S/D” . The alarm indicator will flash, and an • The indicator lamps can be used to identify active
audible alarm is activated.
diagnostic codes. This system is activated by
“ GENERATOR LOW VOLTAGE SHUTDOWN”” – If pressing the Flash Code button.
the control module detects an output voltage for the
generator that is less than the setting for low NOTICE
generator voltage (shutdown), the display will show If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
“LOW VOLT S/D” . The alarm indicator will flash, and maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
an audible alarm is activated.
the engine. Engine damage can result.
“ ELECTRONIC GOVERNOR FAILURE
SHUTDOWN”” – If the control module detects an
electronic governor failure (shutdown), the display will Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
show “GOV FAIL S/DOWN” . The alarm indicator should be greatest after a cold engine is
illuminates, and an audible alarm is activated. started. The typical engine oil pressure
with SAE10W40 is 350 to 450 kPa ( 50 to 65 psi) at
rated rpm.
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load is
stable and the gauge reading changes, perform the
following procedure:

1. Remove the load.


2. Stop the engine.
SEBU8607 43
Features and Controls
Overspeed

3. Check and maintain the oil level. Table 3


C4.4 (Mech)marine generator set
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 83° to 95°C Hertz (Hz) Alarm Shutdown
(181.4° to 171°F). The maximum
allowable temperature at sea level with the 60 Hz 110% 120%
pressurized cooling system at 48 kPa (7 psi) is 50 Hz 110% 110%
103 °C (217.4 °F). Higher temperatures may occur
under certain conditions. The water temperature If an overspeed condition occurred, an event code will
reading may vary according to load. The be logged in the control panel.
temperature reading should never exceed 7 °C
(44.6 °F) below the boiling point for the
pressurized system that is being used. i03903891

If the engine is operating above the normal range and Sensors and Electrical
steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure: Components
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
(MCS Switches and Alarms)
SMCS Code: 1900; 7400
2. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by Locations of Electrical
reducing the load.
Components
3. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Coolant Level Switch 1
Tachometer – This gauge indicates
engine speed (rpm). When the throttle
control lever is moved to the full throttle
position without load, the engine is running at
high idle. The engine is running at the full load
rpm when the throttle control lever is at the full
throttle position with maximum rated load.

NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. Operation at speeds exceed-
ing high idle rpm should be kept to a minimum.

Ammeter – This gauge indicates the


amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the “ +”” side of “ 0”” (zero).
Service Hour Meter – The gauge
indicates total operating hours of the
engine.
Illustration 33 g02163249

i03903871 Typical example

Overspeed The coolant level switch is powered from the panel.


An alarm can be activated by a signal from the
SMCS Code: 1900; 1907; 1912; 7427 coolant level switch. There are two different types of
coolant level switch. One switch is used on an
The engine overspeed for the marine C4.4 (Mech) expansion tank. The other switch is design in order to
marine generator set will depend on the operating be used on a radiator.
frequency for the generator.
44 SEBU8607
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components

Coolant Differential Pressure Switch 2 High Coolant Temperature Transmitter 4

Illustration 34 g02161574
Typical example

The coolant differential pressure switch is powered


from the panel. If an incorrect signal is received, an
alarm will be activated by the control panel when a
signal is received from the coolant differential
pressure switch. Illustration 35 g02161576
Typical example
Raw Water Differential Pressure Switch 3
The coolant temperature transmitter is powered from
The raw water differential pressure switch is powered the panel. The coolant temperature transmitter is
from the panel. If an incorrect signal is received, an used to display coolant temperature and trigger the
alarm will be activated by the control panel when a alarm setpoint.
signal is received from the raw water differential
pressure switch. High Coolant Temperature Switch
(Shutdown) 5
A signal will be sent to the panel if high coolant
temperature occurs.
SEBU8607 45
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components

Low Fuel Pressure Switch 6 The oil pressure transmitter is powered from the
panel. If an incorrect signal is received, an alarm will
be activated by the control panel when a signal is
received from the oil pressure transmitter .

Oil Pressure Switch 9 Shutdown


The oil pressure switch can send a signal to the
control panel in order to shut down the engine.

Oil Filter Differential Pressure Switch 10


The inlet pressure and the outlet pressure of the oil
filter is monitored.

Oil Temperature Sender 11

Illustration 36 g02161577
Typical example

The fuel pressure switch is powered by the panel.

Fuel Differential Pressure


Switch 7
The inlet pressure and the outlet pressure of the fuel
filters are monitored.

Oil Pressure Transmitter 8

Illustration 38 g02161579
Typical example

The sender will signal the panel if high oil temperature


occurs.

Note: The magnetic pickup is used in order to shut


down the engine if an overspeed condition occurs.

Illustration 37 g02161578
Typical example
46 SEBU8607
Engine Diagnostics
Diagnostic Lamp

Engine Diagnostics In most cases, stopping the engine may not be


necessary because of an intermittent code. The
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes. The
i03903102 operator should reference the appropriate information
in order to identify the nature of the fault. The operator
Diagnostic Lamp should log any observation that could have caused
the lamp to light.
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902; 7451
The C4.4 (Mech)marine generator set is equipped i03905710
with one control panel that has a direct readout of the
diagnostic code. Configuration Parameters
The following panel that is installed (Customer Specified Parameters)
• MCS panel SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902

The control panel for the MCS has a diagnostic lamp. System configuration parameters are parameters that
affect the emissions and the power of the engine.
Default values for the parameters are programmed at
i03905681 the factory. Some parameters may be changed by the
customer in order to suit the needs of the specific
Engine Operation with Active application.
Diagnostic Codes Engine Rating Parameter
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902
“ Rating Number””
Control Panel for MCS The “Rating Number” corresponds to the selected
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine set of performance maps for the application. Factory
operation, the system has identified a situation that is passwords are required in order to change the
not within the specification. Use the Caterpillar “Rating Number” .
electronic service tool (ET) in order to check the
active diagnostic codes. Contact your Caterpillar ECM Identification Parameter
dealer for more information.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated. Equipment ID
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic “Equipment ID” is the identification of the equipment
code is repaired and there is only one active that is assigned by the customer. This parameter
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off. allows the customer to enter a description into the
ECM in order to identify the engines application. A
Operation of the engine and performance of the maximum of 17 characters can be entered in the field.
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates Miscellaneous
may be significantly slower and power outputs may
be automatically reduced. Monitoring Mode Shutdowns
i03905704 “Monitoring Mode Shutdowns” controls the
shutdown feature that is associated with the engine
Engine Operation with monitoring feature.
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes Configurable Inputs
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902
Overspeed Protection
Control Panel for MCS The “Overspeed Protection” speed is the engine rpm
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine when a shutdown will occur. Overspeed protection is
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts OFF, an used in order to protect the engine from damage.
intermittent fault may have occurred. Overspeed protection must be enabled in “Monitoring
Mode Shudowns” .
SEBU8607 47
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters

Configurable Governor Droop


“Configurable Governor Droop” allows the engine to
run in “droop mode” when the genset is operated in
parallel with other gensets.

Coolant Level Sensor


If this parameter is programmed to “Enabled” and
the coolant level falls below the measured level,
“E2143-3” event code will be displayed.

User Defined Switch Installation Status


A user-defined shutdown switch is an optional switch
input. If this parameter is programmed to “Enabled”
and the user-defined shutdown switch closes, the
engine will shut down.
48 SEBU8607
Engine Starting
Before Starting Engine

Engine Starting i03902848

i03902841
Cold Weather Starting
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1450; 1453; 1456; 1900
Before Starting Engine
SMCS Code: 1000; 1400; 1450
Perform the required daily maintenance and other Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
periodic maintenance before the engine is started. ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can personal injury.
help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for more information. Startability will be improved at temperatures below
−18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a jacket water heater or
• Before you start the engine refer to this Operation extra battery capacity.
and Maintenance Manual, “Walk-Around
Inspection” . Disengage any driven equipment.

• Ensure that the engine has an adequate fuel The control panel will automatically control the cold
supply. starting of the engine.

• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped). i03902851

NOTICE Starting the Engine


All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel SMCS Code: 1000; 1450
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
The marine C4.4 (Mech)marine generator set has
failure or other damage. one type of control panel.

If the engine has not been started for several weeks, Marine Certification Society (MCS)
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air may Control Panel
have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters
have been changed, some air pockets will be trapped
in the engine. In these instances, prime the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion


which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.

• Do not start the engine if there is a “DO NOT


OPERATE” warning tag or similar warning tag
attached to the start switch.
• Do not move any of the controls if there is a “DO
NOT OPERATE” warning tag or similar warning
tag attached to the controls.

• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components.


• Ensure that any driven equipment has been
disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove
any electrical loads.
SEBU8607 49
Engine Starting
Starting the Engine

Starting Procedure

Illustration 39 g02162627
Typical example
(1) Isolator Keyswitch
50 SEBU8607
Engine Starting
Starting the Engine

Illustration 40 g02162628
Typical example
(2) Start Key (3) Stop Key (4) Mode Key

Use the following procedure for Marine Certification If “V3” is selected, the display will indicate the
Society control panels in order to start the engine. status in the start/run cycle. The display will show
“start prepare” and “start relay on” .
1. Turn the Isolator keyswitch (1) for the Generator
Set to the ON position. a. If the timer (preheat) is configured, then the
timer (preheat) will be initiated. After the timer
The “Power” LED will illuminate immediately. The (preheat) has expired, the engine will begin to
“Self Check OK” LED will illuminate after a few crank.
seconds. The Generator Set is now ready to start.
Line 4 on the display will read “SETUP V3 V2 V1” . Note: When the engine starts, the starting motor is
disengaged and the starting motor is locked out.
The view that is being displayed is underlined. Use
the left arrow button and the right arrow button to b. If the engine did not start, then the control
scroll between the four screens of the display. module will permit the starting motor to cool
down for a predetermined amount of time.
2. Make sure that the “Auto” LED is off. If the “Auto” Once the cooldown timer has expired, the
LED is on press the “Mode” key once in order to engine will crank.
extinguish the “Auto” LED and gain local control.

3. Press the “Start” key.


SEBU8607 51
Engine Starting
Starting with Jump Start Cables

Note: The “Failed to Start” fault will be displayed


NOTICE
in “V3” after three failed attempts to start the
engine. The “Alarm” LED indicator will flash. If the Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
“Alarm” LED indicator is flashing, move the cursor
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
to “ACK” and press the “SEL” key in order to
the electrical system.
reset the alarm. Determine the reason that the
engine failed to start before making further Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
attempts. be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
c. After the engine has started, the timer (safety)
is activated, unless the timer has been set to 0. When using an external electrical source to start the
This function allows the engine to warm up so engine, turn the generator set control switch to the
“OFF” position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF
that no faults will occur. Once the timer (safety) before attaching the jump start cables.
has expired, fault protection is available. The
generator load may now be applied to the Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF posi-
engine. tion before attaching the jump start cables to the en-
gine being started.
4. To stop the engine, open the circuit breaker and
remove the load from the generator. Press and 1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
release the “STOP” key. OFF position. Turn off all the engines accessories.
Note: Pressing the “Stop” key will bypass the 2. Connect one positive end of the jump-start cable to
cooldown period.
the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump-
i03902849
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
Starting with Jump Start
3. Connect one negative end of the jump-start cable
Cables to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
SMCS Code: 1000; 1401; 1402; 1900 source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump-start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
Improper jump start cable connections can cause gases that are produced by some batteries.
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
4. Start the engine.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start 5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect
cable ends to contact each other or the engine. the jump-start cables in reverse order.

If the installation is not equipped with a backup After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
battery system, it may be necessary to start the recharge batteries that are severely discharged. The
engine from an external electrical source. batteries must be replaced or charged to the proper
voltage with a battery charger after the engine is
For information on troubleshooting the charging stopped. Many batteries which are considered
system, refer to Special Instruction, REHS0354, unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
“Charging System Troubleshooting”. and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
Many batteries which are considered unusable are
still rechargeable. After jump starting, the alternator Refer to the Electrical Schematic for your engine.
may not be able to recharge batteries that are Consult your Caterpillar dealer for more information.
severely discharged. The batteries must be charged
to the proper voltage with a battery charger. For
information on testing and charging, refer to the
Special Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery Test
Procedure”.
52 SEBU8607
Engine Starting
After Starting Engine

i03902850

After Starting Engine


SMCS Code: 1000

Note: In ambient temperatures from 0 to 60°C


(32 to 140°F), the warm-up time is approximately 3
minutes. In temperatures below 0°C (32°F),
additional warm-up time may be required.
When the engine is in operation, observe the
following conditions:
Do not check the high pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. If you
inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.

• Check for any fluid leaks at idle rpm and at one-


half full rpm (no load on the engine) before
operating the engine under load. Check for any air
leaks at idle rpm and at one-half full rpm (no load
on the engine) before operating the engine under
load. This is not possible in some applications.

Note: Gauge readings should be observed and the


data should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
SEBU8607 53
Engine Operation
Engine Operation

Engine Operation • Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The
belts should be in good condition. Refer to the
Specifications manual for further information.
i03902852
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
Engine Operation tight. The connections should not leak.
SMCS Code: 1000 • Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors in
obtaining the maximum life and economy of the • Keep cooling system components clean and keep
engine. If the directions in the Operation and cooling system components in good repair. Never
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized. operate the engine without water temperature
regulators. All of these items will help maintain
The time that is needed for the engine to reach operating temperatures.
normal operating temperature can be less than the
time taken for a walk-around inspection of the engine.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine is
operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.

i03902853

Fuel Conservation Practices


SMCS Code: 1000; 1250
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Caterpillar's design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in all
applications. Follow the recommended procedures in
order to attain optimum performance for the life of the
engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.

• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.


Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to the
Operations and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
Recommendations”for further information.

• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the


air cleaner elements clean.

• Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctly


so that the proper air/fuel ratio is maintained.
Clean exhaust indicates proper functioning.

• Maintain a good electrical system.


One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This will consume excess power and excess fuel.
54 SEBU8607
Generator Operation
Generator Operation

Generator Operation Block Loading


When an electrical load is applied to a generator set,
i03902891 block loading occurs. This load may be anywhere
from a moderate percentage of the rated load up to
Generator Operation the rated load.
SMCS Code: 4450 The block loading capability of a generator set
depends on the following factors:
Loading of the Generator • Engine transient response
When a generator is installed or reconnected, be sure • Voltage regulator response
that the total current in one phase does not exceed
the nameplate rating. Each phase should carry the • Type of the voltage regulator
same load. This allows the engine to work at the rated
capacity. An electrical unbalance can result in an • Altitude of operation of the generator set
electrical overload and overheating if one phase
current exceeds the nameplate amperage. • Type of load
Allowable combinations of unbalanced loads are • The amount of load that is already present
shown in Illustration 41 . When you operate with
significant single-phase loads, the combinations of If a block load derating is required, refer to ISO 8528
single-phase load and three-phase load may be Standards or SAE J1349 Standards. Also, reference
used. Such combinations should be located below Engine Data Sheet, LEKX4066, Loading Transient
the line on the graph. Response and Engine Data Sheet, LEKX4067, Block
and Transient Response.

Power Factor
Power factor (PF) determines the relationship
between true power and apparent power. The true
power is also known as the active power. The
apparent power is also called kVA. The true power
(kW) is the work that is done on the load by the
engine. The true power determines the amount of
power that is available for the load to do work. The
apparent power (kVA) is the total power that is
produced by the generator. Power factor can be
calculated by using the following formula.
PF = kW / kVA,

• kilowatt (kW)
• kilovolt ampere (kVA)

• kVARkilovolt ampere reactive power is a unit of


measurement.
Note: The generator does NOT control power factor.
Power factor is determined by the load.
In most applications, electric motors, solid-state
controls, and transformers determine the power factor
of the system. Induction motors usually have a power
factor that is no larger than 0.8. Incandescent lighting
is a resistive load of about 1.0 power factor, or unity.
Solid-state controls, variable frequency drivers,
variable speed drivers, and systems for the UPS can
operate at any power factor, leading or lagging. In this
case, the power factor can be between 0.4 and 1.0.

Illustration 41 g00627416
Allowable Combinations of Unbalanced Loads
SEBU8607 55
Generator Operation
Single Unit Operation

The power factor of a system may be determined by a Bearing Temperature Detectors


power factor meter or by calculations. Determine the
power requirement in kW by multiplying the power Temperature detectors for the bearings are available
factor by the kVA that is supplied to the system. As on large frame generators. These temperature
the power factor increases, the total current that is detectors measure the main bearing temperature.
supplied to a constant power demand will decrease. Thus, the temperature of the bearing can be
With equal loads, a lower power factor will draw more measured or monitored. Bearing temperature
current. A high-power factor will result in full engine measurements may help to prevent premature
load that is less than the generators rated amperage. bearing failure. Temperature detectors for the
A lower power factor increases the possibility of bearings are used with equipment that has been
overloading the generator. provided by the customer. Contact your Caterpillar
dealer for more information.
Note: Normally, Caterpillar generators are designed
for a power factor of 0.8 lagging. Consult your
i03902892
Caterpillar dealer in order to check the generator
rating if the operation at less than 0.7 lagging power
factor or operation at a leading power factor of 0.8 is Single Unit Operation
desired. SMCS Code: 4450

Excitation Systems Initial Start-Up


Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Voltage Regulators” for information on excitation Measure the insulation resistance of each winding if
systems. the generator was exposed to the following
conditions:
Standby Generator Sets • Rapid changes in temperature
Most standby units are automatic. Without an • Freezing
operator in attendance, standby units will perform the
following functions: start, pick up the load, run and • Wet climate during shipment
stop.
• Wet climate during storage
Standby units will not change the governor speed
control or the settings of the voltage levels Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
automatically. The governor speed and voltage level “Insulation - Test”.
must be preset for the proper operation of that unit.
Whenever the set is operated manually, ensure that Note: These tests should be conducted prior to any
the governor speed and the settings of the voltage power connections or control connections that are
levels are set correctly for automatic operation. Check being made.
all switches for the proper setting. The start switch
should be in the AUTOMATIC position. Emergency
stop switches should be in RUN position. Starting
Options for the Generator 1. Make all preliminary engine starting checks.

2. Be sure that the main circuit breaker or the line


Space Heaters circuit breaker is open.
Most of the generators are provided with space 3. Start the engine.
heaters. These space heaters are installed for
operation in all climates. For more information on 4. Close the main circuit breaker.
space heaters, refer to Maintenance Section, “Space
Heater - Check”. 5. Apply the load. Do not try to apply the full load.
Apply the load in increments in order to maintain
Embedded Temperature Detectors system frequency at a constant level.

Some generators are available with embedded 6. Readjust the governor for rated frequency.
temperature detectors. The detectors are installed in
the slots of the main armature. The main armature is
also called a stator. The detectors are used with the
Adjust the Voltage
equipment that is provided by the customer. Thus, the Adjust the voltage regulator in order to obtain the
temperature of the main armature winding can be proper voltage. Refer to Operation and
measured or monitored. RTD temperature detectors Maintenance Manual, “Voltage Regulators” for
are available. Contact your Caterpillar dealer for more information about the voltage regulator.
more information.
56 SEBU8607
Generator Operation
Parallel Operation

1. Turn the remote adjustment potentiometer to the 3. Allow the engine to run for 5 minutes in order to
center position, if equipped. cool.

2. Connect an analog voltmeter that is calibrated for 4. Stop the engine.


100 VDC on terminal E+ and terminal E-.
i03902893
3. Connect a voltmeter that is calibrated for 300 VAC
to 500 VAC or 1000 VAC to the output terminals of
the generator.
Parallel Operation
SMCS Code: 4450
4. Make sure that the ST3 wire is positioned on the
desired frequency. Also, the engine speed must be Initial Start-Up
changed from the factory setting in order to change
the frequency of the generator. Preparing a generator for parallel operation requires
special attention. Before you attempt to parallel units
5. Turn voltage potentiometer (P2) to a full for the first time, check all the units for the following
counterclockwise position. three conditions.
• Same phase rotation
6. Turn frequency potentiometer (P4) to a full
clockwise position. • Same alternating current frequency
7. Turn stability potentiometer (P3) counterclockwise • Same voltage adjustment
to about 1/3 of the total rotation for the
potentiometer. 1. Check the phase rotation.

8. Start the engine and set the engine speed to a Units that operate in parallel must have the same
phase rotation. There are two methods that may
frequency of 48 Hz for 50 Hz or 58 Hz for 60 Hz. be used in order to determine if the incoming unit
and the unit that is on-line have the same phase
9. Adjust the output voltage to the correct value with rotation. These methods are listed below:
potentiometer P2. This voltage should be the rated
voltage UN for single operation or UN plus 2% to • Using a phase rotation meter
4% for parallel operation with a current
transformer. Use potentiometer P3 to make • Using a set of three light bulbs
adjustments if the voltage oscillates. Adjust Use the procedure below to determine the proper
potentiometer P3 in both directions while you phase rotation by using three light bulbs.
observe the voltage between E+ and E-. The
voltage between E+ and E- should be
approximately 10 VDC. The best response times
are obtained at the limit of the instability. Try cutting
or replacing the wire ST2 if no stable position can
be obtained.
10. Check the LAM operation. ST5 must be closed.

11. Turn potentiometer (P4) slowly counterclockwise


until there is a significant voltage drop. The voltage
drop should be approximately 15 %.

12. Vary the frequency around 48 Hz or 58 Hz


according to the operating frequency. Check the
change in the voltage that was previously
observed.

Stopping
1. Remove the load in increments.
2. Open the circuit breaker.
SEBU8607 57
Generator Operation
Parallel Operation

b. Adjust the governor control in order to give the


rated frequency at full load.

c. Remove the load and check the high idle


speed. The high idle speed should be
approximately 2 to 5 percent above full load
speed for governors that are equipped with
droop. If these speeds cannot be obtained,
contact your Caterpillar dealer.

d. For the most consistent results, repeat 2.b.


and 2.c. until the second condition of “Initial
Start-Up” has been met.
Illustration 42 g00695380
3. Adjust the voltage.The potentiometers should be
at the initial settings. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Voltage Regulators”.
When servicing or repairing electric power gen- Note: Make sure that the speed droop is identical
eration equipment: for all of the engines before adjustments are made
to the generator.
Make sure the unit is off-line (disconnected
from utility and/or other generators power serv- a. Preset the unit for parallel operation by
ice), and either locked out or tagged DO NOT connecting the current transformer to S1 and
OPERATE. Remove all fuses. S2 of the connector J2. Set potentiometer P1
for quadrature droop in the center position.
a. Connect the light bulbs with rated voltage Apply the rated load. The voltage should drop
between the generator leads and the for 2% to 3%. Switch the positions of the two
corresponding line phase. For example, incoming secondary wires of the current
connect terminal 1 to line 1 across the open transformer if the voltage increases.
circuit breaker.
b. The no-load voltages should be identical for all
b. Start the units that will be in operating in
the generators that are operating in parallel.
parallel. Bring the units up to speed. As the
Connect the generators in parallel. Try to
units approach the same speed, the lights will
obtain a 0 kW power exchange by adjusting
start to blink.
the speed of the generator. Try to minimize the
• If the lights blink in sequence, one of the circulating currents between generators by
units is connected backward. In order to altering the voltage setting with potentiometer
correct the problem, stop the units. Remove P2 or Rhe on one of the generators.
generator leads 1 and 3 at the circuit Note: Do not change the voltage settings after
breaker. Exchange these generator leads. this step.
This reverses the direction of phase c. Apply the available load. The setting is correct
rotation. Terminal 2 should always be only if a reactive load is available. Equalize the
connected to line 2. Go to 5. Kilowatts or divide the rated power of the units
proportionally by altering the speed. Alter the
• Both generators have the same phase
quadrature droop potentiometer (P1) in order
rotation when the lights blink in unison. The
to equalize the currents or divide the currents.
first condition of “Initial Start-Up” has been
met. Starting Multiple Units
2. Adjust the frequency.
Use the procedure for starting single units in order to
The units that will be operating in parallel must start multiple units. Refer to Operation Section,
operate at the same speed. Speed is proportional “Single Unit Operation”.
to the alternating current frequency.

a. Allow each electric set to run under load for


about 30 minutes.
58 SEBU8607
Generator Operation
Parallel Operation

Paralleling Multiple Units In order to transfer the load from one engine to
another engine, use the following procedure:
Units may be paralleled at no load. Units may also be
paralleled with units under load. After the initial 1. Increase the governor speed control of one unit in
conditions for start-up are satisfied, verify for the order to increase the load.
following requirements:
2. Reduce the governor speed control of the other
• One of the governors can be an isochronous unit in order to decrease the load on that unit.
governor. Electronic load sharing governors are an
exception. 3. Raise the governor speed control or lower the
governor speed control of both units in order to
• Generators must have voltage droop change system frequency.
compensation or cross current compensation.

1. Start the unit which will be paralleled.


Parallel Operation Of Governors
2. Turn on the synchronizer lights.

3. After the engine has run a few minutes, bring the


engine up to synchronous speed. This means that
the frequency of the incoming unit will be the same
frequency as the unit that is on-line. The
synchronizing lights will begin to blink.
Note: The frequency of the incoming unit should be
slightly greater than the line frequency. This will allow
the incoming unit to assume some of the load instead
of adding to the system load.

4. By using the governor control, adjust the engine


speed until the lights blink slowly. Illustration 43 g00630841
Load Sharing Module (Typical Example)
5. The lights are off when the voltages of the two units
are in-phase. Quickly close the breaker while the The generator set load sharing module provides
lights are out. either the droop load sharing or the isochronous load
sharing for parallel applications. The load sharing
6. Use the governor controls in order to share kW module has a synchronizing parallel module SPM-A
load between engines. input. The module provides the proportional load
sharing. More information is available in the System
7. Generator temperature will be stabilized in Operation, Testing and Adjusting, SENR6565,
Generator Set Load Sensor and Generator Load
approximately 1 hour. After the generator Sharing Module.
temperature has been stabilized, adjust the
voltage droop rheostat of each generator. This will
share the reactive load and this will limit the
circulating currents. Less droop increases the
reactive current that is carried by the generator.
Adjusting the voltage droop rheostat in a
counterclockwise direction will decrease the droop.
Adjusting the voltage droop rheostat in a clockwise
direction will increase droop.

Load Division and Speed Droop (If


Equipped)
Once two units have been paralleled, the units share
of the kW load is determined by the governor control Illustration 44 g00637397
setting. If two units of the same capacity and the
(1) Droop potentiometer
same governor characteristics have the same
governor control settings, the units will share the load
equally. The total load must not exceed the capacity
of the one engine.
SEBU8607 59
Generator Operation
Parallel Operation

The Speed brick converter changes the analog signal • Each governor should have a 3 percent speed
of the speed potentiometer into a pulse width droop in order to provide the simplest combination
modulated signal. The engine electronic control can of governors for electric sets that are connected in
recognize this signal. The converter is mounted on parallel. If a constant frequency from no load to full
the subpanel which is located within the control panel. load is required, one governor can be adjusted for
isochronous operation. This isochronous unit will
Function of The Engine Governor be called a “lead unit” .

This section describes the function of the engine • In order for all paralleled units to accept the full
governor in relation to load division between parallel share of the load, the following governor
electric sets. adjustments are required. The governors should
have the same full load speed. The governors
It is important to understand two basic facts about should have the same high idle speed in the case
load division between generator sets which are
operating in parallel. of governors which are adjusted for speed droop
operation. Governor controls should be set to the
1. The power which is supplied to the generator and high idle position so that the full range of the
to the load is a function of the engine. The setting governor is available.
of the engine governor and the position of the • Operating an isochronous governor in parallel with
engine governor control determine the amount of a speed droop governor requires special
power that is delivered by the engine. Therefore, techniques.
the governor setting and the position of the
governor control determine the kW load which is • Any number of electric sets can be operated in
carried by the generator. A change in the engine parallel. However, only one governor of the group
power of any one of the units in a parallel operation can be adjusted for isochronous operation. The
exception will be some special cases of electronic
will result in the same change in engine power for
governors with automatic load sharing.
each of the other units in that parallel operation. In
other words, the units that are in parallel operation Stopping
will stay in parallel operation.
In order to remove a generator from the line, perform
2. The division of power is not determined by the following procedure.
generator excitation or terminal voltage. The
excitation will determine the power factor for a 1. Check the load. The load must be less than the
generator when the generator is operating in rated capacity of the remaining units.
parallel with other generators.
2. Be sure that the neutral of one of the remaining
Governors that are used with Caterpillar powered units is grounded.
electric sets can be of two types:
3. Remove the load from the outgoing unit. See the
• Governors with fixed speed droop Parallel Operation, “Load Division - Speed Droop”.
The amperage may never go to zero due to
• Governors with adjustable speed droop
circulating currents.
The values of speed droop which are commonly used
are 3 percent and 0 percent. Governors with 4. Open the circuit breaker.
adjustable speed droop can be adjusted so the
characteristics match closely with the characteristics 5. Allow the engine to cool for 5 minutes.
of governors with fixed speed droop. If the governor is
adjusted for 0 percent speed droop or isochronous 6. Stop the engine.
operation, then the same speed from no load to full
load can be obtained. Circulating Currents
Summary on Governor Operation Understanding the circulating currents becomes
important when you parallel the units. These
circulating currents are flowing between generators in
The preceding discussion of governor operation can parallel operation. The circulating currents are
be summarized below: caused by voltage differences between the
generators. The circulating currents are not doing
useful work. The amount of the circulating current can
be determined by subtracting the amperage which is
going to the load from the total generator amperage.
60 SEBU8607
Generator Operation
Voltage Regulators

The circulating current may be as high as 25 percent


of rated amperes with cold generator sets. Such
current may not even be considered harmful. The
total generator current should not exceed the Accidental engine starting can cause injury or
amperage rating. death to personnel working on the equipment.

As the generators warm, the circulating currents will To avoid accidental engine starting, disconnect
decrease. The ammeter readings should decrease the battery cable from the negative (−) battery ter-
slightly, but the voltage meter readings should remain minal. Completely tape all metal surfaces of the
constant. disconnected battery cable end in order to pre-
vent contact with other metal surfaces which
could activate the engine electrical system.
i03902840
Place a Do Not Operate tag at the Start/Stop
Voltage Regulators switch location to inform personnel that the
equipment is being worked on.
SMCS Code: 4467
For generators with Auxiliary Winding Regulation
Excitation Principle (AREP), the voltage regulator is
powered by two auxiliary windings. These windings
Personal injury or death can result from high are independent from the voltage sensing circuit. The
voltage. first winding is Labeled as “X1” and “X2” . This
winding has a voltage that is proportional with the
When power generation equipment must be in op- output voltage of the generator. The second winding
eration to make tests and/or adjustments, high is Labeled as “Z1” and “Z2” . This winding has a
voltage and current are present. voltage that is proportional to the current of the stator.
The voltage from the power supply is rectified and
Improper test equipment can fail and present a filtered before being used by the AVR monitoring
high voltage shock hazard to its user.
transistor. The generator has a capacity of 3 IN for 10
Make sure the testing equipment is designed for seconds for a short circuit current. The generator also
and correctly operated for high voltage and cur- has good immunity to distortion from the generator
rent tests being made. load.
For generators with PMG excitation, a permanent
When servicing or repairing electric power gener-
magnet generator is added to the generator at the
ation equipment:
rear of the generator. The PMG supplies the voltage
• Make sure the unit is off-line (disconnected regulator with a voltage that is independent of the
main generator winding. The generator has a
from utility and/or other generators power serv- capacity of 3 IN for 10 seconds for a short circuit
ice) , and either locked out or tagged DO NOT current. The generator also has good immunity to
OPERATE. distortion from the generator load.
• Remove all fuses. The voltage regulator monitors the output voltage of
the generator. The voltage regulator corrects the
• Make sure the generator engine is stopped. output voltage by adjusting the excitation current.
• Make sure all batteries are disconnected. Table 4
Sustained short circuit capacity 3 IN for 10 seconds
• Make sure all capacitors are discharged. (AREP and PMG)

Failure to do so could result in personal injury or Standard power supply (AREP) Two auxiliary windings
death. Make sure residual voltage in the rotor, sta-
tor and the generator is discharged. Supply for shunt max 140 VAC at 50/60 Hz

Rated overload current 10 A for 10 seconds


Electronic protection for over- Excitation ceiling current for 10
load and loss of voltage sensing seconds and return to approxi-
mately 1 A
THE GENERATOR MUST BE
STOPPED IN ORDER TO RE-
SET THE PROTECTION.
Fuse “F1” on the input side “X1” and “X2”

(continued)
SEBU8607 61
Generator Operation
Voltage Regulators

(Table 4, contd)
Voltage sensing 5 VA that is isolated by the
transformer
0-110V terminals 95 to 140 V
0-220V terminals 170 to 260 V
0-380V terminals 340 to 520 V
Voltage regulation ±0.5%

Rapid response time or normal response time from the location of


jumper wire (ST2)

Voltage adjustment via potentiometer (P2)

Quadrature droop adjustment via potentiometer (P1)

Underspeed protection and adjustment of the frequency threshold


via potentiometer (P4) (Factory setting)

Maximum adjustment for excitation via potentiometer (P5) (4 to 10


A)

50 Hz or 60 Hz selection with jumper wire (ST3)(1) .


(1) The engine speed setting must be changed in order to change
the frequency of the generator set.

These voltage regulators may have an optional


remote potentiometer for voltage adjustment. This
potentiometer is 470 ohms 3 W minimum. The
adjustment range is 5%. The voltage range is limited
by the internal potentiometer “P2” . Remove jumper
wire “ST4” in order to connect the potentiometer. A
1000 ohm potentiometer can also be used to extend
the adjustment range.
62 SEBU8607
Generator Operation
Voltage Regulators

R448 Adjustments

Illustration 45 g01015862

Illustration 46 g00995995
Connections for AREP excitation
SEBU8607 63
Generator Operation
Voltage Regulators

10. Check the operation of the Load Adjustment


Module (LAM). “ST5” must be jumpered. The
LAM can be adjusted to 15% or 25% voltage dip
by moving the “ST10” jumper wire.

11. Turn the potentiometer “P4” slowly


counterclockwise until there is a significant voltage
drop. The voltage drop should be approximately
15%.
12. Vary the frequency around 48 Hz or 58 Hz
according to the operating frequency. Check the
change in the voltage that was previously
observed.
Illustration 47 g00996011
13. Readjust the speed of the unit to the rated no-load
Connections for PMG excitation value.

Adjustments for Stand-alone Generators Adjustments for Generators in Parallel


Operation
1. Remove jumper wire “ST4” and turn the remote
adjustment potentiometer to the center position. Note: Make sure that the speed droop is identical for
all of the engines before adjustments are made to the
2. Connect an analog voltmeter that is calibrated for generator.
100 VDC on terminal “E+” and terminal “E-” .
1. Preset the unit for parallel operation by connecting
3. Connect a voltmeter that is calibrated for 300 VAC the current transformer to “S1” and “S2” of the
to 500 VAC or 1000 VAC to the output terminals of connector “J2” . Set quadrature droop
the generator. potentiometer “P1” to the center position. Apply
the rated load. The voltage should drop by 2% to
4. Make sure that the “ST3” jumper wire is
3%. Switch the positions of the two incoming
positioned on the desired frequency.
secondary wires of the current transformer if the
5. Turn the potentiometer “P2” to a full voltage increases.
counterclockwise position.
2. The no-load voltages should be identical for all the
6. Turn the potentiometer “P4” to a full clockwise generators that are intended to be run in parallel.
position. Connect the generators in parallel. Try to obtain a
0 kW power exchange by adjusting the speed of
7. Turn the stability potentiometer “P3” the generator. Try to minimize the circulating
counterclockwise to about 1/3 of the total rotation currents between generators by altering the
for the potentiometer. voltage setting with the potentiometer “P2” or
“Rhe” on one of the generators.
8. Start the engine and set the engine speed to a
frequency of 48 Hz for 50 Hz or 58 Hz for 60 Hz. Note: Do not change the voltage settings after
this step.
9. Adjust the output voltage to the correct value with
the potentiometer “P2” . This voltage should be 3. Apply the available load. The setting is correct only
the rated voltage UN for single operation or UN if a reactive load is available. Equalize the
plus 2% to 4% for parallel operation with a current kilowatts or divide the rated power of the units
transformer. Adjust the potentiometer “P3” in both proportionally by altering the speed. Alter the
directions while you observe the voltage between quadrature droop potentiometer “P1” in order to
“E+” and “E-” . The voltage between “E+” and equalize the currents or divide the currents.
“E-” should be approximately 10 VDC. The best
response times are obtained at the limit of the
instability. Try cutting or replacing the jumper wire
“ST2” if no stable position can be obtained.
64 SEBU8607
Generator Operation
Voltage Regulators

R448 Adjustment for Maximum 1. Open switch “D” . The excitation current should
Excitation increase up to the preset maximum value and the
excitation current should remain at the preset
maximum value for approximately 10 seconds.
The current will decrease to less than one Amp.

2. Open switch “A” in order to reset the internal


protection.
Note: The voltage must be adjusted after the
maximum excitation current has been set.

Special Use

Illustration 48 g01016266

The maximum factory setting corresponds to an


excitation current that is required to obtain a three-
phase short circuit current of 3 IN at 50 Hz for
industrial power, unless specified.
The maximum level of excitation may be reduced by
a static method. The static method is safer for the
generator and the installation. Use the following steps
to reduce the maximum excitation level.
1. Disconnect the power supply wires “X1” , “X2” Illustration 49 g00952821
“Z1” and “Z2” .
The exciter is switched off by disconnecting the
2. Disconnect sensing leads 0V, 110V, 220V and power supply to the voltage regulator. The connection
380V on the generator. is identical for resetting the internal protection for the
voltage regulator.
3. Connect the main power supply 200V-240V to
“X1” and “X2” , as shown.

4. Install a ten Amp DC ammeter in series with the


exciter field.
5. Turn the potentiometer “P5” to a full
counterclockwise position and activate the power
supply. If there is no output current from the
voltage regulator, turn the potentiometer “P2”
clockwise until the ammeter indicates a stable
current.
6. Switch off the power supply. Switch on the power
supply. Turn the potentiometer “P5” until the
Illustration 50 g00952830
required maximum current is obtained. The
maximum current must not be greater than ten Use a 12 VDC power source in order to energize the
Amps. field, if necessary. Refer to the following table.
Table 5
Use the following steps in order to check the internal
protection. Applications B Volts Time

Voltage build up 12 (1A) 1 - 2 seconds

(continued)
SEBU8607 65
Generator Operation
Generator Lead Connections

(Table 5, contd)
De-energized parallel
12 (1A) 1 - 2 seconds
operation Accidental engine starting can cause injury or
Standstill parallel operation 24 (2A) 5 - 10 seconds death to personnel working on the equipment.

Frequency starting 48 (4A) 5 - 10 seconds To avoid accidental engine starting, disconnect


the battery cable from the negative (−) battery ter-
Voltage that is sustained at minal. Completely tape all metal surfaces of the
48 (4A) 5 - 10 seconds
overload disconnected battery cable end in order to pre-
vent contact with other metal surfaces which
could activate the engine electrical system.
i03906109
Place a Do Not Operate tag at the Start/Stop
Generator Lead Connections switch location to inform personnel that the
equipment is being worked on.
SMCS Code: 4450

Grounding the Frame


DANGER: Shock/Electrocution Hazard-Do not In any generator set installation, the frame of the
operate this equipment or work on this equipment generator must be positively connected to an earth
ground or to the hull of a vessel. This connection is
unless you have read and understand the the first connection that is made at the installation.
instructions and warnings in the Operation and This connection is the last connection that should be
Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the removed. If the generator set is on flexible mounting
instructions or heed the warnings will result in pads, the ground connection must be flexible in order
serious injury or death. to avoid possible breakage in later operation.
Ground connection cable or straps should have at
least the current carrying capacity of the largest line
lead to the connected load. Joints in cables or straps
must be clean, free of electrical resistance, and
Personal injury or death can result from high protected from possible oxidation. Bolted ground
voltage. connection joints eventually oxidize. The joints are
frequent sources of radio frequency interference
When power generation equipment must be in op- (RFI). Joints that are silver soldered and bolted are
eration to make tests and/or adjustments, high preferred.
voltage and current are present.
Neutral Connections
Improper test equipment can fail and present a
high voltage shock hazard to its user. The generators with a Wye Configuration usually
have the neutral ground when the generator is
Make sure the testing equipment is designed for installed. Grounding the neutral is for preventing
and correctly operated for high voltage and cur- damage to equipment.
rent tests being made.
If the neutral wire is grounded and one of the phase
When servicing or repairing electric power gener- leads becomes grounded, the excessive current will
ation equipment: open a load circuit breaker. Also, the excessive
current will cause the generator voltage to collapse.
• Make sure the unit is off-line (disconnected The result depends on the following items: electrical
from utility and/or other generators power serv- characteristics of the generator , type of fault and trip
ice) , and either locked out or tagged DO NOT rating of the circuit breaker. An undervoltage device
OPERATE. may be required in order to provide an adequate short
circuit protection.
• Remove all fuses.

• Make sure the generator engine is stopped.


• Make sure all batteries are disconnected.

• Make sure all capacitors are discharged.


Failure to do so could result in personal injury or
death. Make sure residual voltage in the rotor, sta-
tor and the generator is discharged.
66 SEBU8607
Generator Operation
Generator Lead Connections

There are some cases when the neutral wire is not Wiring Code A for Three-Phase
grounded. An ungrounded generator neutral lead is
acceptable when the possibility of grounds to the Configuration
phase leads has been eliminated. An example of
such measures are ground fault protective circuits.
Ground fault protection requires the entire group of
distribution circuits to be treated as a system. The
owner should contact a certified consultant if a new
distribution system is being developed. The owner
should also contact a certified consultant if an existing
system should be modified for the ground fault
protection.

Single Units
Each unit should be connected to a common ground.
In a three-phase, four-wire system, the neutral wire
should be grounded according to local wiring codes.
Be sure to check your local wiring codes.

Connection Diagrams

Illustration 52 g00952030

Illustration 51 g02160959
Typical example

The generator lead connections are located in the


terminal box on the generator or in the enclosure for
the control panel (1). Illustration 53 g00952058

Change the position of the wire terminals in order to Factory connection for “A” wiring code
modify the connection. The code for the winding is
specified on the nameplate. Table 6
L-L Voltage for Wiring Code A

Winding 50 Hz 60 Hz

6 190-208 190-240
7 220-230 -
8 - 190-208
SEBU8607 67
Generator Operation
Generator Lead Connections

R 230 voltage sensing – 0 => (T8) / 110 V => (T11)


R 438 LS voltage sensing – 0 => (T3) / 220 V =>
(T2)

Wiring Code B for Single-Phase


Configuration or Three-Phase
Configuration

NOTICE
This configuration is not possible for LSA 44.2 gener-
ator models.

Illustration 54 g00952097

Illustration 55 g00952196
Factory connection for “B” wiring code

Table 7
L-L Voltage for Wiring Code B

Winding 50 Hz 60 Hz

6 110-120 120
7 120-130 -

8 - 110-120

R 230 voltage sensing – 0 => (T8) / 110 V => (T11)


68 SEBU8607
Generator Operation
Generator Lead Connections

R 438 LS voltage sensing – 0 => (T3) / 110 V => Table 8


(T2) L-L Voltage for Wiring Code D

Winding 50 Hz 60 Hz
Wiring Code D for Three-Phase 6 380-415 380-480
Configuration 7 440-460 -

8 - 380-416

R 230 voltage sensing – 0 => (T8) / 110 V => (T11)


R 438 LS voltage sensing – 0 => (T3) / 380 V =>
(T2)

Wiring Code F for Single-Phase


Configuration or Three-Phase
Configuration

Illustration 56 g00952201

Illustration 58 g00952381
Voltage LM equals one half of voltage LL.

Illustration 57 g00952365
Factory connection for “D” wiring code
SEBU8607 69
Generator Operation
Generator Lead Connections

Illustration 59 g00952390 Illustration 61 g00952430


Factory connection for “F” wiring code Factory connection for “FF” wiring code

Table 9 Table 10
L-L Voltage for Wiring Code F L-L Voltage for Wiring Code FF

Winding 50 Hz 60 Hz Winding 50 Hz 60 Hz

6 220-240 220-240 6 220-240 220-240


7 250-260 - 7 250-260 -

8 200 220-240 8 200 220-240

R 230 voltage sensing – 0 => (T8) / 110 V => (T11) R 230 voltage sensing – 0 => (T1) / 110 V => (T4)
R 438 LS voltage sensing – 0 => (T3) / 220 V => R 438 LS voltage sensing – 0 => (T10) / 220 V =>
(T2) (T1)

Wiring Code FF for Single-Phase


Configuration

Illustration 60 g00952416
Voltage LM equals one half of voltage LL.
70 SEBU8607
Generator Operation
Generator Lead Connections

Connections for Exciter Field R 791 T Interference Suppression

Connections for Series (SHUNT)

Illustration 64 g00953025
Connect the interference suppression, as shown. The
Illustration 62 g01153397
letters in the circles represent the wiring codes for the
generators.
(WHT) White
(BLU) Blue (BLK) Black
(BLK) Black (BLU) Blue
(RED) Red (WHT) White
(A) Wiring code “A”
(B) Wiring code “B”
Parallel Connection for Auxiliary Winding (D) Wiring code “D”
(F) Wiring code “F”
Regulation Excitation Principle (AREP) (FF) Wiring code “FF”

and Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG)

Illustration 63 g01147978
(WHT) White
(BLU) Blue
(BLK) Black
(RED) Red
SEBU8607 71
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather

Cold Weather Operation • Starting aids


• Engine oil pan heaters
i03902887
• Engine coolant heaters
Fuel and the Effect from Cold • Fuel heaters
Weather
• Fuel line insulation
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1280
For more information on cold weather operation, see
The following fuels are the grades that are available Special Publication, SEBU5898, “Cold Weather
for Caterpillar engines: Recommendations”.
• No. 1
i03902889
• No. 2
Fuel Related Components in
• Blend of No. 1 and No. 2
Cold Weather
No. 2 diesel fuel is the most commonly used fuel.
Either No. 1 diesel fuel or a blend of No. 1 and No. 2 SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1280
is best suited for cold weather operation.
Quantities of No. 1 diesel fuel are limited. No. 1 diesel
Fuel Tanks
fuels are available during the months of the winter in Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
the colder climates. During cold weather operation, if Top off the fuel tanks after operating the engine.
No. 1 diesel fuel is not available, use No. 2 diesel
fuel, if necessary. Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
There are three major differences between No. 1 and Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
No. 2 diesel fuel. No. 1 diesel fuel has the following and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
properties: supply pipe.
• Lower cloud point Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
• Lower pour point equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
• Lower rating of kJ (BTU) per unit volume of fuel
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
When No. 1 diesel fuel is used, a decrease in power tank at the following intervals:
and in fuel efficiency may be noticed. Other operating
effects should not be experienced. • Weekly
The cloud point is the temperature when a cloud of • Oil changes
wax crystals begins to form in the fuel. These crystals
can cause the fuel filters to plug. The pour point is the • Refueling of the fuel tank
temperature when diesel fuel will thicken. The diesel
fuel becomes more resistant to flow through fuel This will help prevent water and/or sediment from
pumps and through fuel lines. being pumped from the fuel storage tank and into the
engine fuel tank.
Be aware of these values when diesel fuel is
purchased. Anticipate the average ambient Fuel Filters
temperature of the area. Engines that are fueled in
one climate may not operate well if the engines are
moved to another climate. Problems can result due to NOTICE
changes in temperature. Do not fill the fuel filters with fuel before installing
them. The fuel would not be filtered and could be con-
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor taminated. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated
performance in the winter, check the type of fuel that wear to fuel system parts.
is being used.
When No. 2 diesel fuel is used the following
components provide a means of minimizing problems
in cold weather:
72 SEBU8607
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather

NOTICE
In order to maximize fuel system life and prevent pre-
mature wear out from abrasive particles in the fuel, a
four micron[c] absolute high efficiency fuel filter is re-
quired for all Caterpillar Hydraulic Electronic Unit In-
jectors. Caterpillar High Efficiency Fuel Filters meet
these requirements. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
for the proper part numbers.

When the engine is equipped with a primary filter/


water separator, the primary filter/water separator
must use a 10 micron filter to a 15 micron filter. The
filters are becoming more critical as fuel injection
pressures increase to 209 MPa (30000 psi) and
higher psi. For more information on priming the fuel
system, see the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fuel System - Prime” topic (Maintenance Section).

Fuel Heaters
Fuel heaters help to prevent fuel filters from plugging
in cold weather due to waxing. A fuel heater should
be installed in order for the fuel to be heated before
the fuel enters the primary fuel filter.
Select a fuel heater that is mechanically simple, yet
adequate for the application. The fuel heater should
also help to prevent overheating of the fuel. High fuel
temperatures reduce engine performance and the
availability of engine power. Choose a fuel heater with
a large heating surface. The fuel heater should be
practical in size. Small heaters can be too hot due to
the limited surface area.
Disconnect the fuel heater in warm weather.

Note: Fuel heaters that are controlled by the water


temperature regulator or self-regulating fuel heaters
should be used with this engine. Fuel heaters that are
not controlled by the water temperature regulator can
heat the fuel in excess of 65° C (149° F). A loss of
engine power can occur if the fuel supply temperature
exceeds 37° C (100° F).

Note: Heat exchanger type fuel heaters should have


a bypass provision in order to prevent overheating of
the fuel in warm-weather operation.
For further information on fuel heaters, consult your
Caterpillar dealer.
SEBU8607 73
Engine Stopping
Stopping the Engine

Engine Stopping The emergency stop button (1) is in the OUT position
for normal engine operation. Push the emergency
stop button. The engine will not start when the button
i03902854 is locked. Turn the button clockwise in order to reset.

Stopping the Engine


SMCS Code: 1000

Note: Individual applications will have different


control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.

1. Remove the load from the engine.

2. Press the stop button on the control panel. Turn


isolator keyswitch to OFF position.

i03902856

Emergency Stopping
SMCS Code: 1000; 7418

NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY
use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices
or controls for normal stopping procedure.

Ensure that any components for the external system


that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.

Emergency Stop Button

Illustration 65 g02148927
Typical example
74 SEBU8607
Engine Stopping
Manual Stop Procedure

i03902885

Manual Stop Procedure


SMCS Code: 1000; 7418

Stopping Procedure for the MCS Control Panel

Illustration 66 g02162627
Typical example
(1) Isolator Keyswitch
SEBU8607 75
Engine Stopping
Manual Stop Procedure

Illustration 67 g02162635
Typical example
(2) Stop key
76 SEBU8607
Engine Stopping
After Stopping Engine

• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.


1. Open the circuit breaker and remove the load from
the generator. • If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
coolant for the correct antifreeze protection. The
2. When possible, allow the engine to operate without cooling system must be protected against freezing
load for 3 minutes, in order to cool the engine. to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
Note: Pressing the stop key bypasses the
cooldown period. • Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
3. Press and release the “Stop” key (2). the instructions from the OEM.

4. The LCD display will indicate “STOPPING” .


Note: If the engine fails to stop running, the LCD
display will indicate “STOP FAILURE” . The alarm
will sound.
5. Once the engine has stopped, the LCD display will
indicate “STOPPED” .

Note: The engine can auto start. Ensure that the


power supply is isolated before any service or repair
is performed.
6. Turn the isolator keyswitch (1) to the OFF position.

i03902886

After Stopping Engine


SMCS Code: 1000

Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate


the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow the
engine oil to return to the oil pan.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the oil level dipstick.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.
• Note the required service interval. Perform the
maintenance that is in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank to help prevent accumulation of
moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill the fuel tank.

NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended
in the Refill Capacities and Recommendations topic
that is in this Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Failure to do so can cause engine damage.
SEBU8607 77
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities and Recommendations

Maintenance Section (Table 11, contd)


(1) API CH-4 and CI-4 oils are acceptable if the requirements of
Caterpillar's ECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluid specification-
1) are met. CH-4 and CI-4 oils that have not met the require-
Refill Capacities ments of Caterpillar's ECF-1 Specification may cause re-
duced engine life.
(2) The oil CD-2 is for a two-cycle diesel engine. Caterpillar does

i03903094 not sell engines that utilize CD-2 oil.

Refill Capacities and Note: When oil meets more than one API
classification, the applicable footnote is determined
Recommendations by the highest API classification that is met.
SMCS Code: 1348; 1395; 7560 Example – An oil meets both the API CH-4 and the
API CF oil classifications. In this case, the API CH-4
Engine Oil applies.

NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change with- Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil)
out notice. Contact your local Caterpillar dealer for
the most up to date recommendations. Caterpillar Oils have been developed and tested in
order to provide the full performance and service life
that has been designed and built into Caterpillar
Engines . Caterpillar Oils are currently used to fill
API Oils diesel engines at the factory. These oils are offered
by Caterpillar dealers for continued use when the
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System engine oil is changed. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
by the American Petroleum Institute (API) is for more information on these oils.
recognized by Caterpillar . For detailed information
about this system, see the latest edition of the API Due to significant variations in the quality and in the
publication No. 1509. Engine oils that bear the API performance of commercially available oils,
symbol are authorized by API. Caterpillar makes the following recommendations:
• Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil) (10W-30)

• Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil) (15W-40)


Caterpillar multigrade DEO is formulated with the
correct amounts of detergents, dispersants, and
alkalinity in order to provide superior performance in
Caterpillar Diesel Engines .
Caterpillar multigrade DEO is available in various
viscosity grades that include SAE 10W-30 and SAE
15W-40. To choose the correct viscosity grade for the
ambient temperature, see Table 12 . Multigrade oils
provide the correct viscosity for a broad range of
operating temperatures.
Illustration 68 g00546535 Multigrade oils are effective in maintaining low oil
Typical API symbol consumption and low levels of piston deposits.

Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have not Caterpillar multigrade DEO can be used in other
been API authorized classifications since January 1, diesel engines and in gasoline engines. See the
1996. engine manufacturers guide for the recommended
Table 11 specifications. Compare the specifications to the
specifications of Caterpillar multigrade DEO. The
API Classifications current industry standards for Caterpillar DEO are
Current Obsolete listed on the product label and on the data sheets for
the product.
CH-4(1)
CE, CC, CD
CI-4 Consult your Caterpillar dealer for part numbers and
CD-2 (2)
for available sizes of containers.
-

(continued)
78 SEBU8607
Refill Capacities
Refill Capacities and Recommendations

Note: Caterpillar SAE 15W-40 multigrade DEO requirements of Caterpillar's ECF-1 (Engine
exceeds the performance requirements for the Crankcase Fluid specification-1) are met.
following API classifications: CI-4, CH-4, CG-4, CF-4
and CF. The Caterpillar multigrade DEO exceeds API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order to
the requirements of the Caterpillar specification that protect low emissions diesel engines that use a 0.05
is ECF-1(Engine Crankcase Fluid-1). The Caterpillar percent level of fuel sulfur. However, API CH-4 oils
SAE 15W-40 multigrade DEO passes the following may be used with higher sulfur fuels. API CH-4 oils
proprietary tests: sticking of the piston ring, oil control are acceptable if the requirements of Caterpillar's
tests, wear tests and soot tests. Proprietary tests help ECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluid specification-1) are
ensure that Caterpillar multigrade oil provides met.
superior performance in Caterpillar Diesel Engines. In
addition, Caterpillar multigrade oil exceeds many of
the performance requirements of other manufacturers Note: CH-4 oils and CI-4 oils that have not met the
of diesel engines. Therefore, this oil is an excellent requirements of Caterpillar's ECF-1 Specification
choice for many mixed fleets. True high may cause reduced engine life.
performance oil is produced with a combination
of the following factors: industry standard tests, NOTICE
proprietary tests, field tests and prior experience Failure to follow these oil recommendations can
with similar formulations. The design and the cause shortened engine service life due to deposits
development of Caterpillar lubricants that are and/or excessive wear.
both high performance and high quality are based
on these factors.
Note: Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,
Note: Non-Caterpillar commercial oils are second “Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
choice oils. Recommendations ” for additional information that
relates to lubrication for your engine.
Commercial Oils
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
Note: If Caterpillar Multigrade DEO is not used, use
only commercial oils that meet the following The proper SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
classifications. by the minimum ambient temperature during cold
engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
• API CH-4 multigrade oils and API CI-4 multigrade temperature during engine operation.
oils are acceptable if the requirements of Refer to Table 12 (minimum temperature) in order to
Caterpillar's ECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluid determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold
specification-1) are met. CH-4 oils and CI-4 oils engine.
that have not met the requirements of Caterpillar's
ECF-1 Specification may cause reduced engine Refer to Table 12 (maximum temperature) in order to
life. select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
• API CF-4 multigrade oils are not recommended for
this series of diesel engines. For all other smaller Note: Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
commercial diesel engines, the oil drain interval available to meet the requirement for the temperature
should not exceed 50 percent of the standard oil at start-up.
drain interval for your engine.
If ambient temperature conditions at engine start-up
require the use of multigrade SAE 0W oil, SAE 0W-40
NOTICE viscosity grade is preferred over SAE 0W-20 or SAE
In selecting oil for any engine application, both the oil 0W-30 .
viscosity and oil performance classification/specifica- Table 12
tion as specified by the engine manufacturer must be
defined and satisfied. Using only one of these param- Engine Oil Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures
eters will not sufficiently define oil for an engine Ambient Temperature
application.
Viscosity Grade Minimum Maximum

In order to make the proper choice of a commercial SAE 0W-20 −40 °C (−40 °F) 10 °C (50 °F)
oil, refer to the following explanations: −40 °C (−40 °F) 30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 0W-30
API CI-4 – API CI-4 oils were developed in order to
meet the requirements of high performance diesel
engines that use cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (continued)
(EGR). API CI-4 oils are acceptable if the
SEBU8607 79
Refill Capacities
Refill Capacities and Recommendations

(Table 12, contd) Table 13


SAE 0W-40 −40 °C (−40 °F) 40 °C (104 °F) Engine
Refill Capacities
SAE 5W-30 −30 °C (−22 °F) 30 °C (86 °F)
Compartment or System Minimum Maximum
SAE 5W-40 −30 °C (−22 °F) 50 °C (122 °F)
Crankcase Oil Sump(1) 7.5 L (8 qt) 9 L (9.5 qt)
SAE 10W-30 −18 °C (0 °F) 40 °C (104 °F)
(1) These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
SAE 10W-40 −18 °C (0 °F) 50 °C (122 °F) oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factory in-
stalled oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require addi-
SAE 15W-40 −9.5 °C (15 °F) 50 °C (122 °F) tional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the
auxiliary oil filter.

Note: Supplemental heat is recommended below the


minimum recommended ambient temperature. Lubricating Grease
Caterpillar provides a range of moderate greases to
S·O·S Oil Analysis extremely high performance greases in order to
service the entire line of Caterpillar products that
Caterpillar has developed a tool for maintenance operate throughout the wide variety of climates. From
management that evaluates oil degradation and the this variety of Caterpillar grease products, you will
tool also detects the early signs of wear on internal find at least one of the Caterpillar greases that will
components. The Caterpillar tool for oil analysis is satisfy the performance requirements for any
called S·O·S Oil Analysis and the tool is part of the machine or equipment application.
S·O·S Services program. S·O·S Oil Analysis divides
oil analysis into three categories: Before selecting a grease for any application, the
performance requirements must be determined.
• Wear Analysis Consult the grease recommendations that are made
by the OEM for the equipment when the equipment is
• Oil condition operated in the expected conditions. Then, consult
with your Caterpillar dealer for a list of greases and
• Additional tests the following related characteristics.
The wear analysis monitors metal particles, some oil
• Performance specifications
additives, and some contaminants.
Oil condition uses infrared (IR) analysis to evaluate • Available sizes of containers
the chemistry of the oil. Infrared analysis is also used
to detect certain types of contamination. • Part numbers

Additional tests are used to measure contamination Always choose a grease that satisfies the
levels from water, fuel, or coolant. Oil viscosity and recommendations that are specified by the equipment
corrosion protection can be evaluated, as needed. manufacturer for the application.

Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, Caterpillar Note: If it is necessary to choose a single grease
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations to use for all of the equipment at one site, always
or contact your local Caterpillar dealer for additional choose a grease that satisfies the requirements of
information concerning the S·O·S Oil Analysis the most demanding application.
program.
Do not use the cost per pound as the only factor
Refill Capacities for the Lubrication when you choose a grease. Use the grease that
yields the lowest total cost of operation. The cost
System analysis should include the following factors:

The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect • Parts


the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump
plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will • Labor
require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications
for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. • Downtime
• Cost of the grease
Greases that barely meet the minimum performance
requirements can be expected to barely produce the
minimum life of the parts.
80 SEBU8607
Refill Capacities
Refill Capacities and Recommendations

Note: Take care when you change the type of grease.


NOTICE
Take care when you change to a different supplier of
grease. Some greases are not chemically compatible. If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
Some brands of grease can not be interchanged. If
must be either protected to the lowest outside temper-
you are in doubt about the compatibility of the old
ature or drained completely to prevent damage.
grease and the new grease, purge all of the old
grease from the joint. Consult your supplier in order
to determine if the greases are compatible.
NOTICE
Note: All Caterpillar greases are compatible with Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
each other. proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.

Note: Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,


“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
Recommendations ” for additional information that
• Contamination of the cooling system
relates to lubrication for your engine.
• Overheating of the engine
General Fuel Information
• Foaming of the coolant
Diesel fuels that meet the Caterpillar Specification
for Distillate Diesel Fuel are recommended. These Note: Air pockets can form in the cooling system if
fuels will help to provide maximum engine service life
and performance. In North America, diesel fuel that is the cooling system is filled at a rate that is greater
identified as No. 1-D or No. 2-D in ASTM D975 than 5 L (1.3 US gal) per minute.
generally meet the specifications. Diesel fuels from
other sources could exhibit detrimental properties that After you drain the cooling system and after you refill
are not defined or controlled by this specification. the cooling system, operate the engine. Operate the
engine without the filler cap until the coolant reaches
normal operating temperature and the coolant level
NOTICE stabilizes. Ensure that the coolant is maintained to
Operating with fuels that do not meet Caterpillar's the proper level.
recommendations can cause the following effects:
starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel NOTICE
injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, de- Never operate an engine without water temperature
posits in the combustion chamber and reduced serv- regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
ice life of the engine. regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system prob-
lems can develop without water temperature
Note: Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,
regulators.
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations ” for the Caterpillar Specification
for distillate fuel and for additional information that Refer to Special Instruction, SEBD0518, “Know Your
relates to fuel for your engine. Cooling System” and Special Instruction, SEBD0970,
“Coolant and Your Engine” for more detailed
Refill Capacities for the Fuel System information.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual that system. The following problems are related to cooling
is provided by the OEM for capacities of the fuel system failures: overheating, leakage of the water
system. pump, plugged radiators or heat exchangers and
pitting of the cylinder liners.
General Coolant Information
These failures can be avoided with proper cooling
NOTICE system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
These recommendations are subject to change with- as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
out notice. Contact your local Caterpillar dealer for the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
the most up to date fluids recommendations. important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
NOTICE water, additives and glycol.
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
SEBU8607 81
Refill Capacities
Refill Capacities and Recommendations

Water • Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
NOTICE
Never use water alone without Supplemental Coolant • Rust
Additives (SCA) or without inhibited coolant. Water
alone is corrosive at engine operating temperatures. • Scale
Water alone does not provide adequate protection
against boiling or freezing. • Pitting and erosion from cavitation of the cylinder
liner

Water is used in the cooling system in order to • Foaming of the coolant


transfer heat.
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
Distilled water or deionized water is These additives must be replaced periodically. This
recommended for use in engine cooling systems. can be done by adding Supplemental Coolant
Additives (SCA) to Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling (DEAC) or by adding ELC Extender to Extended Life
systems: hard water, softened water that has been Coolant (ELC).
conditioned with salt and sea water.
Additives must be added at the proper concentration.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available, Overconcentration of additives can cause the
use water with the properties that are listed in Table inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
14 . enable the following problems to occur:
Table 14
Caterpillar Minimum Acceptable Water Requirements • Formation of gel compounds

Property Maximum Limit ASTM Test • Reduction of heat transfer


Chloride (Cl) 40 mg/L (2.4 grains/US gal) D512, D4327 • Leakage of the water pump seal
100 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4) D516 • Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
(5.9 grains/US gal)

Total Hardness
170 mg/L
D1126 Glycol
(10 grains/US gal)

Total Solids 340 mg/L (20 grain/US gal) D1888 Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
Acidity pH of 5.5 to 9.0 D1293
• Boiling
For a water analysis, consult one of the following • Freezing
sources:
• Cavitation of the water pump and the cylinder liner
• Caterpillar dealer
For optimum performance, Caterpillar recommends a
• Local water utility company 1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
• Agricultural agent Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
• Independent laboratory
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
Additives temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the Most conventional heavy-duty antifreezes use
cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or ethylene glycol. Propylene glycol may also be used.
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following In a 1:1 mixture with water, ethylene and propylene
conditions to occur: glycol provide similar protection against freezing and
boiling. See Tables 15 and 16 .
82 SEBU8607
Refill Capacities
Refill Capacities and Recommendations

Table 15 Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, Caterpillar


Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations
Ethylene Glycol
for additional information that relates to coolant.
Freeze
Concentration Boil Protection S·O·S Coolant Analysis
Protection
50 Percent −36 °C (−33 °F) 106 °C (223 °F) Table 17

60 Percent −51 °C (−60 °F) 111 °C (232 °F) Recommended Interval


Type of Level 1 Level 2
NOTICE Coolant
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that ex-
DEAC Every 250 Hours Yearly(1)
ceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced heat
transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene ELC Not Required Yearly
glycol in conditions that require additional protection (1) The Level 2 Coolant Analysis should be performed sooner if a
against boiling or freezing. problem is identified by a Level 1 Coolant Analysis.

Table 16 S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1)


Propylene Glycol A coolant analysis (Level 1) is a test of the properties
Freeze Anti-Boil of the coolant.
Concentration
Protection Protection The following properties of the coolant are tested:
50 Percent −29 °C (−20 °F) 106 °C (223 °F)
• Glycol concentration for freeze protection and boil
protection
To check the concentration of glycol, use the
1U-7298 Coolant/Battery Tester (Degrees Celsius) • Ability to protect from erosion and corrosion
or use the 1U-7297 Coolant/Battery Tester (Degrees
Fahrenheit). The testers give readings that are • pH
immediate and accurate. The testers can be used
with ethylene or propylene glycol. • Conductivity
Coolant Recommendations • Visual analysis

NOTICE • Odor analysis


Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only
meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of The results are reported, and appropriate
recommendations are made.
coolant/antifreeze is made for light duty automotive
applications. Refer to the Maintenance Interval Schedule in this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cooling
System Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain” for a
The following two coolants are used in Caterpillar sampling location and the maintenance interval for
diesel engines: collecting the coolant samples.
Preferred – Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC) S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2)
or a commercial extended life coolant that meets the
Caterpillar EC-1 specification A coolant analysis (Level 2) is a comprehensive
chemical evaluation of the coolant. This analysis is
Acceptable – Caterpillar Diesel Engine Antifreeze also a check of the overall condition of the inside of
the cooling system.
(DEAC) or a commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that
meets ASTM D4985, or ASTM D6210 specifications The S·O·S Coolant Analysis has the following
features:
Caterpillar recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as a antifreeze.
Note: Caterpillar DEAC does not require a treatment
with an SCA at the initial fill. A commercial heavy-duty
antifreeze that meets ASTM D4985 or ASTM D6210
specifications MAY require a treatment with an SCA
at the initial fill. These coolants WILL require a
treatment with an SCA on a maintenance basis.
SEBU8607 83
Refill Capacities
Refill Capacities and Recommendations

• Full coolant analysis (Level 1)


• Identification of the source of metal corrosion and
of contaminants
• Water hardness
• Identification of buildup of the impurities that cause
corrosion
• Identification of buildup of the impurities that cause
scaling
The results are reported, and appropriate
recommendations are made.
Refer to the Maintenance Interval Schedule in this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cooling
System Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain” for a
sampling location and the maintenance interval for
collecting the coolant samples.
Testing the engine coolant is important to ensure that
the engine is protected from internal cavitation and
from corrosion. The analysis also tests the ability of
the coolant to protect the engine from boiling and
from freezing. The S·O·S Coolant Analysis can be
done at your Caterpillar dealer. Caterpillar S·O·S
Coolant Analysis is the best way to monitor the
condition of your coolant and your cooling system.
S·O·S Coolant Analysis is a program that is based on
periodic samples.
Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, Caterpillar
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations
for additional information.

Refill Capacity of the Cooling


System
To maintain the cooling system, the Total Cooling
System capacity must be known. The approximate
capacity for the “Engine Only” cooling system is
listed. External System capacities will vary among
applications. Refer to the OEM specifications for the
External System capacity. This capacity information
will be needed in order to determine the amount of
antifreeze that is required for the Total Cooling
System.
Table 18
Engine
Refill Capacities

Compartment or System Liters


Engine Only (Minimum) 16.5 L (17.5 qt)

Engine Only (Maximum) 18 L (19 qt)

External System Per OEM(1)


(1) The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank
with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Re-
fer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of
the External System in this row.
84 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
General Maintenance Information

Maintenance • periodic disassembly

Recommendations • knowledgeable visual examination of the


equipment
i05264090 • the application of electrical tests
General Maintenance Never perform a test over the rated potential. These
tests can damage insulation that is contaminated or
Information insulation that is in marginal condition. For more
SMCS Code: 4450; 7000 information, refer to I.E.E.E. Standard 432-1992 or
consult a Cat dealer.
Note: Read the warnings and read the instructions
that are contained in the Safety Section of this i03903087
manual. These warnings and instructions must be
understood before you perform any operation or any System Pressure Release
maintenance procedures.
SMCS Code: 1250; 1300; 1350; 5050
Rotating electric machines are complex structures
that are exposed to the following forms of stress: Coolant System
• mechanical
• electrical
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause seri-
• thermal ous burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until ra-
diator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
• environmental
the pressure.
These stresses may be of varying magnitudes. The
electrical insulation systems are susceptible to
damage that is caused by the stresses that are listed The engine can auto start. Ensure that the power
above. Exposure to these stresses may shorten the supply is isolated before any service or repair is
effective life of the electrical insulation system. performed.
Therefore, the service life of an electric machine will To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
largely depend on the serviceability of the electrical
insulation systems. An inspection program and a off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
testing procedure are recommended. An inspection to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
program and a testing procedure will ensure that the slowly in order to relieve pressure.
equipment is maintained in satisfactory condition.
This will increase field reliability. Fuel System
A regular maintenance and inspection program can To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
provide an evaluation of the present condition of the the engine.
equipment. A regular maintenance program and a
regular inspection program can also reveal future Engine Oil
problems. The frequency of this maintenance
program will depend on the following factors: To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
• application
i05264113
• environmental conditions

• experience level of the operator Welding on Engines with


• philosophy of the operator Electronic Controls
SMCS Code: 1000
A regular maintenance program is strongly
recommended. This program would involve the
following steps: NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding onto
a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equip-
ment or your Cat dealer regarding welding on a chas-
sis frame or rail.
SEBU8607 85
Maintenance Recommendations
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls

Proper welding procedures are necessary in order to


avoid damage to the engine ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove the
component from the unit and then weld the
component. If removal of the component is not
possible, the following procedure must be followed
when you weld on a unit that is equipped with a Cat
Electronic Engine . The following procedure is
considered to be the safest procedure to weld on a
component. This procedure should provide a
minimum risk of damage to electronic components.

NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train, the bearings, hy-
draulic components, electrical components, and other
components.
Do not ground the welder across the centerline of the
package. Improper grounding could cause damage to
the bearings, the crankshaft, the rotor shaft, and other
components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the com-
ponent that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the pos-
sibility of damage.

Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from Illustration 69 g01075639
explosive hazards. Use the example above. The current flow from the
welder to the ground clamp of the welder will not
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the damage any associated components.
OFF position. (1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the (3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided, (4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
open the switch. (6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
3. Disconnect the J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors from (8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded
the ECM. Move the harness to a position that will and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
not allow the harness to move back accidentally, (10) Current path of the welder
and contact any of the ECM pins. (11) Ground clamp for the welder

4. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the


part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to bearings,
hydraulic components, electrical components, and
ground straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used as
a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.

5. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris and


spatter.
86 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls

6. Use standard welding practices to weld the


materials.
SEBU8607 87
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator Start-up Checklist

i03860683

Generator Start-up Checklist


SMCS Code: 4450

Table 19
GENERATOR START-UP CHECKLIST
RATING INFORMATION
Engine Serial Number: ___________________________________ Arrangement Number: ___________________

Generator Serial Number: _________________________________ Arrangement Number: ___________________

GENERATOR NAME PLATE INFORMATION


Voltage: ___________________ Package (prime, continuous, standby): _________________

Amperage: _________________ Kilowatts: ________________________________________

Storage Location:

Main Stator Megohmmeter Reading: Before Storage: After Storage:

Generator dried for 24 hours prior to startup? (Y/N) Drying method:

SPACE HEATERS Yes No Comments


Space heaters operating properly?

Space heater operated 48 hours before startup?

MEGOHMMETER TEST Special Instruction, 30 sec. 60 sec. 30 sec. 60 sec. Ambient Comments
SEHS9124 reading reading corrected corrected temp.

Main Stator
Main Rotor
Beginning of
Exciter Stator
Storage
Exciter Rotor
PMG Stator
Main Stator
Main Rotor
Start-up Exciter Stator
Exciter Rotor
PMG Stator

Table 20
GENERATOR START-UP CHECKLIST (CONT.)

Regulator Voltage Amps Comments

F1 to F2 DC
E1 to E2 AC
All Frames
E1 to E3 AC
No Load
E2 to E3 AC
2400, 2500, PM1 to PM4 AC
2800, and 2900
Frames

(continued)
88 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator Start-up Checklist

(Table 20, contd)


PM1 to PM2 AC
2600 Frame PM1 to PM3 AC
PM2 to PM3 AC
Generator Excitation DC Compare with F1 to F2
Name Plate Information:
F1 to F2 DC
All Frames
E1 to E2 AC
E1 to E3 AC
E2 to E3 AC
Full Load
2400, 2500, PM1 to PM4 AC
2800, and 2900
Frames
PM1 to PM2 AC
2600 Frame PM1 to PM3 AC
PM2 to PM3 AC

Table 21
GENERATOR START-UP CHECKLIST (CONT.)

ELECTRICAL Yes No Comments


Unit properly grounded

Check diodes
Over current protection

Over voltage protection

Check for loose wiring

Adjust voltage

Adjust frequency

Table 22
GENERATOR START-UP CHECKLIST (CONT.)

MECHANICAL Data Comments


Bearing temperature readings at full load Front __________ Rear ___________

Stator temperature readings at full load A0 _______ B0 _______ C0 _______

Air gap on main stator Top __________ Bottom __________

Air gap on exciter stator Top __________ Bottom __________

Air gap of PMG Top __________ Bottom __________

Ambient air to generator at full load Temperature ____________________

Supplier air opening to generator Size of Opening _________________

SWITCH GEAR/PARALLEL OPERATION


Manufacturer:
Setting 1 Setting 2 Setting 3 Comments

(continued)
SEBU8607 89
Maintenance Recommendations
Severe Service Application

(Table 22, contd)


Type of Circuit breaker

Overload setting

Reverse power relay

VAR/PF Controller
Load share
INSTALLATION & LOAD INFORMATION
Neutral grounding system UPS

Enclosure type - Size

Motor: Other loads:


- Total SKVA - Lighting

- Total HP - Computers

- Welding

- Non-linear
- Other

FULL LOAD DATA


Voltage Amps KW KVARS P.F.

i05256872 Severe service operation can accelerate component


wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
Severe Service Application may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
SMCS Code: 1000 full service life.
Severe service is the application of an engine that Due to individual applications, identification all of the
exceeds the current published standards for that factors which can contribute to severe service
engine. Caterpillar maintains standards for the operation is not possible. Consult your Cat dealer for
following engine parameters: the unique maintenance that is necessary for the
engine.
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures, and incorrect maintenance procedures
• Fuel quality can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
• Operational Altitude
Environmental Factors
• Maintenance intervals
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
• Oil selection and maintenance exposed to extended operation in cold environments
or hot environments. Valve components can be
• Coolant type and maintenance damaged by carbon buildup if the engine is frequently
started and stopped in cold temperatures. Hot intake
• Environmental qualities air reduces engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed to
• Installation
extended operation in an environment that is dirty or
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine dusty. Unless the equipment is cleaned regularly,
mud, dirt, and dust can encase components.
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your Maintenance can be difficult. The buildup can contain
Cat dealer in order to determine if the engine is corrosive chemicals.
operating within the defined parameters. Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals, and salt can damage some components.
90 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Severe Service Application

Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is


operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.

Incorrect Operating Procedures


• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns

• Operating at excessive loads


• Operating at excessive speeds

• Operating outside the intended application

Incorrect Maintenance Procedures


• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants, and
coolant/antifreeze
SEBU8607 91
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule

i05278850 “Walk-Around Inspection” ..................................... 148

Maintenance Interval Schedule Every Week


(Naturally Aspirated Marine “Automatic Start/Stop - Inspect” ..............................97
Generator Sets) “Standby Generator Set Maintenance
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7500 Recommendations” .............................................. 146

S/N: L1K1–Up Every 250 Service Hours


Ensure that all safety information, warnings, and “Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain”..................... 105
instructions are read and understood before any
operation or any maintenance procedures are Initial 500 Hours (for New Systems,
performed.
Refilled Systems, and Converted
The user is responsible for the performance of Systems)
maintenance, including all adjustments, the use of
proper lubricants, fluids, filters, and the replacement “Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain”..................... 106
of components due to normal wear and aging. Failure
to adhere to proper maintenance intervals and Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
procedures may result in diminished performance of
the product and/or accelerated wear of components. “Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
Use mileage, fuel consumption, service hours, or (SCA) - Test/Add”.................................................. 107
calendar time, WHICH EVER OCCURS FIRST, in
order to determine the maintenance intervals. Every 1000 Service Hours
Products that operate in severe operating conditions
may require more frequent maintenance. “Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect”... 123

Note: Before each consecutive interval is performed, Every 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year
all maintenance from the previous interval must be
performed. “Battery Charger - Check”........................................99

When Required Every Year


“Battery - Replace”...................................................98 “Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain”..................... 106
“Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect”................ 100 Every 3000 Service Hours or 3
“Engine - Clean”.................................................... 108 Years
“Fuel System - Prime”........................................... 123 “Engine Protective Devices - Check”.................... 122

“Generator - Dry”................................................... 129 Every 6000 Service Hours or 3


“Generator Set - Test” ........................................... 133 Years
“Generator Winding Insulation - Test”................... 134 “Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add” ........................... 103

“Rotating Rectifier - Inspect/Test” ......................... 143 Every 8000 Service Hours


Daily “Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace” ...............113

“Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace” ........................... 100 Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6


“Coolant Level - Check”........................................ 104 Years
“Electrical Connections - Check” .......................... 108 “Coolant (ELC) - Change”..................................... 101

“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” ...112 Every 4150 L (1100 US gal) of Fuel
“Engine Oil Level - Check”.....................................115 or 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Generator Load - Check”..................................... 133 “Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect”.............................97

“Power Factor - Check”......................................... 143 “Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect”.............................98


92 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule

“Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” ..........................99 Ensure that all safety information, warnings, and
instructions are read and understood before any
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - operation or any maintenance procedures are
Inspect/Clean/Replace” ........................................ 109 performed.
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - The user is responsible for the performance of
Inspect/Clean/Replace” .........................................112 maintenance, including all adjustments, the use of
proper lubricants, fluids, filters, and the replacement
“Engine Mounts - Inspect” .....................................114 of components due to normal wear and aging. Failure
to adhere to proper maintenance intervals and
“Engine Oil Sample - Obtain”.................................115 procedures may result in diminished performance of
the product and/or accelerated wear of components.
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”............................116
Use mileage, fuel consumption, service hours, or
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”........................... 120 calendar time, WHICH EVER OCCURS FIRST, in
order to determine the maintenance intervals.
“Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Products that operate in severe operating conditions
Element - Replace”............................................... 126 may require more frequent maintenance.
“Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace” ........... 127 Note: Before each consecutive interval is performed,
“Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .............. 129 all maintenance from the previous interval must be
performed.
“Heat Exchanger - Inspect/Clean” ........................ 139
When Required
“Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”................ 139
“Battery - Replace”...................................................98
Every 8300 L (2190 US gal) of Fuel
“Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect”................ 100
or 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Engine - Clean”.................................................... 108
“Engine Valve Lash - Check” ................................ 123
“Fuel System - Prime”........................................... 123
Every 16 600 L (4390 US gal) of Fuel
“Generator - Dry”................................................... 129
or 2000 Service Hours or 2 Years
“Alternator - Inspect” ................................................97 “Generator Set - Test” ........................................... 133
“Generator Winding Insulation - Test”................... 134
“Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace” ........ 106
“Rotating Rectifier - Inspect/Test” ......................... 143
“Generator - Inspect” ............................................ 131
“Generator Set Vibration - Inspect”....................... 134 Daily
“Rotating Rectifier - Check” .................................. 143 “Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace”........................... 100

“Starting Motor - Inspect” ...................................... 147 “Coolant Level - Check”........................................ 104

“Water Pump - Inspect”......................................... 149 “Electrical Connections - Check” .......................... 108


“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” ...112
Every 99 600 L (26 310 US gal) of
Fuel or 12 000 Service Hours “Engine Oil Level - Check”.....................................115

“Overhaul Considerations” ................................... 140 “Generator Load - Check”..................................... 133


“Power Factor - Check”......................................... 143
i05256782
“Walk-Around Inspection” ..................................... 148
Maintenance Interval Schedule Every Week
(Turbocharged Marine Generator
“Automatic Start/Stop - Inspect” ..............................97
Set Without Aftercooler)
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7500 “Standby Generator Set Maintenance
Recommendations” .............................................. 146
S/N: S1M1–Up
SEBU8607 93
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule

Every 250 Service Hours “Engine Oil and Filter - Change”............................116

“Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain”..................... 105 “Engine Oil and Filter - Change”........................... 120

Initial 500 Hours (for New Systems, “Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace”............................................... 126
Refilled Systems, and Converted
“Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace” ........... 127
Systems)
“Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .............. 129
“Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain”..................... 106
“Heat Exchanger - Inspect/Clean” ........................139
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”................ 139
“Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add”.................................................. 107 “Sea Water Strainer - Clean/Inspect” ................... 144

Every 1000 Service Hours Every 8300 L (2190 US gal) of Fuel


or 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect”... 123
“Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace”........................... 100
Every 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year
Every 11 100 L (2930 US gal) of Fuel
“Battery Charger - Check”........................................99
or 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year
Every Year “Engine Valve Lash - Check” ................................ 123
“Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain”..................... 106 Every 22 200 L (5860 US gal) of Fuel
Every 3000 Service Hours or 3 or 2000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Years “Alternator - Inspect” ................................................97
“Engine Protective Devices - Check”.................... 122 “Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace” ........ 106

Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 “Generator - Inspect” ............................................131


Years “Generator Set Vibration - Inspect”....................... 134
“Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add” ........................... 103 “Rotating Rectifier - Check” .................................. 143
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 “Starting Motor - Inspect” ...................................... 147
Years “Turbocharger - Inspect” .......................................147
“Coolant (ELC) - Change”..................................... 101
“Water Pump - Inspect”......................................... 149
Every 5550 L (1470 US gal) of Fuel Every 88 800 L (23 460 US gal) of
or 500 Service Hours or 1 Year Fuel or 8000 Service Hours
“Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect”.............................97
“Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace” ...............113
“Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect”.............................98
Every 133 200 L (35 190 US gal) of
“Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” ..........................99 Fuel or 12 000 Service Hours
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - “Overhaul Considerations” ................................... 140
Inspect/Clean/Replace” ........................................ 109
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) -
Inspect/Clean/Replace” .........................................112
“Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace” .113
“Engine Mounts - Inspect” .....................................114
“Engine Oil Sample - Obtain”.................................115
94 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule

i05277669 “Generator Load - Check”..................................... 133


“Power Factor - Check”......................................... 143
Maintenance Interval Schedule
(Turbocharged Aftercooled “Walk-Around Inspection” ..................................... 148

Marine Generator Sets Rated at Every Week


50 Hz 86 ekW and 60 Hz 93 “Automatic Start/Stop - Inspect” ..............................97
ekW) “Standby Generator Set Maintenance
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7500 Recommendations” .............................................. 146

S/N: S1M1–Up Every 250 Service Hours


Ensure that all safety information, warnings, and “Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain”..................... 105
instructions are read and understood before any
operation or any maintenance procedures are Initial 500 Hours (for New Systems,
performed.
Refilled Systems, and Converted
The user is responsible for the performance of
maintenance, including all adjustments, the use of Systems)
proper lubricants, fluids, filters, and the replacement
of components due to normal wear and aging. Failure “Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain”..................... 106
to adhere to proper maintenance intervals and
procedures may result in diminished performance of Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
the product and/or accelerated wear of components.
“Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
Use mileage, fuel consumption, service hours, or (SCA) - Test/Add”.................................................. 107
calendar time, WHICH EVER OCCURS FIRST, in
order to determine the maintenance intervals. Every 1000 Service Hours
Products that operate in severe operating conditions
may require more frequent maintenance. “Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect”... 123
Note: Before each consecutive interval is performed, Every 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year
all maintenance from the previous interval must be
performed. “Battery Charger - Check”........................................99

When Required Every Year


“Battery - Replace”...................................................98 “Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain”..................... 106
“Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect”................ 100 Every 3000 Service Hours or 3
“Engine - Clean”.................................................... 108 Years
“Fuel System - Prime”........................................... 123 “Engine Protective Devices - Check”.................... 122
“Generator - Dry”................................................... 129 Every 6000 Service Hours or 3
“Generator Set - Test” ........................................... 133 Years
“Generator Winding Insulation - Test”................... 134 “Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add” ........................... 103
“Rotating Rectifier - Inspect/Test” ......................... 143 Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6
Daily Years
“Coolant (ELC) - Change”..................................... 101
“Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace” ........................... 100
“Coolant Level - Check”........................................ 104 Every 10 350 L (2730 US gal) of Fuel
“Electrical Connections - Check” .......................... 108
or 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect”.............................97
“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” ...112
“Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect”.............................98
“Engine Oil Level - Check”.....................................115
SEBU8607 95
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule

“Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” ..........................99 i05277409

“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) -


Inspect/Clean/Replace” ........................................ 109
Maintenance Interval Schedule
(Turbocharged Aftercooled
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) -
Inspect/Clean/Replace” .........................................112 Marine Generator Set Rated at
“Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace” .113 50 Hz 69 ekW and 60 Hz 76
“Engine Mounts - Inspect” .....................................114
ekW)
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7500
“Engine Oil Sample - Obtain”.................................115
S/N: S1M1–Up
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”............................116
Ensure that all safety information, warnings, and
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”........................... 120 instructions are read and understood before any
operation or any maintenance procedures are
“Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) performed.
Element - Replace”............................................... 126
The user is responsible for the performance of
“Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace” ........... 127 maintenance, including all adjustments, the use of
“Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .............. 129 proper lubricants, fluids, filters, and the replacement
of components due to normal wear and aging. Failure
“Heat Exchanger - Inspect/Clean” ........................ 139 to adhere to proper maintenance intervals and
procedures may result in diminished performance of
“Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”................ 139 the product and/or accelerated wear of components.

“Sea Water Strainer - Clean/Inspect” ................... 144 Use mileage, fuel consumption, service hours, or
calendar time, WHICH EVER OCCURS FIRST, in
Every 20 700 L (5470 US gal) of Fuel order to determine the maintenance intervals.
Products that operate in severe operating conditions
or 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year may require more frequent maintenance.
“Engine Valve Lash - Check” ................................ 123 Note: Before each consecutive interval is performed,
all maintenance from the previous interval must be
Every 41 400 L (10 940 US gal) of performed.
Fuel or 2000 Service Hours or 2
When Required
Years
“Battery - Replace”...................................................98
“Alternator - Inspect” ................................................97
“Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect”................ 100
“Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace” ........ 106
“Engine - Clean”.................................................... 108
“Generator - Inspect” ............................................ 131
“Fuel System - Prime”........................................... 123
“Generator Set Vibration - Inspect”....................... 134
“Generator - Dry”................................................... 129
“Rotating Rectifier - Check” .................................. 143
“Generator Set - Test” ........................................... 133
“Starting Motor - Inspect” ...................................... 147
“Generator Winding Insulation - Test”................... 134
“Turbocharger - Inspect” ....................................... 147
“Rotating Rectifier - Inspect/Test” ......................... 143
“Water Pump - Inspect”......................................... 149
Daily
Every 110 400 L (29 160 US gal) of
Fuel or 8000 Service Hours “Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace”........................... 100

“Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace” ...............113 “Coolant Level - Check”........................................ 104


“Electrical Connections - Check” .......................... 108
Every 165 600 L (43 750 US gal) of
Fuel or 12 000 Service Hours “Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” ...112

“Overhaul Considerations” ................................... 140 “Engine Oil Level - Check”.....................................115


96 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule

“Generator Load - Check”..................................... 133 “Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” ..........................99


“Power Factor - Check”......................................... 143 “Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) -
Inspect/Clean/Replace” ........................................ 109
“Walk-Around Inspection”..................................... 148
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) -
Every Week Inspect/Clean/Replace” .........................................112
“Automatic Start/Stop - Inspect” ..............................97 “Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace” .113
“Standby Generator Set Maintenance “Engine Mounts - Inspect” .....................................114
Recommendations” .............................................. 146
“Engine Oil Sample - Obtain”.................................115
Every 250 Service Hours “Engine Oil and Filter - Change”............................116
“Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain”..................... 105
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”........................... 120
Initial 500 Hours (for New Systems, “Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Refilled Systems, and Converted Element - Replace”............................................... 126
Systems) “Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace” ........... 127
“Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain”..................... 106 “Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .............. 129

Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year “Heat Exchanger - Inspect/Clean” ........................139


“Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”................ 139
“Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add”.................................................. 107 “Sea Water Strainer - Clean/Inspect” ................... 144
Every 1000 Service Hours Every 13 800 L (3650 US gal) of Fuel
“Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect”... 123 or 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year
Every 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year “Engine Valve Lash - Check” ................................ 123

“Battery Charger - Check”........................................99 Every 27 600 L (7290 US gal) of Fuel


or 2000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Every Year
“Alternator - Inspect” ................................................97
“Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain”..................... 106
“Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace” ........ 106
Every 3000 Service Hours or 3 “Generator - Inspect” ............................................131
Years
“Generator Set Vibration - Inspect”....................... 134
“Engine Protective Devices - Check”.................... 122
“Rotating Rectifier - Check” .................................. 143
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3
“Starting Motor - Inspect” ...................................... 147
Years
“Turbocharger - Inspect” .......................................147
“Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add” ........................... 103
“Water Pump - Inspect”......................................... 149
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6
Years Every 110 400 L (29 160 US gal) of
“Coolant (ELC) - Change”..................................... 101
Fuel or 8000 Service Hours
“Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace” ...............113
Every 6900 L (1820 US gal) of Fuel
or 500 Service Hours or 1 Year Every 165 600 L (43 750 US gal) of
“Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect”.............................97
Fuel or 12 000 Service Hours
“Overhaul Considerations” ................................... 140
“Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect”.............................98
SEBU8607 97
Maintenance Recommendations
Alternator - Inspect

i03903113 Check the following components for wear and check


the following components for damage:
Alternator - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1405-040
Caterpillar recommends a scheduled inspection of
the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and proper battery charging. Inspect the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure proper battery performance and/or
proper performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
proper operation. If the batteries are properly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power of the battery. If the battery
is too cold, the battery will not crank the engine.
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
if the engine is run for short periods, the batteries may
not fully charge. A battery with a low charge will
freeze more easily than a battery with a full charge.

i03903115

Automatic Start/Stop - Inspect


SMCS Code: 4462
The generator set must be ready to operate under a
load at any time. After performing maintenance on the
generator set, inspect the position of the control
switches. Ensure the following conditions:

• The starting system is enabled.


• The control switches are in the correct position for
automatic starting.

• The switchgear and the automatic transfer


switches that are associated with the generator are
enabled.

i03903117

Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect


SMCS Code: 1371-040; 1371
Impellers require periodic inspection and seals
require periodic inspection. Impellers have a service
life that is limited. The service life depends on the
engine operating conditions.
Inspect the components of the pump more frequently
when the pump is exposed to debris, sand, or other
abrasive materials. Inspect the components if the
pump is operating at a differential pressure of more
than 103 kPa (15 psi).
98 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect

Illustration 70 g01740513

(1) Seal (5) Impeller (9) Screw that holds cam


(2) Seal (6) Seal (10) O Ring Seal
(3) Wear Plate (7) O Ring Seal
(4) Cam (8) End Cover

• Cam i03903118

• Impeller Battery - Replace


• Seals SMCS Code: 1401-510

• Wear plate
If wear is found or if damage is found, replace the
components which are worn or replace the Batteries give off combustible gases which can
components which are damaged. Use the proper explode. A spark can cause the combustible
repair kit for the pump. Refer to the Disassembly and gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal
Assembly for more information on servicing the injury or death.
auxiliary water pump.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in or-
i03975610
der to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect serviced.
(Bronze Auxiliary Water Pump)
SMCS Code: 1371-040; 1371
The service life depends on the engine operating The battery cables or the batteries should not be
conditions of the bronze auxiliary water pump. removed with the battery cover in place. The bat-
Check the components for wear and check the tery cover should be removed before any servic-
components for damage. If wear is found or if ing is attempted.
damage is found, replace the components which are
worn or replace the components which are damaged. Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.

1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove all


electrical loads.
SEBU8607 99
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery Charger - Check

2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any i03903122


battery chargers.
Battery Electrolyte Level -
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
Check
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from SMCS Code: 1401-535-FLV
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from are properly charged, ammeter reading should be
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal. very near zero,when the engine is in operation.

Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a


battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility. All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
5. Remove the used battery. can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a
face shield and protective clothing when working
6. Install the new battery. on or near batteries.

Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that 1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
the engine start switch is OFF. level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal. If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
8. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the softened water.
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with the
i03903120 245-5829 Coolant Battery Tester Refractometer.

Battery Charger - Check 3. Keep the batteries clean.

SMCS Code: 1401-535 Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
Check the battery charger for proper operation. If the
batteries are properly charged, the needle of the • Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
ammeter will register near “0” (zero). and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
The batteries should be kept warm, when possible. • Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide .
The temperature of the battery will affect cranking
power. A battery that is too cold will not crank the Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
engine, even if the engine is warm.
Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
The batteries may not fully recharge when the engine terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
is not run for long periods of time. The batteries may until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
not fully recharge if the engine only runs for short remove material excessively. Excessive removal of
periods. Ensure a full charge in order to help prevent material can cause the clamps to not fit properly.
the battery from freezing. Coat the clamps and the terminals with 5N-5561
Silicone Lubricant, petroleum jelly or MPGM.
100 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect

i03903124 Inspection
Battery or Battery Cable - To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
for wear and for cracking. Replace a belt that is worn
Disconnect or damaged.
SMCS Code: 1401; 1402-029 If the belt is too loose, vibration causes unnecessary
wear on the belt and the pulley.

The battery cables or the batteries should not be


removed with the battery cover in place. The bat-
tery cover should be removed before any servic-
ing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.

1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the


ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.

2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure


that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 V batteries are involved, 2 negative
connection must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
Illustration 71 g02148928
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery Typical example
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the 1. Remove the bolts (1) and remove the guard (2).
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items After inspection of the belt or adjustment of the
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT belt, install the guard.
remove material excessively. Excessive removal of
material can cause the clamps to not fit correctly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable
silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.

6. Tape the cable connections in order to help prevent


accidental starting.

7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.

8. In order to connect the battery, connect the positive


connection before the negative connector.

i03903126

Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
(Single Belt)
SMCS Code: 1357-025; 1357-040; 1357-510

Note: The engine may auto start. Ensure that the


power supply is isolated before any service or repair
is performed. Illustration 72 g01626059
Typical example
SEBU8607 101
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change

2. To check the belt tension, install 144-0235 Belt


Tension Gauge. Install the gauge (3) at the center
of the longest free length and check the tension.
The correct tension for a used belt is 355 N
(79.8 lb). If the tension of the belt is below 250 N
(56 lb) adjust the belt to 355 N (79.8 lb).
The correct tension for a new belt or new belts is
535 N (120 lb). A higher tension is required in
order to compensate for the stretch that is in a new
belt. Only use the higher tension on a belt that has
not been used. A used belt is a belt that has been
in operation for 30 minutes or a longer time period.

3. Align the guard (2) to the engine. Install the bolts


(1). Tighten the bolts securely.

Adjustment

Illustration 74 g01626064

2. Loosen bolt (3) and adjust the alternator in order to


alter the belt tension. Tighten all bolts for the
adjustment of the alternator to 22 N·m (16 lb ft).

3. Install the cover. Refer to “Inspection” for more


information.

Replace
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly manual, “V belt
Remove and Install” for more information.

i03903771

Coolant (ELC) - Change


SMCS Code: 1350-070; 1395-044
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:

• The engine overheats frequently.

Illustration 73 g01560846 • Foaming is observed.

• The oil has entered the cooling system and the


1. Loosen the nut and bolt (1). Then loosen the nut
coolant is contaminated.
and bolt (2).
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
102 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change

Note: Inspect the water pump and the water 2. Close the drain valve. Clean the drain plugs. Install
temperature regulator after the cooling system has the drain plugs. Refer to Torque Specifications,
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace SENR3130 for more information on the correct
the water pump, the water temperature regulator, and torques.
the hoses, if necessary.

Drain NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri- Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.

Note: The engine can auto start. Ensure that the


power supply is isolated before any service or repair
is performed.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. Turn
isolator keyswitch to the OFF position.

2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order


to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.

3. Open the cooling system drain valve . If the cooling


system is not equipped with a drain valve, remove
the cooling system drain plugs.

Note: Drain the engine coolant from the following


positions. Rear of the engine block, Bottom of the
heat exchanger and the underside of the exhaust Illustration 75 g02163656
manifold. The exhaust manifold may have two drains.
Typical example
The exhaust manifold that is installed on an engine
that has a MCS control panel will only have one drain.
3. Open the vent screw (1) enough to allow the air
Allow the coolant to drain. that is trapped to be purged from the system. Fill
the cooling system with clean water.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle. 4. Tighten the vent screw securely. Ensure that the
Various methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant level is 25 mm (0.9843 inch) below filler
coolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full neck (2) on the header tank or the radiator.
distillation procedure is the only method acceptable
by Caterpillar to reclaim the used coolant. 5. Install the cooling system filler cap. Operate the
engine without load for approximately 30 minutes,
in order to allow circulation. The coolant
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Caterpillar temperature should be at least 82 °C (180 °F).
dealer or consult Dealer Service Tools .

Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
SEBU8607 103
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add

6. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.


Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order 7. Operate the engine without load. Inspect the
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling cooling system for leaks and for the correct
system filler cap. Open the drain valve or remove operating temperature.
the cooling system drain plugs. Allow the coolant
to drain. Flush the cooling system with clean water. i03903772
Close the drain valve. Clean the drain plugs. Install
the drain plugs. Refer to Torque Specifications, Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
SENR3130 for more information on the correct
SMCS Code: 1352-544-NL
torques.
Cat ELC (Extended Life Coolant) does not require
Fill the frequent additions of any supplemental cooling
additives which are associated with the present
conventional coolants.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L NOTICE
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks. Use only Cat Extended Life Coolant (ELC) Extender
Cooling system air locks may result in engine with Cat ELC .
damage. Do NOT use conventional supplemental coolant addi-
tive (SCA) with Cat ELC. Mixing Cat ELC with con-
1. Open the vent screw (1) enough to allow the air ventional coolants and/or conventional SCA reduces
the Cat ELC service life.
that is trapped to be purged from the system.

2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant Check the cooling system only when the engine is
(ELC). Refer to this Operation and Maintenance stopped and cool.
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information
on cooling system specifications.
Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam
3. Tighten the vent screw securely. Ensure that the and alkali.
coolant level is 25 mm (0.9843 inch) below filler
neck (2) on the header tank or the radiator. At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot
and under pressure. The radiator and all lines to
heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
4. Install the cooling system filler cap. Operate the steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.
engine without load for approximately 30 minutes,
in order to allow circulation. The coolant Remove cooling system pressure cap slowly to
temperature should be at least 82 °C (180 °F). relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and
cooling system pressure cap is cool enough to
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. touch with your bare hand.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order Do not attempt to tighten hose connections when
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling the coolant is hot, the hose can come off causing
system filler cap. Check the coolant level. If burns.
necessary, add coolant to the system.
Cooling System Coolant Additive contains alkali.
6. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
damaged, discard the old cooling system filler cap
and install a new cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is not
damaged, perform a pressure test. A 9S-8140
Pressurizing Pump is used to perform the pressure
test. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.
104 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Level - Check

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are con-
tained during performance of inspection, mainte-
nance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tool Catalog” for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.

Note: The engine can auto start. Ensure that the


power supply is isolated before any service or repair
is performed.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. Turn
isolator keyswitch to the OFF position. Illustration 76 g02163657
Typical example
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve pressure. Remove the cooling system
filler cap. Note: The engine can auto start. Ensure that the
power supply is isolated before any service or repair
3. It may be necessary to drain enough coolant from is performed.
the cooling system in order to add the Cat ELC 1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. Turn
Extender . isolator keyswitch to the OFF position.
4. Add Cat ELC Extender according to the
2. Remove the cooling system filler cap (1) slowly in
requirements for your engines cooling system
order to relieve pressure.
capacity. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations” 3. Ensure that the coolant level is 25 mm
article for more information. (0.9843 inch) below filler neck (2) on the header
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the tank or the radiator.
gaskets on the cooling system filler cap. Replace
the cooling system filler cap if the gaskets are
damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap.

i03903773

Coolant Level - Check


SMCS Code: 1395-082
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-


ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
SEBU8607 105
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain

• Commercial long life coolants that meet the


Caterpillar Engine Coolant Specification -1
(Caterpillar EC-1)

• Cat DEAC (Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant)


• Commercial heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze
Table 23

Recommended Interval
Type of Level 1 Level 2
Coolant
Cat DEAC Every 250 Hours(1) Yearly(1) (2)

Cat ELC Optional(2) Yearly(2)


(1) This is the recommended interval for coolant samples for all
conventional heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze. This is also the rec-
ommended interval for coolant samples of commercial coolants
that meet the Cat EC-1 specification for engine coolant.
(2) The Level 2 Coolant Analysis should be performed sooner if a
problem is suspected or identified.

Illustration 77 g01618831
Typical filler cap gaskets NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
Note: Gasket (4) is not installed on radiator filler use a separate designated pump for coolant sam-
caps. pling. Using the same pump for both types of samples
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and check the may contaminate the samples that are being drawn.
condition of the filler cap gaskets (3) and (4). This contaminate may cause a false analysis and an
Replace the cooling system filler cap if the filler cap incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by
both dealers and customers.
gaskets are damaged. Reinstall the cooling system
filler cap.
Note: Level 1 results may indicate a need for
5. Inspect the cooling system for leaks. Level 2 Analysis.

i03903775 Obtain the sample of the coolant as close as possible


to the recommended sampling interval. In order to
receive the full effect of S·O·S analysis, a consistent
Coolant Sample (Level 1) - trend of data must be established. In order to
Obtain establish a pertinent history of data, perform
consistent samplings that are evenly spaced.
SMCS Code: 1350-008; 1395-008; 1395-554; 7542 Supplies for collecting samples can be obtained from
your Caterpillar dealer.
Note: Obtaining a Coolant Sample (Level 1) is
optional if the cooling system is filled with Cat Use the following guidelines for a proper sample of
ELC (Extended Life Coolant).Cooling systems that the coolant:
are filled with Cat ELC should have a Coolant
Sample (Level 2). The Coolant Sample (Level 2) is
obtained at the recommended interval that is stated in
the Maintenance Interval Schedule.

Note: Obtain a Coolant Sample (Level 1) if the


cooling system is filled with any other coolant
instead of Cat ELC .This includes the following
types of coolants:
106 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain

• Complete the information on the label for the i03903781


sampling bottle before you begin to take the
samples. Coolant Temperature
• Keep the unused sampling bottles stored in plastic Regulator - Replace
bags. SMCS Code: 1355-510
• Obtain coolant samples directly from the coolant Replace the water temperature regulator before the
sample port. You should not obtain the samples water temperature regulator fails. This is a
from any other location. recommended preventive maintenance practice.
Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces
• Keep the lids on empty sampling bottles until you the chances for unscheduled downtime. Refer to this
are ready to collect the sample. Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for the proper maintenance
• Place the sample in the mailing tube immediately interval.
after obtaining the sample in order to avoid
contamination. A water temperature regulator that fails in a partially
opened position can cause overheating or
• Never collect samples from expansion bottles. overcooling of the engine.

• Never collect samples from the drain for a system. A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
Submit the sample for Level 1 analysis. overheating could result in the cracking of the cylinder
head or piston seizure problems.
For additional information about coolant analysis, see
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill A water temperature regulator that fails in the open
Capacities and Recommendations” or consult your position will cause the engine operating temperature
Caterpillar dealer. to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
i03903779 cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear of
Coolant Sample (Level 2) - the cylinder liner.
Obtain NOTICE
SMCS Code: 1350-008; 1395-008; 1395-554; 7542 Failure to replace your water temperature regulator
on a regularly scheduled basis could cause severe
engine damage.
NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and Caterpillar engines incorporate a shunt design cool-
use a separate designated pump for coolant sam- ing system and require operating the engine with a
pling. Using the same pump for both types of samples water temperature regulator installed.
may contaminate the samples that are being drawn.
This contaminate may cause a false analysis and an If the water temperature regulator is installed incor-
incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by rectly, the engine may overheat, causing cylinder
both dealers and customers. head damage. Ensure that the new water tempera-
ture regulator is installed in the original position. En-
sure that the water temperature regulator vent hole is
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, open.
“Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain” Do not use liquid gasket material on the gasket or cyl-
for the guidelines for a proper sampling of the coolant. inder head surface.
Submit the sample for Level 2 analysis.
For additional information about coolant analysis, see Refer to two articles in the Disassembly and
Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar Assembly Manual, “Water Temperature Regulators -
Commercial Diesel Engines Fluids Remove and Water Temperature Regulators - Install”
Recommendations” or consult your Caterpillar for the replacement procedure of the water
dealer. temperature regulator, or consult your Caterpillar
dealer.
Note: If only the water temperature regulators are
replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system to
a level that is below the water temperature regulator
housing.
SEBU8607 107
Maintenance Recommendations
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add

i03903780 5. Add one drop of “NITRITE TEST SOLUTION A” to


the mixing bottle. Move the bottle in a circular
Cooling System Supplemental motion in order to mix the solution.
Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/ 6. Repeat 5 until the solution changes color from red
Add to light gray, green, or blue. Record the number of
drops of “NITRITE TEST SOLUTION A” that were
SMCS Code: 1352-045; 1395-081
required to cause the color change.

7. Use Table 24 to interpret the results.


Table 24
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
Number of Drops Concentration of Maintenance
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact SCA Required
with the skin and eyes. Do not drink cooling sys-
tem coolant additive. Less than 25 Less than the recom- Add SCA.
mended concentra- Retest the coolant.
tion of SCA
Note: Caterpillar recommends an S·O·S coolant 25 to 30 The recommended None
analysis (Level 1). concentration of SCA

Test the Concentration of the SCA More than 30 More than the recom- Remove the coolant.
mended concentra- Replace with water
tion of SCA only
Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA Retest the coolant.

NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supple-
Add the SCA, If Necessary
mental coolant additive concentration.

Test the concentration of the SCA with the 8T-5296


Coolant Conditioner Test Kit. Follow the instructions Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
that are provided in the kit. ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
Water and SCA components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended eight percent sup-
plemental coolant additive concentration. 1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly.

Test the concentration of the SCA with the 8T-5296 Note: Always dispose of fluids according to local
Coolant Conditioner Test Kit. Use the instructions that regulations.
follow: 2. If necessary, drain some coolant in order to allow
space for the addition of the SCA.
1. Fill the syringe to the “1.0 ml” mark with the
coolant.
2. Dispense the 1.0 mL coolant sample from the
syringe into the empty mixing bottle.

3. Add tap water to the mixing bottle in order to bring


the level up to the “10 ml” mark. Place the cap on
the bottle and shake the bottle.
4. Add 2 to 3 drops of “NITRITE INDICATOR
SOLUTION B” to the mixing bottle. Move the
bottle in a circular motion in order to mix the
solution.
108 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Electrical Connections - Check

i03903782
NOTICE
Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentra-
tion can form deposits on the higher temperature sur-
Engine - Clean
faces of the cooling system, reducing the engine's SMCS Code: 1000-070
heat transfer characteristics. Reduced heat transfer
could cause cracking of the cylinder head and other
high temperature components.
Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentra- Personal injury or death can result from high
tion could also result in blockage of the heat exchang- voltage.
er, overheating, and/or accelerated wear of the water
pump seal. Moisture could create paths of electrical
conductivity.
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supple-
mental coolant additive concentration. Make sure the unit is off line (disconnected from
utility and/or other generators), locked out and
tagged "Do Not Operate".
3. Add the proper amount of SCA. The concentration
of the SCA depends on the type of coolant that is
used. To determine the proper amount, see this NOTICE
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Water or condensation can cause damage to genera-
Capacities and Recommendations” topic. tor components. Protect all electrical components
from exposure to water.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire
i01595880
hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and
fluid spills whenever a significant quantity accumu-
Electrical Connections - Check lates on the engine.
SMCS Code: 4459-535
Check all exposed electrical connections for Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
tightness. oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
Check the following devices for loose mounting or for
physical damage: • Easy detection of fluid leaks

• transformers • Maximum heat transfer characteristics

• fuses • Ease of maintenance

• capacitors Note: For more information on cleaning and drying


electric generators, refer to Special Instruction,
• lightning arrestors SEHS9124, Cleaning and Drying of Electric Set
Generators.
Check all lead wires and electrical connections for
proper clearance.
SEBU8607 109
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace

i03975470 Dual Element Air Cleaners


Engine Air Cleaner Element The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air
cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner
(Dual Element) - Inspect/Clean/ element. The primary air cleaner element can be
used up to six times if the element is properly cleaned
Replace and inspected. The primary air cleaner element
SMCS Code: 1051; 1054-040; 1054-070; 1054-510 should be replaced at least one time per year. This
replacement should be performed regardless of the
number of cleanings.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air or washable. The secondary air cleaner element
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with should be removed and discarded for every three
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the cleanings of the primary air cleaner element. When
engine causes premature wear and damage to en- the engine is operating in environments that are dusty
or dirty, air cleaner elements may require more
gine components. Air cleaner elements help to pre- frequent replacement.
vent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.

NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.

Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements


If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal engine
wear. Your Caterpillar dealer has the proper air
cleaner elements for your application. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for the correct air cleaner element.
Illustration 78 g00736431
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) daily for (1) Cover
accumulation of dirt and debris. Remove any dirt (2) Primary air cleaner element
and debris, as needed. (3) Secondary air cleaner element
(4) Turbocharger air inlet
• Operating conditions (dust, dirt, and debris) may
require more frequent service of the air cleaner 1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air cleaner
element. element.
• The air cleaner element may be cleaned up to six 2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
times if the element is properly cleaned and removed and discarded for every three cleanings
inspected. of the primary air cleaner element.
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
least one time per year. This replacement should Elements”.
be performed regardless of the number of
cleanings. 3. Cover the turbocharger air inlet with tape in order to
keep out dirt.
Replace the dirty paper air cleaner elements with
clean air cleaner elements. Before installation, the air 4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
cleaner elements should be thoroughly checked for
tears and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the with a clean, dry cloth.
gasket or the seal of the air cleaner element for
damage. Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner 5. Remove the tape for the turbocharger air inlet.
elements for replacement purposes. Install the secondary air cleaner element. Install a
primary air cleaner element that is new or cleaned.

6. Install the air cleaner cover.


7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
110 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace

Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Pressurized Air


Elements Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
NOTICE than two times. Pressurized air will not remove
Caterpillar recommends certified air filter cleaning deposits of carbon and oil. Use filtered, dry air with a
services that are available at Caterpillar dealers. The maximum pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi).
Caterpillar cleaning process uses proven procedures
to assure consistent quality and sufficient filter life.
Observe the following guidelines if you attempt to
clean the filter element:
Do not tap or strike the filter element in order to re-
move dust.
Do not wash the filter element.
Use low pressure compressed air in order to remove
the dust from the filter element. Air pressure must not
exceed 207 kPa (30 psi). Direct the air flow up the
pleats and down the pleats from the inside of the filter
element. Take extreme care in order to avoid damage
to the pleats.
Illustration 79 g00281692
Do not use air filters with damaged pleats, gaskets, or
seals. Dirt entering the engine will cause damage to Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are
engine components. cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside) in
order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
The primary air cleaner element can be used up to six
times if the element is properly cleaned and Aim the hose so that the air flows inside the element
inspected. When the primary air cleaner element is along the length of the filter in order to help prevent
cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material. damage to the paper pleats. Do not aim the stream of
The primary air cleaner element should be replaced air directly at the primary air cleaner element. Dirt
at least one time per year. This replacement should could be forced further into the pleats.
be performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Use clean primary air cleaner elements while dirty Elements”.
elements are being cleaned.

NOTICE
Vacuum Cleaning
Do not clean the air cleaner elements by bumping or
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for cleaning
tapping. This could damage the seals. Do not use ele- primary air cleaner elements which require daily
ments with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dam- cleaning because of a dry, dusty environment.
aged elements will allow dirt to pass through. Engine Cleaning with pressurized air is recommended prior
damage could result. to vacuum cleaning. Vacuum cleaning will not remove
deposits of carbon and oil.
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner elements Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
before cleaning. Inspect the air cleaner elements for Elements”.
damage to the seal, the gaskets, and the outer cover.
Discard any damaged air cleaner elements.
There are two common methods that are used to
clean primary air cleaner elements:

• Pressurized air
• Vacuum cleaning
SEBU8607 111
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace

Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner


Elements

Illustration 81 g00281694

Do not use paint, a waterproof cover, or plastic as a


protective covering for storage. An airflow restriction
Illustration 80 g00281693 may result. To protect against dirt and damage, wrap
the primary air cleaner elements in Volatile Corrosion
Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element. Inhibited (VCI) paper.
Use a 60 Watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner Place the primary air cleaner element into a box for
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element. storage. For identification, mark the outside of the box
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears and/ and mark the primary air cleaner element. Include the
or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element for following information:
light that may show through the filter material. If it is
necessary in order to confirm the result, compare the • Date of cleaning
primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number. • Number of cleanings
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has any Store the box in a dry location.
tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not use a
primary air cleaner element with damaged pleats,
gaskets, or seals. Discard damaged primary air
cleaner elements.

Storing Primary Air Cleaner Elements


If a primary air cleaner element that passes
inspection will not be used, the primary air cleaner
element can be stored for future use.
112 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace

i03903854 Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge


for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
Engine Air Cleaner Element air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
(Single Element) - Inspect/ the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
Clean/Replace the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
SMCS Code: 1051; 1054-040; 1054-070; 1054-510 equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.

Illustration 83 g00103777
Typical service indicator

Illustration 82 g01560871
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
Typical example should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:

Note: The engine can auto start. Ensure that the • The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
power supply is isolated before any service or repair
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
is performed.
1. Release the clips (3) and remove the cover (2). Test the Service Indicator
2. Remove the element (1) and discard the element. Service indicators are important instruments.
3. Ensure that all parts are clean and free from dirt. • Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
Install a new element. should reset in less than three pushes.
4. Align the cover to the body of the air cleaner. • Check the movement of the yellow core when the
Ensure that the cover is oriented correctly and engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed.
install the cover. The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
i03903852 If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
Engine Air Cleaner Service the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
Indicator - Inspect indicator may be restricted.
SMCS Code: 7452-040 The service indicator may be replaced frequently in
Some engines may be equipped with a different environments that are severely dusty.
service indicator.
SEBU8607 113
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace

i03975253 SMCS Code: 1317-510

Engine Crankcase Breather - S/N: S1M1–Up


Replace NOTICE
(Turbocharged Engines and Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Naturally Aspirated Engines)
SMCS Code: 1317-510 Note: The engine can auto start. Ensure that the
power supply is isolated before any service or repair
Note: The housing for the crankcase ventilator filter is performed.
must also be replaced on engines that are
turbocharged. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace
(Turbocharged Engines)” for the correct procedure.

Illustration 85 g02160981
Typical example

Illustration 84 g02163655 1. Remove all dirt and oil from the outside of the
Typical example breather assembly (1).

2. Remove the breather assembly. Refer to


1. Remove dust cover (1).
Disassembly and Assembly, “Crankcase Breather -
2. Remove screws (2) and cover (3). Remove and Install”.

3. Remove diaphragm (4) and spring (5). Discard 3. Install a new breather assembly. Refer to
diaphragm (4) and spring (5). Disassembly and Assembly, “Crankcase Breather -
Remove and Install”.
4. Install new diaphragm (4) and a new spring (5).
i05256770
5. Install cover (3) and screws (2). Tighten screws (2)
to a torque of 1.3 N·m (11.5 lb in). Engine Crankcase Breather
6. Install dust cover (1). Element - Replace
(Turbocharged Engines)
i05257281
SMCS Code: 1317-510-FQ
Engine Crankcase Breather - S/N: S1M1–Up
Replace
(Turbocharged Engines)
114 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Mounts - Inspect

NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.

Note: The engine can auto start. Ensure that the


power supply is isolated before any service or repair
is performed.

Illustration 87 g01157174
Typical example
Illustration 86 g02160981
Typical example 2. Turn lid (2) in a counterclockwise direction for
approximately 15 degrees. Remove the Lid.
1. Remove all dirt and oil from the outside of the
breather assembly (1). 3. Remove O-ring (3).

4. Remove crankcase ventilator filter (4).

5. Remove O-ring (5).

6. Install a new O-ring (5).

7. Install a new crankcase ventilator filter (4).

8. Install a new O-ring (3).

9. Install lid (2).

i03903843

Engine Mounts - Inspect


SMCS Code: 1152-040; 1152
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
proper bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused by
the following conditions:

• Improper mounting of the engine


• Deterioration of the engine mounts
SEBU8607 115
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil Level - Check

Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be


replaced. Refer to Special Publication, SENR3130, NOTICE
Torque Specifications for the recommended torques. Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
Refer to the OEM recommendations for more “FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
information. the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating char-
i03903840
acteristics and could result in the loss of power.

Engine Oil Level - Check 2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
SMCS Code: 1348-535-FLV Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.

i03903839

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to SMCS Code: 1348-554-SM
contact the skin.
In addition to a good preventive maintenance
program, Caterpillar recommends using S·O·S oil
analysis at regularly scheduled intervals in order to
monitor the condition of the engine and the
maintenance requirements of the engine. S·O·S oil
analysis provides infrared analysis, which is required
for determining nitration and oxidation levels.

Obtain the Sample and the Analysis

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal


injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Illustration 88 g01165836
(Y) “Min” mark. (X) “Max” mark. Before you take the oil sample, complete the Label,
PEEP5031 for identification of the sample. In order to
help obtain the most accurate analysis, provide the
NOTICE following information:
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
• Engine model

Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that the • Service hours on the engine
engine is in the normal operating position in order to
obtain a true level indication. • The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for 10 minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain • The amount of oil that has been added since the
to the oil pan before checking the oil level. last oil change

Note: The engine can auto start. Ensure that the To ensure that the sample is representative of the oil
in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
power supply is isolated before any service or repair sample.
is performed.
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
1. Maintain the oil level between the “ADD” mark (Y) and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
and the “FULL” mark (X) on the engine oil samples must be clean.
dipstick. Do not fill the crankcase above the
Caterpillar recommends using the sampling valve in
“FULL” mark (X). order to obtain oil samples. The quality and the
consistency of the samples are better when the
sampling valve is used. The location of the sampling
valve allows oil that is flowing under pressure to be
obtained during normal engine operation.
116 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change

The 169-8373 Fluid Sampling Bottle is


recommended for use with the sampling valve. The NOTICE
fluid sampling bottle includes the parts that are Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
needed for obtaining oil samples. Instructions are
also provided. Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
use a separate designated pump for coolant sam- engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
pling. Using the same pump for both types of samples suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of the
may contaminate the samples that are being drawn. oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
This contaminate may cause a false analysis and an draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
both dealers and customers. draining method allows the waste particles that are
suspended in the oil to be drained properly.

If the engine is not equipped with a sampling valve, Ensure that all adjustments, maintenance, and
use the 1U-5718 Vacuum Pump. The pump is repairs are performed by authorized personnel that
designed to accept sampling bottles. Disposable have the correct training.
tubing must be attached to the pump for insertion into Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
the sump. enough to collect the waste oil.
For instructions, see Special Publication, PEgj0047, Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
“How To Take A Good S·O·S Oil Sample”. Consult cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
your Caterpillar dealer for complete information and the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
assistance in establishing an S·O·S program for your
engine.
1. The engine can auto start. Ensure that the power
supply is isolated before any service or repair is
i03906144 performed.
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
(Duplex Oil Filters)
SMCS Code: 1318-510

Replace Engine Oil

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal


injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are con-
tained during performance of inspection, mainte-
nance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Illustration 89 g02163658
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and Typical example
mandates.
2. Open the drain valve (1).
SEBU8607 117
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change

4. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to


the oil pan for a minimum of 10 minutes.

Illustration 91 g01165836
Typical example

5. Remove the engine oil level gauge in order to


check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between
“MIN” and “MAX” marks on the engine oil level
gauge.

Illustration 90 g02163659
Typical example

3. Connect a drain line to the pump (2). Unlock the


pump and operate the pump in order to remove the
engine oil. After the oil has been removed, lock the
pump and remove the drain line.

4. After the oil has drained, close the drain valve (1).

Fill the Oil Pan

1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to the Operation


and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on
suitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correct amount
of new engine lubricating oil. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities” for more information on refill
capacities.

2. Refer to “Commissioning Procedure for Duplex Oil


Filters” before the engine is started.

3. Start the engine and operate the engine at “no


load” for 2 minutes. Perform this procedure in
order to ensure that the lubrication system has oil
and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil filter
for oil leaks.
118 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change

Commissioning Procedure for Duplex Oil Filters

Illustration 92 g02163729
Typical example

• (A) The oil flow is to the left-hand oil filter. 2. Apply clean engine oil to both O ring seals (1) for
the new oil filters.
• (B) The oil flow is to both oil filters.
3. Install the engine oil filters. Spin on the oil filter until
• (C) The oil flow is to the right-hand oil filter. the O ring seal contacts the oil filter base. Rotate
the oil filter ¾ of a full turn.
1. The engine can auto start. Ensure that the power
supply is isolated before any service or repair is 4. Ensure that the control lever is in position B. Refer
performed. to illustration 92 .
5. Ensure that the engine has the correct amount of
clean engine lubricating oil. Refer to “Replace
Engine Oil” for more information.

6. Operate the engine with no load in order to fill both


oil filters.
7. Check the engine oil pressure. Stop the engine and
allow time for the engine oil to drain into the oil
pan. Check the engine oil, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Oil Level -
Check”.
8. Rotate the lever in the direction of the oil filter that
is intended to be used and operate the engine.

Replacement of Duplex Filter with the


Engine in Operation
An engine can be operated during the replacement of
the filters, if duplex filters are installed.
Illustration 93 g02163731
Typical example
SEBU8607 119
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change

Note: With the control lever in position A, the flow of


oil is to the left-hand oil filter. With the control lever in
position C, the flow of oil is to the right-hand oil filter.
Refer to illustration 91 .
1. Clean the area around the oil filters.

Illustration 95 g00588944
Element with debris

6. Cut the oil filter open with a 175-7546 Oil Filter


Cutter. Break apart the pleats and inspect the oil
filter for metal debris. An excessive amount of
metal debris in the oil filter may indicate early wear
or a pending failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts, or bronze parts of the
engine. Parts that may be affected include the
following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings and cylinder heads.

Illustration 94 g02163739
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
Typical example oil filter. Consult your Caterpillar dealer in order to
arrange for a further analysis if an excessive
Note: The control lever is in position A. The right- amount of debris is found in the oil filter.
hand oil filter has been isolated from the oil flow.
2. Rotate the control lever (1) slowly in the direction of 7. Clean the sealing surface of the oil filter base (2).
the oil filter that is intended to be used. Allow time
8. Apply clean engine oil to the O ring seal (3) for the
for the oil filter to fill and check for leaks on the oil
new oil filter.
filter. Check that the engine oil pressure is correct.

3. Place a soft cloth over the vent screw (4) and open NOTICE
the vent screw. This will allow any pressure that is Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
in the isolated oil filter to be released. This oil would not be filtered and could be contami-
nated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear
4. Tighten the vent screw securely. to engine components.
5. Remove the oil filter with a 1U-8760 Chain
Wrench. 9. Install the engine oil filter. Spin on the oil filter until
the O ring seal contacts the oil filter base. Rotate
Note: The following actions can be carried out as part the oil filter ¾ of a full turn.
of the preventive maintenance program.
10. Drain the tray below the filter.
120 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change

i03906141

Engine Oil and Filter - Change


(Single Oil Filter)
SMCS Code: 1318-510

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal


injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are con-
tained during performance of inspection, mainte-
nance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Illustration 96 g02163658
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and Typical example
mandates.
1. The engine can auto start. Ensure that the power
NOTICE supply is isolated before any service or repair is
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. performed.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened 2. Open the drain valve (1).
component life.

Ensure that all adjustments, maintenance, and


repairs are performed by authorized personnel that
have had the correct training.
Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of the
oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
draining method allows the waste particles that are
suspended in the oil to be drained properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.

Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil


Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
enough to collect the waste oil.
SEBU8607 121
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change

Illustration 98 g00588944
Element with debris

3. Cut the oil filter open with a 175-7546 Oil Filter


Cutter. Break apart the pleats and inspect the oil
filter for metal debris. An excessive amount of
metal debris in the oil filter may indicate early wear
or a pending failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Illustration 97 g02163659
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
Typical example aluminum parts, brass parts, or bronze parts of the
engine. Parts that may be affected include the
3. Connect a drain line to the pump (2). Unlock the following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
pump and operate the pump in order to remove the turbocharger bearings and cylinder heads.
engine oil. After the oil has been removed, lock the
pump and remove the drain line. Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter. Consult your Caterpillar dealer in order to
4. After the oil has drained, close the drain valve (1). arrange for a further analysis if an excessive
amount of debris is found in the oil filter.
Single Oil Filter
Note: Change the oil filter with the engine stopped.
Caterpillar oil filters are manufactured to Caterpillar
specifications. Use of an oil filter that is not
recommended by Caterpillar could result in severe
damage to the engine bearings, and the crankshaft.
This is a result of the larger waste particles from
unfiltered oil that can enter the engine lubricating
system. Only use oil filters that are recommended by
Caterpillar .

1. Clear the area around the oil filter.


2. Remove the oil filter with a 1U-8760 Chain
Wrench.
Note: The following actions can be carried out as part
of the preventive maintenance program.
122 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Protective Devices - Check

Illustration 100 g01165836


Typical example

4. Remove the engine oil level gauge in order to


check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between
Illustration 99 g02163764 “MIN” and “MAX” marks on the engine oil level
Typical example gauge.

4. Clean the sealing surface of the oil filter base (3). i03903838

5. Apply clean engine oil to the O ring seal for the new Engine Protective Devices -
oil filter.
Check
NOTICE SMCS Code: 7400-535
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contami- Visual Inspection
nated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear
to engine components. Visually check the condition of all gauges, sensors,
and wiring. Look for wiring and components that are
loose, broken, or damaged. Damaged wiring or
6. Install the engine oil filter. Spin on the oil filter until components should be repaired or replaced
the O ring seal contacts the oil filter base. Rotate immediately.
the oil filter ¾ of a full turn.
Calibration Check
Fill the Oil Pan
NOTICE
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to Operation and During testing, abnormal operating conditions must
Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and be simulated.
Recommendations” for more information on
The tests must be performed correctly in order to pre-
suitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correct amount vent possible damage to the engine.
of new engine lubricating oil. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and
Recommendations” for more information on refill Alarms and shutoffs must function properly. Alarms
provide timely warning to the operator. Shutoffs help
capacities. to prevent damage to the engine. It is impossible to
determine if the engine protective devices are in good
2. Start the engine and operate the engine at “no working order during normal operation. Malfunctions
load” for 2 minutes. Perform this procedure in must be simulated in order to test the engine
order to ensure that the lubrication system has oil protective devices. To prevent damage to the engine,
and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil filter only authorized service personnel or your Caterpillar
for oil leaks. dealer should perform the tests.

3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to Consult your Caterpillar dealer or refer to the Service
the oil pan for a minimum of 10 minutes. Manual for more information.
SEBU8607 123
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect

i03906205 i03903837

Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Engine Valve Lash - Check


Clean/Inspect SMCS Code: 1105-535
SMCS Code: 1905-040; 1905-070; 1907-040; 1907- This maintenance is recommended by Caterpillar as
070 part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life.

NOTICE
Only qualified service personnel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Systems Operation/Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Valve Lash and Valve Bridge
Adjustment” article or consult your Caterpillar dealer
for the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Caterpillar engines with improper valve
adjustments can reduce engine efficiency. This re-
duced efficiency could result in excessive fuel usage
and/or shortened engine component life.

Ensure that the engine cannot be started while


this maintenance is being performed. To help pre-
vent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Illustration 101 g01578033 Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
Typical example additional time for the engine to cool before meas-
uring/adjusting valve lash clearance.

Note: The engine can auto start. Ensure that the Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
power supply is isolated before any service or repair the valve lash. To obtain an accurate measurement,
is performed. allow the valves to cool before this maintenance is
1. Remove the sensor (3) from the flywheel housing. performed.
Check the condition of the end of the sensor.
Refer to the Service Manual for more information.
Check for signs of wear and contaminants.

2. Clean the metal shavings and other debris from the i03906146
face of the magnet.
Fuel System - Prime
3. Install the sensor until the magnet comes in contact
with a tooth on the flywheel ring gear (1).
(Duplex Fuel Filter if Equipped)
SMCS Code: 1250-548; 1258-548
4. Back out 180 degrees and tighten the locknut (2) to
45 ± 7 N·m (33 ± 5 lb ft). Ensure that all adjustments, maintenance, and
repairs are performed by authorized personnel that
Note: Ensure that the sensor cannot rotate when the have had the correct training.
locknut is tightened.
NOTICE
Refer to the Service Manual for more information on Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
the sensor. 30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
124 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System - Prime

If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged


from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:

• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been


partially drained.
• The low-pressure fuel lines are disconnected.

• A leak exists in the low-pressure fuel system.


• The fuel filter has been replaced.

Priming the Duplex Fuel Filters with


the Engine Stopped
Note: The engine can auto start. Ensure that the
power supply is isolated before any service or repair
is performed.
Use the following procedures in order to remove air
from the fuel system:

Illustration 102 g01627770


Typical example

• (A) The fuel flow is to the left-hand fuel filter.


• (B) The fuel flow is to both fuel filters.

• (C) The fuel flow is to the right-hand fuel filter.


SEBU8607 125
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System - Prime

Illustration 103 g01628110


Typical example

• (A) The fuel flow is to the left-hand fuel filter.

• (B) The fuel flow is to both fuel filters.


• (C) The fuel flow is to the right-hand fuel filter.

Commissioning procedure
Use the following procedure in order to remove air
from both fuel filters.

Duplex Fuel Filters

1. The engine can auto start. Ensure that the power


supply is isolated before any service or repair is
performed.

Illustration 104 g02164298


Typical example

2. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order.


Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the “ON” position.

3. Ensure that the control levers are in position B.


Refer to illustration 102 and illustration 103 .
4. Start the engine. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Starting the Engine” for the
correct procedure. The electric fuel priming pump
will operate.
126 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace

5. After the engine has started, operate the engine for


a minimum of 5 minutes without load.
Note: Operating the engine for this time period will
help ensure that the fuel system is free of air.

6. Select the required position for the control levers


on the secondary filters.

Priming a Duplex Fuel Filter with


the Engine in Operation
Priming the Secondary Filters
Illustration 105 g00741109
1. Both the secondary fuel filter and the primary fuel Typical example
filter (if equipped) must be replaced at the same (1) Cap
time. (2) Locking ring
(3) Element
(4) Water separator bowl
2. Slowly rotate the control lever on the secondary (5) Drain
fuel filters toward position B.
1. Close the fuel supply valve.
Note: Position B will allow the flow of fuel to both
filters. 2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly. Drain
3. Rotate the control lever to the required position. the fuel into a suitable container by using the fuel
drain on the bottom of element (3). Drain the water
4. Drain the tray below the filters. from water separator (4) into a suitable container.
Not all engines are equipped with a water
i03906212 separator.

Fuel System Primary Filter Note: The fuel level in element (3) should be reduced
before removal of the element. Remove cap (1) if the
(Water Separator) Element - element is not equipped with a drain on the bottom.
Replace Remove the nylon insert in order to reduce the level
of fuel in the element. A reduction in the level of fuel in
(if Equipped) the element will help prevent fuel from being spilled
SMCS Code: 1260-510-FQ; 1263-510-FQ when the element is removed.

NOTICE
Do not use a tool in order to remove the fuel filter. At-
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electri- tempting to remove the fuel filter with a filter wrench
cal components can cause a fire. To help prevent or a filter strap could damage the locking ring.
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements. 3. Hold element (3) and rotate locking ring (2)
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
counterclockwise. Remove locking ring (2). The
used element should be removed and discarded.
NOTICE Note: If the element is equipped with a sediment
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly bowl, remove the sediment bowl from the element.
clean the area around a fuel system component that Thoroughly clean the sediment bowl. Inspect the O-
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over discon- ring seals for wear or damage. Install new O-ring
nected fuel system component. seals, if necessary. Install the sediment bowl onto the
new element. Hand tighten the sediment bowl. Hand
Turn the fuel supply valve to the OFF position before tightening is the only method that should be used.
performing this maintenance. Place a tray under the
fuel filter in order to catch any fuel that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.
SEBU8607 127
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace

NOTICE
Do not fill fuel filters with fuel before installing them.
Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear to fuel
system parts.

4. Ensure that the filter head is clean. Push a new


element fully into the filter head.

5. Hold the element in place. Install locking ring (2)


into position. Rotate the locking ring clockwise in
order to fasten the element to the filter head.
Note: If the nylon insert was removed, install the
nylon insert and install cap (1).

6. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and


Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.

i03906236

Fuel System Secondary Filter -


Replace
SMCS Code: 1261-510-SE

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electri-


cal components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.

Ensure that all adjustments, maintenance, and


repairs are performed by authorized personnel that
have had the correct training.
128 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace

Duplex Filters

Illustration 106 g02163777

(A) The fuel flow is to the left-hand fuel filter. (B) The fuel flow is to both fuel filters. (C) The fuel flow is to the right-hand fuel filter.

2. Isolate the contaminated filter by rotating the


control lever into position A or position C.

3. Place a soft cloth over the vent of the filter that has
been isolated, before opening the vent screw.

4. Open the vent screw and then close the vent screw
on the filter that has been isolated. This will relieve
any pressure that is still in the filter.

5. Clean the outside of the fuel filter. Use 1U-8760


Chain Wrench in order to remove canister (2) from
the engine and dispose of the canister in a safe
place.

6. Lubricate O ring seal (1) with clean engine oil. Do


not fill the new canister with fuel before the canister
is installed.
7. Do not use a tool in order to install the canister.
Tighten the canister by hand.
Illustration 107 g01566558
Typical example 8. Install the new canister. Spin on the canister until
the O ring seal contacts the filter base. Then rotate
the canister 360 degree in order to tighten the
1. The control lever will point in the direction of the
canister correctly.
fuel filter that is active. With the control lever in
position A, the right-hand fuel filter can be 9. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
replaced. With the control lever in position C, the Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”.
left-hand fuel filter can be replaced. Refer to
illustration 106 .
SEBU8607 129
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain

i03903833 Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If the
- Drain engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
SMCS Code: 1273-543-M&S
Fuel Storage Tanks
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are con- Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tained during performance of inspection, mainte- storage tank during the following conditions:
nance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be • Weekly
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling • Oil change
any component containing fluids.
• Refill of the tank
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publi- This will help prevent water or sediment from being
cation, PECJ0003, “Caterpillar Shop Supplies and pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
Tools Catalog” for tools and supplies suitable to col- tank. A four micron(c) absolute filter for the breather
lect and contain fluids on Caterpillar products. vent on the fuel tank is also recommended. Refer to
Special Publication, SENR9620, “Improving Fuel
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and System Durability”.
mandates.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
Fuel Tank settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
excessive wear to the fuel system. Condensation When possible, water separators should be used.
occurs during the heating and cooling of fuel. The
condensation occurs as the fuel passes through the i03997990
fuel system and the fuel returns to the fuel tank. This
causes water to accumulate in fuel tanks. Draining
the fuel tank regularly and obtaining fuel from reliable Generator - Dry
sources can help to eliminate water in the fuel. SMCS Code: 4450-569
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the Personal injury or death can result from improper
fuel tanks. troubleshooting and repair procedures.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank in The following troubleshooting and repair proce-
order to drain the water and the sediment. Close the dures should only be performed by qualified per-
drain valve. sonnel familiar with this equipment.
Note: Failure to close the drain can allow air into the
system, which could have detrimental results to Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
performance. “Generator Isolating for Maintenance” for information
regarding the procedure to isolate the generator in a
Check the fuel daily. Drain the water and sediment safe manner.
from the fuel tank after operating the engine or drain
the water and sediment from the fuel tank after the Refer to Special Instruction, REHS9124, Cleaning
fuel tank has been filled. Allow 5 to 10 minutes before and Drying of the Generator for further necessary
performing this procedure. information.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in order to Of the following methods for drying the generator, the
drive out moist air. This will help prevent use of external heat is preferred.
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The fuel
expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
130 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator - Dry

• External heat If the windings or insulation are wet during the


resistance measurement, use a 5 megohm resistor
• Internal heat for protection in series with red positive lead. This
procedure limits the voltage across the circuit under
• Combination of external and internal heat the test. Use this method until drying is well in
progress and the resistance has reached an
• Circulating current acceptable level.
External heat is the most preferable method. Check the windings after every 4 hours when either
Insulation drying time can vary from a few hours to external or internal heat is used to dry the generator.
several days. The drying time depends on the Check the windings very hour when circulating
moisture content and the process for drying that is current is used to dry the generator. Refer to Special
used. Instruction, REHS9124, Cleaning and Drying of the
Generator for more information.
Note: Drying sometimes does not produce the
required results. The use of a qualified rebuild shop Drying is complete when the tests show no increase
may be necessary for dipping and drying the in resistance and the resistance is above the
generator. minimum. Record these readings and compare these
readings. Keep these records for future reference.

Illustration 109 g01696934


Curve of insulation resistance for windings in good
condition
(1) Resistance after 30 seconds
(2) Resistance after 60 seconds

Illustration 108 g02175752 Illustration 109 indicates the curve of the resistance
of a normal high resistance in the windings over a
Typical curves of the resistance in the insulation that period of 60 seconds. The resistance after 60
is drying seconds will be greater than the resistance or equal
(1) Curve of the temperature in the windings to the resistance after 30 seconds .
(2) Heat turned off.
(3) Drying time in hours
(4) Temperature in degrees celsius
Note: If the insulation resistance after 60 seconds is
(5) Curve of insulation resistance during drying process not higher than the resistance after 30 seconds , the
(6) Insulation resistance in megohms insulation may be weak.

Note: When new insulation or very damp insulation is


being dried, the resistance will probably fall rapidly.
The rapid fall in resistance is the result of the
temperature being raised to a value for drying. After
reaching a minimum for a given temperature, the
resistance will again rise as moisture is driven out of
the insulation. The actual values will vary with each
situation. Refer to Illustration 109 .
SEBU8607 131
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator - Inspect

Note: Many electrical shops are equipped with


baking ovens.
Heat the generator to approximately 75° C (167° F).
Never exceed 75° C (167° F) until the insulation
tester tests correctly for insulation resistance (at least
4 hours).

Alternate Method
A tent formed by a tarp or a canvas with heated
lamps or a portable space heater may be used as an
alternate method.
A hole should be left in the top of the tarp for ensuring
proper circulation through the generator and for
Illustration 110 g01697074 permitting the moisture to exhaust. Heat the
Curve of insulation resistance for windings that are generator to approximately 75° C (167° F). Never
wet or dirty exceed 75° C (167° F) until the insulation tester tests
(1) Resistance after 30 seconds
correctly for insulation resistance (at least 4 hours).
(2) Resistance after 60 seconds
Internal Heating
Illustration 110 indicates the curve of the resistance
that is decaying over a period of 60 seconds. If the If generators operate under one of the following
insulation resistance after 60 seconds is not higher conditions, the electric space heaters should be
than the resistance after 30 seconds , clean the installed as part of the generator:
windings and thoroughly dry the windings. Refer to
Special Instruction, REHS9124, Cleaning and Drying • Generators are in damp environments and go for
of the Generator for more information. long periods of time without operation.
Note: Caterpillar recommends a minimum • Generators operate regularly in an environment
acceptable insulation resistance of 1 megohm for with moisture laden air.
generators which operate with less than 1000 V of
operating or rated voltage. Generators which operate Circulating Current
at 1000 V of operating or rated voltage should have a
minimum insulation resistance as determined by the Drying can be accomplished by circulating low
following equation: voltage current through the windings. Since the
voltage is low, the breakdown of the insulation will not
R = (V/1000) + M occur as the breakdown might have occurred with
normal operation and wet insulation. Refer to Special
“R” is the minimum insulation resistance. Instruction, REHS9124, Cleaning and Drying of the
Generator for this procedure.
“V” is the rated voltage.
“M” is 1 megohm. i01880220

These values are approximate. It may be possible to


operate a generator with less resistance.
Generator - Inspect
SMCS Code: 4450-040
External Heat
Ovens
Personal injury or death can result from improper
The best oven is a forced air drying oven for drying troubleshooting and repair procedures.
electrical equipment. Radiant ovens sometimes
cause localized overheating. The following troubleshooting and repair proce-
dures should only be performed by qualified per-
NOTICE sonnel familiar with this equipment.
Do not heat the generator too quickly. Try to limit the
rise in temperature of the insulation and windings to
11.11° C (20° F) per hour. Failure to do so may cause
equipment damage.
132 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator - Inspect

• The extent of the cleaning procedure that is being


attempted
The high voltage that is produced by an operating • The type of enclosure of the generator
generator set can cause severe injury or death.
Before performing any maintenance or repairs, • The voltage rating of the generator
ensure that the generator will not start.
• The type of dirt that is being removed
Place the engine control switch in the “ OFF”” po-
sition. Attach “ DO NOT OPERATE”” tags to all Cleaning (Assembled Generators)
starting controls. Disconnect the batteries or dis-
able the starting system. Lock out all switchgear Cleaning may be required at the point of installation.
and automatic transfer switches that are associ- At this point, complete disassembly of the generator
ated with the generator. may not be necessary or feasible. In this case, a
vacuum cleaner should be used to pick up the
Refer to Safety Section, “Generator Isolating for following items: dry dirt, dust and carbon. This will
Maintenance” for information regarding the procedure prevent the spreading of these contaminants.
to safely isolate the generator. A small nonconductive tube may need to be
Proper maintenance of electrical equipment requires connected to the vacuum cleaner. This will allow the
vacuum cleaner to clean the surfaces that are not
periodic visual examination of the generator and exposed. After most of the dust has been removed, a
periodic visual examination of the windings. Proper small brush may be attached to the vacuum hose in
maintenance of electrical equipment also requires order to loosen dirt that is more firmly attached to the
appropriate electrical checks and appropriate thermal surface.
checks. Insulation material should be examined for
cracks. The insulation material should be examined After the initial cleaning with a vacuum, compressed
for accumulations of dirt and dust. If there is an air may be used to remove the remaining dust and
insulation resistance value that is below normal, a dirt. Compressed air that is used for cleaning should
conductive path may be present. This conductive
path may be made of one of the following materials: be free of moisture and free of oil. Air pressure should
be a maximum of 210 kPa (30 psi) in order to prevent
• Carbon mechanical damage to the insulation. If the above
cleaning procedures are not effective, consult a
• Salt Caterpillar dealer.

• Metal dust Cleaning (Disassembled


• Dirt that is saturated with moisture
Generators)
These contaminants will develop a conductive path An initial insulation resistance check should be made
which may produce shorts. Cleaning is advisable if on the generator in order to confirm electrical integrity.
heavy accumulations of dirt can be seen or if heavy A minimum reading of one megohm would be
expected with severely contaminated generators. A
accumulations of dust can be seen. If excess dirt is
the cause of a restriction in the ventilation, cleaning is zero megohm reading may indicate an insulation
also advisable. Restricted ventilation will cause breakdown. An insulation breakdown requires more
excessive heating. than cleaning. An insulation breakdown requires
repair.
NOTICE A high pressure wash is normally an effective way to
To avoid the possibility of deterioration to the genera- clean windings. This includes windings that have
tor windings, do not clean the generator unless there been exposed to flooding or windings that have been
is visual, electrical, or thermal evidence that dirt is contaminated by salt. A solution of hot water and
present. detergent is used for this method of cleaning.
A high pressure wash sprays a high velocity fluid
If harmful dirt accumulations are present, a variety of stream of this solution over the generator that is being
cleaning techniques are available. The cleaning cleaned. This detergent washing is followed by
procedure that is used may be determined by one of multiple sprays of clean water. The clean water is
the items on the following list: used in order to remove the detergent or the clean
water is used in order to dilute the detergent.
SEBU8607 133
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator Load - Check

Allow the generator to dry at room temperature. i02377583


Check the insulation resistance. The insulation
resistance should now be normal. If the insulation
resistance is not normal, repeat the procedure. It may
Generator Set - Test
be necessary to use solvents if the generator is SMCS Code: 4450-081
contaminated with oil or if the generator is
contaminated with grease.
Note: For more information on drying methods, refer
to Special Instructions, SEHS9124, “Cleaning and DANGER: Shock/Electrocution Hazard-Do not
Drying of Electric Set Generators”. operate this equipment or work on this equipment
unless you have read and understand the
instructions and warnings in the Operation and
i01878834
Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the
instructions or heed the warnings will result in
Generator Load - Check serious injury or death.
SMCS Code: 4450-535-LA

Personal injury or death can result from high Personal injury or death can result from high
voltage. voltage.

When power generation equipment must be in op- When power generation equipment must be in op-
eration to make tests and/or adjustments, high eration to make tests and/or adjustments, high
voltage and current are present. voltage and current are present.

Improper test equipment can fail and present a Improper test equipment can fail and present a
high voltage shock hazard to its user. high voltage shock hazard to its user.

Make sure the testing equipment is designed for Make sure the testing equipment is designed for
and correctly operated for high voltage and cur- and correctly operated for high voltage and cur-
rent tests being made. rent tests being made.
When servicing or repairing electric power gener-
During normal operation, monitor the power factor ation equipment:
and monitor generator loading.
• Make sure the unit is off-line (disconnected
When a three-phase generator is installed or when a from utility and/or other generators power serv-
three-phase generator is reconnected, ensure that ice), and either locked out or tagged DO NOT
the total current in any one phase does not exceed OPERATE.
the nameplate rating. Each phase should carry the
same load. This allows the three-phase generator to • Make sure the generator engine is stopped.
work at the rated capacity. If one phase current
exceeds the nameplate amperage, an electrical • Make sure all batteries are disconnected.
imbalance will occur. An electrical imbalance can
result in an electrical overload and an electrical • Make sure all capacitors are discharged.
imbalance can result in overheating on three-phase
generators. This is not applicable to single-phase Table 25
generators.
Tools Needed
The power factor can be referred to as the efficiency Part Number Part Quantity
of the load. This can be expressed as the ratio of kVA
to actual kW. The power factor can be calculated by 237-5130 Digital Multimeter 1
dividing kW by kVA. Power factor is expressed as a
decimal. Power factor is used to mean the portion of 12 VDC battery 1
current that is supplied to a system that is doing Potential
useful work. The portion of the current that is not Transformer
1
doing useful work is absorbed in maintaining the
magnetic field in motors. This current (reactive load)
can be maintained without engine power. The generator set functional test is a simplified test
that can be performed in order to determine if the
generator is functional. The generator set functional
test should be performed on a generator set that is
under load.
134 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator Set Vibration - Inspect

The generator set functional test determines if the • loose fittings


following statements happen:
• loose bolts
• A phase voltage is being generated.
• excessive noise
• The phase voltages are balanced.
• cracked insulation
• The phase voltages change relative to engine
speed. The following areas are susceptible to vibration
damage:
The generator set functional test consists of the
following steps: • stator output leads

1. Stop the generator. Connect the potential • protective sleeving


transformer's high voltage winding to the generator • insulation
terminals (T1) and (T2). Connect the voltmeter to
the low voltage winding. If two transformers are • exposed electrical connections
available, connect the high voltage winding of the
second transformer to the generator terminals (T1) • transformers
and (T3). Connect the secondary terminals that • fuses
correspond to generator terminal (T2) of both
transformers together. • capacitors

2. Disconnect wires “E+” and “E-” from the voltage Check the generator set's vibration level by using a
regulator. Disconnect the generator from the load. broad spectrum analyzer.

3. Connect a 12 VDC automotive battery to wires “E i03904021


+” and “E-” .
4. Measure the AC voltage across the low voltage
Generator Winding Insulation -
terminals of the transformer that correspond to the Test
following generator terminals: “T1” and “T2” , SMCS Code: 4453-081; 4454-081; 4457-081; 4470-
“T2” and “T3” and “T3” and “T1” . Record the 081
voltages.
Recommended Periodic Insulation
i02291365
Tests
Generator Set Vibration -
Inspect
SMCS Code: 4450-040-VI The high voltage that is produced by an operating
generator set can cause severe injury or death.
Excessive vibration will indicate a problem with the Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
generator set. The vibration may be caused by the ensure that the generator will not start.
following:
Place the engine control switch in the “ OFF”” po-
• Misalignment of the coupling between the engine sition. Attach “ DO NOT OPERATE”” tags to all
and the generator starting controls. Disconnect the batteries or dis-
able the starting system. Lock out all switchgear
• Faulty mounting or play in the coupling and automatic transfer switches that are associ-
ated with the generator.
• Incorrect balancing of the generator shaft or
engine crankshaft Table 26
Tools Needed
• A three-phase generator has too much load on a
single phase. 142-5055 Insulation Testing Gp

• There is a short circuit in the stator. 9U-6003 Insulation Testing Gp

Check for vibration damage. Vibration may cause the


following problems:
SEBU8607 135
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator Winding Insulation - Test

Periodically, use an insulation tester to check the 2. Visually inspect the generator for moisture. If
insulation resistance of the generators main stator moisture exists, do not perform this insulation test.
winding. The frequency of this test is determined by Dry the unit first. Refer to Special Instruction,
the generators environment. Previous insulation
SEHS9124, “Cleaning and Drying of Electric Set
tester readings will also determine the frequency of
this test. Generators”.

Test the main stator windings with an insulation tester 3. Inspect the installation. Determine the equipment
in the following situations: that will be tested by the insulation tester.

• The generator set is started for the first time. 4. Discharge the capacitance of the windings.
• The generator set is removed from storage. 5. Isolate the stator windings of the generator by
disconnecting all other leads and cables from the
• The generator set is operating in a humid
generator terminals. This includes connections to
environment. Test every 3 months.
the voltage regulator, the control panel, the
• The generator set is not protected from the switchgear, or other devices.
elements in an enclosed area. Test every 3
months. 6. Connect the insulation testers RED lead to ground.

• The generator set is installed in an enclosed area. 7. Connect the insulation testers BLACK lead to the
This area needs to be low in humidity and this area wye point or star point of the generators windings.
needs to have steady temperatures. Test every 12
months (minimum). 8. For units that are 600 V or less, set the voltage to
500 V. For units that are more than 600 V, set the
• The generator set has not been run under load for voltage to 1000 V.
3 months. Test the generator set weekly. Use
space heaters around the generator set if the 9. Use the 30/60 Time Resistance Method:
generator is exposed to a sea water environment
or if the humidity is above 75 percent. Also use a. Apply voltage.
space heaters if a test result was below 3
megohms. b. Observe the readings at 30 seconds. Observe
the readings at 60 seconds.
Space heaters must be used whenever the generator
set is not under load. Space heaters must also be c. Record the 60 second reading. This reading
used whenever salt is present or whenever high must be corrected for temperature.
humidity is present. Using a space heater in this
fashion is the only way to maintain insulation tester d. Record temperature.
readings above 1 megohm. Use space heaters only
when the generator is not running.
e. Record humidity.
For additional information, refer to Special Instruction,
SEHS9124, “Cleaning and Drying of Electric Set f. Remove voltage.
Generators”.
10. Evaluate the readings. The actual value of the
Recommended Procedure for A resistance may vary greatly between generators.
For this reason, the insulations condition must be
Periodic Insulation Test evaluated. Base this evaluation on the comparison
between the 60 second resistance readings and
the readings that were taken on previous dates.
These two readings must be taken under similar
Personal injury or death can result from
conditions. If a 60 second resistance reading has a
electrocution.
50 percent reduction from the previous reading,
The megohmmeter is applying a high voltage to the insulation may have absorbed too much
the circuit. moisture.
To avoid electrocution, do not touch the instru- Switch the insulation tester to the “OFF” position.
ment leads without first discharging them. When This will discharge the insulation testers leads.
finished testing also discharge the generator Disconnect the insulation testers leads.
windings.

1. Take the generator out of service.


136 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator Winding Insulation - Test

Note: The results from the insulation resistance


checks indicate when cleaning and/or repairing is
becoming critical. Generally, insulation resistance will
vary greatly with temperature. Therefore, always test
at the same temperature and humidity. Refer to
Illustration 111 .
Serial Number (Engine)
Serial Number (Generator)
SEBU8607 137
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator Winding Insulation - Test
138 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Generator Winding Insulation - Test

Illustration 111 g00633226


SEBU8607 139
Maintenance Recommendations
Heat Exchanger - Inspect/Clean

i03903805 Table 27
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners(1)
Heat Exchanger - Inspect/
Part Number Description Size
Clean
1U-5490 Hydrosolv 4165 19 L (5 US gallon)
SMCS Code: 1379-040; 1379-070
174-6854 Hydrosolv 100 19 L (5 US gallon)
The interval for the maintenance of the tube type heat (1)
exchanger depends on the operating environment of Use a 2 to 5 percent concentration of the cleaner at tempera-
tures up to 93°C (200°F). Refer to Application Guide,
the vessel and on the operating time. The sea water NEHS0526 or consult your Caterpillar dealer for more
that is circulated through the heat exchanger and the information.
amount of operating time of the vessel affects the
following items:
4. Steam clean the core in order to remove any
• Cleanliness of the tubes for the heat exchanger residue. Flush the tubes of the heat exchanger
core. Remove any other trapped debris.
• Effectiveness of the heat exchanger system
5. Wash the core with hot, soapy water. Rinse the
Operating in water that contains silt, sediment, salt, core thoroughly with clean water.
algae, and so on, will adversely affect the heat
exchanger system. In addition, intermittent use of the
vessel will adversely affect the heat exchanger
system.
The following items indicate that the heat exchanger Personal injury can result from air pressure.
may require cleaning:
Personal injury can result without following prop-
• Increased coolant temperature er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
• Engine overheating
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
• Excessive pressure drop between the water inlet than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
and the water outlet
6. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air in
An operator that is familiar with the normal operating
temperature of the coolant can determine when the the reverse direction of the normal flow.
coolant temperature is out of the normal range. 7. Inspect the core in order to ensure cleanliness.
Inspection and maintenance of the heat exchanger
are required if the engine is overheating. Pressure test the core. Many shops that service
radiators are equipped to perform pressure tests. If
Cleaning the Heat Exchanger necessary, repair the core.

1. Remove the heat exchanger. Refer to the Service 8. Install the heat exchanger. Refer to the Service
Manual for the procedure. Manual for the procedure.
For more information on cleaning the core, consult
2. Turn the heat exchanger core upside-down in order
your Caterpillar dealer.
to remove debris.
i03903802
NOTICE
Do not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner to Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/
clean the core. A high concentration of caustic
cleaner can attack the internal metals of the core and Replace
cause leakage. Only use the recommended concen- SMCS Code: 7554-040; 7554-510
tration of cleaner.
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
3. Back flush the core with cleaner.
• Cracking
Caterpillar recommends the use of Hydrosolv
liquid cleaner. Table 27 lists Hydrosolv liquid • Softness
cleaners that are available from your Caterpillar
dealer. • Loose clamps
140 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Overhaul Considerations

Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any 2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
loose clamps. to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not in-
stall bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and container. The coolant can be reused.
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes 3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a level
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the that is below the hose that is being replaced.
recommended torque.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
Check for the following conditions: 5. Disconnect the old hose.
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking 6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut 7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
Note: Refer to the Specifications, SENR3130,
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally “Torque Specifications” in order to locate the proper
torques.
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
8. Refill the cooling system.
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place of gaskets of the cooling system filler cap. Replace
any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant the cooling system filler cap if the gaskets are
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap.
clamp.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
heat set. Heat setting causes hose clamps to loosen. leaks.
This can result in leaks. A constant torque hose
clamp will help to prevent loose hose clamps. i03903800

Each installation application can be different. The


differences depend on the following factors:
Overhaul Considerations
SMCS Code: 7595-043
• Type of hose
Reduced hours of operation at full load will result in a
• Type of fitting material lower average power demand. A decreased average
power demand should increase both the engine
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose service life and the overhaul interval.
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the The need for an overhaul is generally indicated by
fittings increased fuel consumption and by reduced power.

Replace the Hoses and the Clamps The following factors are important when a decision is
being made on the proper time for an engine
overhaul:
• The need for preventive maintenance
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap, • The quality of the fuel that is being used
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system • The operating conditions
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the • The results of the S·O·S analysis
pressure.

1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.


SEBU8607 141
Maintenance Recommendations
Overhaul Considerations

Oil Consumption as an Overhaul • Specially designed Caterpillar engine features


Indicator • Caterpillar dealer exchange components
Oil consumption, fuel consumption, and maintenance
information can be used to estimate the total • Caterpillar Inc. remanufactured exchange
operating cost for your Caterpillar engine. Oil components
consumption can also be used to estimate the
required capacity of a makeup oil tank that is suitable Overhaul Recommendation
for the maintenance intervals.
To minimize downtime, Caterpillar Inc. recommends
Oil consumption is in proportion to the percentage of a scheduled engine overhaul by your Caterpillar
the rated engine load. As the percentage of the dealer before the engine fails. This will provide you
engine load is increased, the amount of oil that is with the best cost/value relationship.
consumed per hour also increases.
Note: Overhaul programs vary according to the
The oil consumption rate (brake-specific oil engine application and according to the dealer that
consumption) is measured in grams per kW/h (lb per performs the overhaul. Consult your Caterpillar
bhp). The brake-specific oil consumption (BSOC) dealer for specific information about the available
depends on the engine load. Consult your Caterpillar overhaul programs and about overhaul services for
dealer for assistance in determining the typical oil extending the engine life.
consumption rate for your engine.
If an overhaul is performed without overhaul service
When an engines oil consumption has risen to three from your Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the
times the original oil consumption rate due to normal following maintenance recommendations.
wear, an engine overhaul should be scheduled. There
may be a corresponding increase in blowby and a
slight increase in fuel consumption. Rebuild or Exchange

Overhaul Options Cylinder Head Assembly, Oil Pump, and


Fuel Transfer Pump
Before Failure Overhaul
These components should be inspected according to
A planned overhaul before failure may be the best the instructions that are found in various Caterpillar
value for the following reasons: reusability publications. The Special Publication,
SEBF8029 lists the reusability publications that are
• Costly unplanned downtime can be avoided. needed for inspecting the engine parts.
• Many original parts can be reused according to the If the parts comply with the established inspection
standards for reusable parts. specifications that are expressed in the reusable
parts guideline, the parts should be reused.
• The engines service life can be extended without
the risk of a major catastrophe due to engine Parts that are not within the established inspection
failure. specifications should be dealt with in one of the
following manners:
• The best cost/value relationship per hour of
extended life can be attained. • Salvaging

• Repairing
After Failure Overhaul
• Replacing
If a major engine failure occurs and the engine must
be removed, many options are available. An overhaul Using out-of-spec parts can result in the following
should be performed if the engine block or the problems:
crankshaft needs to be repaired.
• Unscheduled downtime
If the engine block is repairable and/or the crankshaft
is repairable, the overhaul cost should be between 40 • Costly repairs
percent and 50 percent of the cost of a new engine
with a similar exchange core. • Damage to other engine parts
This lower cost can be attributed to three aspects: • Reduced engine efficiency

• Increased fuel consumption


142 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Overhaul Considerations

Reduced engine efficiency and increased fuel Oil Cooler Core


consumption translates into higher operating costs.
Therefore, Caterpillar Inc. recommends repairing out- During an overhaul, Caterpillar Inc. recommends the
of-spec parts or replacing out-of-spec parts. removal of the oil cooler core. Clean the oil cooler
core. Then, pressure test the oil cooler core.
Inspection and/or Replacement
NOTICE
Do not use caustic cleaners to clean the core.
Crankshaft Bearings and Crankshaft
Caustic cleaners can attack the internal metals of the
Seals core and cause leakage.
The following components may not last until the
second overhaul. Note: Use this cleaning procedure to clean the oil
cooler core.
• Thrust bearings
1. Remove the oil cooler core.
• Main bearings
2. Remove any debris from the oil cooler core. To
• Rod bearings remove debris from the oil cooler core, turn the oil
• Crankshaft seals cooler core onto one end.

Caterpillar Inc. recommends the installation of new 3. Flush the oil cooler core internally with cleaner in
parts at each overhaul period. order to loosen foreign substances. This will also
help to remove oil from the oil cooler core.
Inspect these parts while the engine is disassembled
for an overhaul. Note: Caterpillar Inc. recommends the use of
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners. Table 28 lists the
Inspect the crankshaft for any of the following
conditions: Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners that are available from
your Caterpillar dealer.
• Deflection Table 28
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners
• Damage to the journals
Part Number Description Size
• Bearing material that has seized to the journals
1U-5490 Hydrosolv 4165 19 L (5 US gal)
Check the journal taper and the profile of the
crankshaft journals. Check these components by 1U-5492 Hydrosolv 100 19 L (5 US gallon)
interpreting the wear patterns on the following
components:
4. Use steam to clean the oil cooler core. This
• Rod bearing removes any remaining residue from the cleaner.
Flush the fins of the oil cooler core. Remove any
• Main bearings other trapped debris.
Inspect the camshaft for damage to the journals and 5. Wash the oil cooler core with hot, soapy water.
to the lobes.
Rinse the oil cooler core thoroughly with clean
Note: If the camshaft is removed for any reason, use water.
the magnetic particle inspection process to check for
cracks in the camshaft.
Inspect the following components for signs of wear or
for signs of scuffing: Personal injury can result from air pressure.
• Camshaft bearings Personal injury can result without following prop-
er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
• Lifters protective face shield and protective clothing.
Caterpillar Inc. recommends replacing the crankshaft Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
vibration damper. than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.

6. Dry the oil cooler core with compressed air. Direct


the air in the reverse direction of the normal flow.
SEBU8607 143
Maintenance Recommendations
Power Factor - Check

7. Inspect the components in order to ensure i01216962


cleanliness. The oil cooler core should be pressure
tested. Repair the oil cooler core, if necessary. Power Factor - Check
Install the oil cooler core. SMCS Code: 4450-535-PWR
For more information about cleaning the cores,
The power factor of a system can be determined by a
consult your Caterpillar dealer.
power factor meter or by calculations. The power
factor can be calculated by dividing kW by kVA.
Obtain Coolant Analysis Power factor is expressed as a decimal.

The concentration of supplemental coolant additive i03903799


(SCA) should be checked regularly with test kits or
with S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1). Further
coolant analysis is recommended when the engine is Rotating Rectifier - Check
overhauled. SMCS Code: 4465-535
For example, considerable deposits are found in the
water jacket areas on the external cooling system, but
the concentrations of coolant additives were carefully
maintained. The coolant water probably contained The high voltage that is produced by an operating
minerals that were deposited on the engine over time. generator set can cause severe injury or death.
A coolant analysis can be conducted in order to verify Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
the condition of the water that is being used in the ensure that the generator will not start.
cooling system. A full water analysis can be obtained
by consulting your local water utility company or an Place the engine control switch in the “ OFF”” po-
agricultural agent. Private laboratories are also sition. Attach “ DO NOT OPERATE”” tags to all
available for water analysis. starting controls. Disconnect the batteries or dis-
able the starting system. Lock out all switchgear
Caterpillar Inc. recommends an S·O·S Coolant and automatic transfer switches that are associ-
Analysis (Level 2). ated with the generator.

S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) Check the exciter armature. Ensure that the rotating
rectifier is tight. If a failure of a rectifier is suspected,
An S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) is a refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
comprehensive coolant analysis which completely “Rotating Rectifier - Inspect/Test”.
analyzes the coolant and the effects on the cooling
system. An S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) i03903798
provides the following information:

• Complete S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1) Rotating Rectifier - Inspect/


• Visual inspection of properties
Test
SMCS Code: 4465-040; 4465-081
• Identification of metal corrosion
• Identification of contaminants

• Identification of built up impurities (corrosion and The high voltage that is produced by an operating
scale) generator set can cause severe injury or death.
Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) provides a report of ensure that the generator will not start.
the results of both the analysis and the maintenance
recommendations. Place the engine control switch in the “ OFF”” po-
For more information about coolant analysis, see your sition. Attach “ DO NOT OPERATE”” tags to all
starting controls. Disconnect the batteries or dis-
Caterpillar dealer.
able the starting system. Lock out all switchgear
and automatic transfer switches that are associ-
ated with the generator.

Use the following procedure in order to test the


rotating rectifier.
144 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Sea Water Strainer - Clean/Inspect

1. Stop the generator set. Disconnect the wires for the 5. The assembly should have characteristics that are
AVR and isolate the wires for the AVR. compatible with the power for the field excitation of
the generator.
2. Make an assembly for separate excitation. The
assembly can use a 12 V battery or a variable DC 6. Operate the generator set at rated speed.
power supply as a power source. Refer to Step 3
for an assembly that uses a 12 V battery. Refer to 7. Gradually increase the current of the exciter field
Step 4 for an assembly that uses a variable DC by adjusting the rheostat or the variable power
power supply. supply. Measure the output voltage and the current
at no load. Measure the output voltage and
measure the current at no load.
8. The generator is operating properly when the
output voltage is at the rated value and the output
voltage is balanced within 1 percent for the rated
level of excitation.

i03903797

Sea Water Strainer - Clean/


Inspect
SMCS Code: 1371-040; 1371-070

S/N: S1M1–Up
Illustration 112 g01015807
(A) Exciter Field The sea water strainer must be clean in order to allow
(B) Diode (one Amp) proper engine cooling. Check the sea water strainer
(C) Rheostat (50 Ohms 300 W) for plugging. Inspect the sea water strainer more
frequently if the vessel is being operated in water
3. Connect a 12 V battery in series with a rheostat (C) which is shallow or dirty. The sea water strainer
of “50 Ohms 300 Watts” and a diode (B) on both protects the aftercooler from debris. The sea water
strainer will catch pieces of the rubber impeller from
wires for the exciter field (5+ and 6-). Go to step 5. the raw water pump due to a failure from debris. The
sea water strainer is installed on turbocharged
engines only.

Drain the Sea Water Cooling


System
Turbocharged Engines

1. Close the valve for the sea water.

Illustration 113 g01015808


(D) AC supply
(E) Variable power supply
(F) Exciter field
(G) Diode bridge

4. Connect a variable power supply and a diode


bridge to both of the wires for the exciter field (5+)
and (6-).
SEBU8607 145
Maintenance Recommendations
Sea Water Strainer - Clean/Inspect

5. Use the turning tool on the front of the crankshaft in


order to rotate the engine. This will ensure that all
of the water has drained from the sea water pump.

Clean the Sea Water Strainer


Turbocharged Engines

1. Ensure that the sea water cooling system is


drained. Refer to “Drain the Sea Water Cooling
System” for the procedure.

Illustration 114 g00751785


Typical example

2. Disconnect both hoses (2) from the sea water


pump (1).

3. Open the valve for the sea water. Illustration 116 g00752040
Typical example

2. Remove the hose clamp (2) for the sea water


strainer. Remove the sea water strainer (1) and
clean the screen. Use clean water to clean the
screen. Remove any dirt and debris.

3. Install the sea water strainer (1). Install the hose


and the hose clamp (2). Fill the sea water strainer
and the suction line for the auxiliary water pump
with water.

Filling the Sea Water Cooling


System
Turbocharged Engines

Illustration 115 g00751786


Typical example

4. Remove the drain plug (3) from the front cover of


the heat exchanger (4). Ensure that the drain hole
is not plugged.
146 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Standby Generator Set Maintenance Recommendations

i03903795

Standby Generator Set


Maintenance
Recommendations
SMCS Code: 4450-041
A standby generator set may not be used often.
However, the generator set is needed for operation in
an emergency situation. Maintenance of the standby
generator set is important for the following reasons:

• The generator set must always be in excellent


operating condition.

• The generator set must be ready to work under


load at any time.
Establishing a Preventive Maintenance Program will
provide these benefits:

Illustration 117 g00751785


• Maximum availability of the standby generator set
Typical example • Longer service life for the generator set
1. Connect the hoses (2) at the sea water pump (1). • Minimum of expensive repairs
Your Caterpillar dealer can help you to establish an
effective Preventive Maintenance Program for your
generator set. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for
details.

Maintenance and Operation


Procedures

The high voltage that is produced by an operating


generator set can cause severe injury or death.
Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
ensure that the generator will not start.
Place the engine control switch in the “ OFF”” po-
sition. Attach “ DO NOT OPERATE”” tags to all
starting controls. Disconnect the batteries or dis-
able the starting system. Lock out all switchgear
and automatic transfer switches that are associ-
ated with the generator.

Illustration 118 g00751786


The recommended maintenance for the generator set
Typical example is listed in this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule (Standby Generator
2. Install the drain plug (3) in the front cover of the Sets)” (Maintenance Section).
heat exchanger (4).

3. Open the valve for the sea water.


SEBU8607 147
Maintenance Recommendations
Starting Motor - Inspect

Maintenance and Repair i03903794

The maintenance that is recommended for Every Starting Motor - Inspect


Week can be performed by an authorized operator.
The maintenance that is recommended for the SMCS Code: 1451-040; 1453-040
subsequent maintenance intervals must be
performed by an authorized service technician or by Caterpillar recommends a scheduled inspection of
your Caterpillar dealer. the starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the
engine may not start in an emergency situation.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
maintenance and repairs under the following Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
conditions: the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation,
• The engine is stopped. Testing, and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting
System - Test” for more information on the checking
• The starting system is disabled. procedure and for specifications or consult your
Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
• The generator does not pose an electrical shock
hazard. i03903793

• The generator is disconnected from the load.


Turbocharger - Inspect
Operation SMCS Code: 1052-040

To ensure proper operation, the generator set must S/N: S1M1–Up


be exercised regularly. For instructions on operating
the generator set, see the Operation and A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger is
Maintenance Manual for the generator set control recommended. If the turbocharger fails during engine
panel. operation, damage to the turbocharger compressor
wheel and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
For these operation procedures, follow the turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
instructions that are provided in this Operation and damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
Maintenance Manual, “Operation Section”: starting head.
the engine, engine operation and stopping the
engine. NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quanti-
Record Keeping ties of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
Maintain a record in order to document these items: damage.
gauge readings, maintenance that is performed,
problems and repairs. Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under ex-
tended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not
Space Heaters occured.
Moisture causes damage to generators and other When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
electrical equipment. Make every effort to keep the by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
generator set as dry as possible. smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
Generators can operate without problems in humid
environments. However, problems can occur when
the generator is inactive. Moisture can condense on A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
the windings. This can result in poor performance. unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of the
Also, damage to the windings can occur. turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
Use space heaters in order to help keep the windings
dry. When the generator is not active, ensure that the Removal and Installation
space heaters are operating. When the generator is
operating, turn OFF the space heaters. Note: The turbochargers that are supplied are
nonserviceable.
For options regarding the removal, installation, and
replacement, consult your Carerpillar dealer. Refer to
the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Turbocharger - Remove and Turbocharger - Install”
for further information.
148 SEBU8607
Maintenance Recommendations
Walk-Around Inspection

Inspecting • The guards must be in the correct place. Repair


damaged guards or replace missing guards.
NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must • Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
not be removed from the turbocharger for inspection serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
or removed for the cleaning of the compressor. contamination.

NOTICE
1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up
outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the the fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and
turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the correct the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the flu-
presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes in id levels more often than recommended until the leak
order to prevent dirt from entering during is found or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is
reassembly. proved to be unwarranted.

2. Check for obvious heat discoloration of the


turbocharger. Check for any loose bolts or any NOTICE
missing bolts. Check for damage to the oil supply Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
line and the oil drain line. Check for cracks in the hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Re-
fer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “En-
housing of the turbocharger. Ensure that the
gine - Clean” for more information.
compressor wheel can rotate freely.

3. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from • Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal. tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
The presence of oil may be the result of a
restriction of the line for the intake air (clogged air • Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
filters), which causes the turbocharger to slobber.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
4. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine outlet coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
for corrosion. amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
5. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing. Ensure that all Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to
clamps are installed correctly and that all clamps replace the water pump seal. For the removal of the
are tightened securely. water pump and the installation of water pump and/or
seal, refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Water Pump - Remove and Install” for more
i03903792 information or consult your Caterpillar dealer.

Walk-Around Inspection • Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
SMCS Code: 1000-040 pan, the oil filters, and the rocker cover.

Inspect the Engine for Leaks and • Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps and/or tie-wraps.
for Loose Connections
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided. that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, and so on.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting • Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant drive belts for cracks, breaks, or other damage.
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections, and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed: Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
SEBU8607 149
Maintenance Recommendations
Water Pump - Inspect

• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel


tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.

• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for


loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.

• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection


and for good condition.

• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not


protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte
level of the batteries, unless the engine is
equipped with a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
cannot be calibrated.

i03903791

Water Pump - Inspect


SMCS Code: 1361-040
A failed water pump might cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:

• Cracks in the cylinder head


• A piston seizure

• Other potential damage to the engine


Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. A small amount of
leakage normally occurs as the engine cools down
and parts contract.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks.
Note: If engine coolant enters the engine lubricating
system the lubricating oil and the engine oil filter must
be replaced. Replacing the oil filter will remove any
contamination that is caused by the coolant and will
prevent any irregular oil samples.
The water pump is not a serviceable item. In order to
install a new water pump, refer to the Disassembly
and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and
Install” or contact your Caterpillar dealer.
150 SEBU8607
Warranty Section
Emissions Warranty Information

Warranty Section

Warranty Information
i05264237

Emissions Warranty
Information
SMCS Code: 1000
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission
standards. Standards are prescribed by law at the
time of manufacture, and this engine may be covered
by an Emissions Warranty. A detailed explanation of
the Emissions Warranty that is applicable to
emissions certified engines is found in Supplement,
SEBU6981, Federal Emissions Control Warranty
Information. Consult your authorized Cat dealer to
determine if your engine is emissions certified and if
your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
SEBU8607 151
Reference Information Section
Engine Rating Conditions

Reference Information i00681146

Section Engine Rating Definitions


SMCS Code: 1000

Engine Ratings Ratings for Generator Set Engines


i02719419 The engine ratings that are listed below have a
manufacturing tolerance of plus three percent or
Engine Rating Conditions minus three percent.

SMCS Code: 1000 Standby Rating


All engine ratings are in compliance with the following
standard ambient air conditions of SAE J1349: • Typical load factor of 60 percent or less

• 100 kPa (29.3 Inches Hg) • 100 typical operating hours per year

• 30 percent relative humidity • Typical applications with standby service for


building services with an enclosed environment
• A temperature of 25 °C (77 °F)
• 80 percent typical peak demand of the standby
Ratings relate to the standard condition of rated kW
ISO14396:2002.
• 100 percent of the rated kW for the duration of an
The engine ratings are based on the following fuel emergency outage
specifications:
• The Low Heat Value (LHV) of the fuel at 29 °C Prime Rating
(84.2 °F) at 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb)
• Typical load factor of 60 percent to 70 percent
• Gravity (API) of 35 degrees at 15 °C (60 °F)
• No limit to typical operating hours
• Specific gravity of .849 at 15 °C (60 °F)
• Typical peak demand at 100 percent of the
The engine ratings are gross output ratings. continuous rated kW for less than 10 percent of the
total operating hours
Gross Output Ratings – The total output capability
of the engine that is equipped with standard Some typical applications include the following
accessories. operations:

• industrial
Standard accessories include the following
components: • pumping
• Oil pumps • construction
• Fuel pumps • peak shaving
• Water pumps • cogeneration
Subtract the power that is required to drive auxiliary
components from the gross output. This will produce NOTICE
the net power that is available for the external load Operating a generator set engine above the rating
(flywheel). definitions will result in a shorter engine service life
before overhaul.
152 SEBU8607
Customer Service
Customer Assistance

Customer Service Europe, Africa, and Middle East


Caterpillar Overseas S.A.
76 Route de Frontenex
i03910803
P.O. Box 6000
CH-1211 Geneva 6
Customer Assistance Switzerland
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450 Phone: 22-849-4444
Fax: 22-849-4544
USA and Canada Far East
When a problem arises concerning the operation or Caterpillar Asia Pte. Ltd.
the service of an engine, the problem will normally be 7 Tractor Road
managed by the dealer in your area. Jurong, Singapore 627968
Republic of Singapore
Your satisfaction is a primary concern to Caterpillar Phone: 65-662-8333
and to Caterpillar dealers. If you have a problem that Fax: 65-662-8302
has not been handled to your complete satisfaction,
follow these steps: China
Caterpillar China Ltd.
1. Discuss your problem with a manager from the 37/F., The Lee Gardens
dealership. 33 Hysan Avenue
Causeway Bay
2. If your problem cannot be resolved at the dealer G.P.O. Box 3069
level, use the phone number that is listed below to Hong Kong
talk with a Field Service Coordinator: Phone: 852-2848-0333
Fax: 852-2848-0440
1-800-447-4986
Japan
The normal hours are from 8:00 to 4:30 Monday Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd.
through Friday Central Standard Time. SBS Tower
10-1, Yoga 4-Chome
3. If your needs have not been met still, submit the
Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-8530
matter in writing to the following address: Japan
Caterpillar Inc. Phone: 81-3-5717-1150
Marine Center of Excellence Fax: 81-3-5717-1177
Manager, Customer Service Japan
111 Southchase Blvd Caterpillar Power Systems, Inc.
Fountain Inn, SC 29644 SBS Tower (14th floor)
Please keep in mind: probably, your problem will 4-10-1, Yoga
ultimately be solved at the dealership, using the Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0097
dealership facilities, equipment, and personnel. Phone: 81-3-5797-4300
Therefore, follow the steps in sequence when a Fax: 81-3-5797-4359
problem is experienced.
Australia and New Zealand
Outside of the USA and of Canada Caterpillar of Australia Ltd.
1 Caterpillar Drive
If a problem arises outside the USA and outside Private Mail Bag 4
Canada , and if the problem cannot be resolved at the Tullamarine, Victoria 3043
dealer level, consult the appropriate Caterpillar Australia
office.
Phone: 03-9953-9333
Latin America, Mexico, Carribean Fax: 03-9335-3366
Caterpillar Americas Co.
701 Waterford Way, Suite 200
Miami, FL 33126-4670
USA
Phone: 305-476-6800
Fax: 305-476-6801
SEBU8607 153
Customer Service
Ordering Replacement Parts

i01028392

Ordering Replacement Parts


SMCS Code: 4450; 7567

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil-
lar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, physi-
cal dimensions, type, strength and material.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature
failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.

Quality Caterpillar replacement parts are available


from Caterpillar dealers throughout the world.
Caterpillar dealers' parts inventories are up-to-date.
The parts stocks include all of the parts that are
normally needed to protect your Caterpillar engine
investment.
When you order parts, please specify the following
information:
• Part number

• Part name
• Quantity
If there is a question concerning the part number,
please provide your dealer with a complete
description of the needed item.
When a Caterpillar engine requires maintenance
and/or repair, provide the dealer with all the
information that is stamped on the Information Plate.
This information is described in this Operation and
Maintenance Manual (Product Information Section).
Discuss the problem with the dealer. Inform the
dealer about the conditions of the problem and the
nature of the problem. Inform the dealer about when
the problem occurs. This will help the dealer in
troubleshooting the problem and solving the problem
faster.
154 SEBU8607
Reference Materials
Maintenance Records

Reference Materials
i05264255

Maintenance Records
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Caterpillar Inc. recommends the retention of accurate
maintenance records. Accurate maintenance records
can be used for the following purposes:

• Determine operating costs.


• Establish maintenance schedules for other
engines that are operated in the same
environment.
• Show compliance with the required maintenance
practices and maintenance intervals.
Maintenance records can be used for various other
business decisions that are related to engine
maintenance.
Maintenance records are a key element of a
maintenance program that is managed. Accurate
maintenance records can help your Cat dealer to
fine-tune the recommended maintenance intervals in
order to meet the specific operating situation. This
should result in a lower engine operating cost.
Records should be kept for the following items:
Fuel Consumption – A record of fuel consumption is
essential in order to determine when the load
sensitive components should be inspected or
repaired. Fuel consumption also determines overhaul
intervals.
Service Hours – A record of service hours is
essential to determine when the speed sensitive
components should be inspected or repaired.
Documents – These items should be easy to obtain,
and these items should be kept in the engine history
file. All of the documents should show this
information: date, service hours, fuel consumption,
unit number and engine serial number. The following
types of documents should be kept as proof of
maintenance or repair for warranty:

Keep the following types of documents as proof of


maintenance for warranty. Also, keep these types of
documents as proof of repair for warranty:
• Dealer work orders and itemized bills

• Owner repair costs


• Owner receipts

• Maintenance log
SEBU8607 155
Reference Materials
Maintenance Log

i01176304

Maintenance Log
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450

Table 29
Engine Model Customer Identifier

Serial Number Arrangement Number

Service Quantity Of
Service Item Date Authorization
Hours Fuel
156 SEBU8607
Reference Materials
Reference Material

i03901129 Miscellaneous
Reference Material • Service Manual, REG1139F, “Service Manual
Contents Microfiche”
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
• Specifications, SENR3130, “Torque
The following literature can be obtained through any Specifications”
Caterpillar dealer.
• Special Publication, PECP9067, “One Safe
Lubricants Source” English language for use in NACD
• Special Publication, PEHP8038, “Data Sheet - • Special Publication, LEDM5615, “Caterpillar
Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oils (DEO) (CH-4) (North Marine Parts and Service Locations Directory”
America)”
• Special Publication, SEBF8029, “Index to
• Special Publication, PEHP9536, “Data Sheet - Guidelines for Reusable Parts and Salvage
Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) (CF-4) Operations”
(International only)”
• Special Publication, SEBF8062, “Procedure to
• Special Publication, NEDG6022, “Cat Lubricating Inspect and Clean Air Filters”
Grease”
• Special Instruction, SEHS9031, “Storage
• Special Publication, PEHP0002, “Data Sheet - Procedure for Caterpillar Products”
Molybdenum (MPGM) Grease”
• Special Publication, NEHS0526, “Service
• Special Publication, NEHP6015, “Data Sheet - Technician Application Guide”
Caterpillar Special Purpose Grease (SPG)”
• Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar
• Special Publication, SEBD0640, “Oil and Your Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Engine” Recommendations”
• Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU5898, • Special Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery Test
“Cold Weather Recommendations” Procedure”
• Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU6251, • Label, SEHS7332, “Danger Do Not Operate”
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations” Emissions Warranty
• Special Publication, PEHP6001, “How To Take A This engine may be Certified and this engine may be
Good Oil Sample” covered by an Emissions Warranty. A detailed
explanation of the Emissions Warranty that is
Fuels applicable to Certified engines is found in
Supplement, SMBU6981, “Emissions Control
• Special Publication, SEBD0717, “Diesel Fuels and Warranty Information”. The engine is Certified if the
Your Engine” engine has a special label that verifies the
certification. A Caterpillar dealer can also inform you
Coolants if the engine is certified.

• Special Publication, PEHP4036, “Data Sheet -


Extended Life Coolant”

• Special Publication, PEHP7057, “Data Sheet -


S·O·S Coolant Analysis”
• Special Publication, SEBD0518, “Know Your
Cooling System”
• Special Publication, SEBD0970, “Coolant and
Your Engine”

• Label, PEEP5027, “Extended Life Coolant/


Antifreeze”
SEBU8607 157
Index Section

Index
A Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add ....................... 103
Coolant Level - Check ................................... 104
After Starting Engine........................................ 52
Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain ................ 105
After Stopping Engine...................................... 76
Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain ................ 106
Alarms and Shutoffs ........................................ 36
Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace .... 106
Alarms.......................................................... 36
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant
Prevention of Start-up .................................. 36
Additive (SCA) - Test/Add ............................ 107
Shutoffs........................................................ 36
Add the SCA, If Necessary ........................ 107
Testing Alarms and Shutoffs ........................ 36
Test the Concentration of the SCA............. 107
Alternator - Inspect .......................................... 97
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention .. 15
Automatic Start/Stop - Inspect......................... 97
Customer Assistance..................................... 152
Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect ....................... 97
Outside of the USA and of Canada ........... 152
Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect (Bronze
USA and Canada ...................................... 152
Auxiliary Water Pump) ................................... 98
Customer Service .......................................... 152

B
D
Battery - Replace............................................. 98
Declaration of Conformity ................................ 28
Battery Charger - Check .................................. 99
Diagnostic Lamp.............................................. 46
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .................... 99
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ........... 100
Before Starting Engine ...............................16, 48 E
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace (Single Belt) .. 100
Adjustment................................................. 101 Electrical Connections - Check...................... 108
Inspection................................................... 100 Electrical System ............................................. 17
Replace...................................................... 101 Grounding Practices .................................... 17
Burn Prevention............................................... 13 Emergency Stopping ....................................... 73
Batteries....................................................... 13 Emergency Stop Button............................... 73
Coolant......................................................... 13 Emissions Certification Film ............................ 29
Oils............................................................... 13 Emissions Warranty Information.................... 150
Engine - Clean ............................................... 108
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element)
C - Inspect/Clean/Replace .............................. 109
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements
Cold Weather Operation.................................. 71
..................................................................110
Cold Weather Starting ..................................... 48
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ........... 109
Configuration Parameters (Customer
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single
Specified Parameters) ................................... 46
Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace................112
Configurable Inputs...................................... 46
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator -
ECM Identification Parameter...................... 46
Inspect ..........................................................112
Engine Rating Parameter............................. 46
Test the Service Indicator............................112
Miscellaneous .............................................. 46
Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace
Control Panel................................................... 37
(Turbocharged Engines and Naturally
Marine Classification Society (MCS) Control
Aspirated Engines) .......................................113
Panel .......................................................... 37
Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace
Coolant (ELC) - Change ................................ 101
(Turbocharged Engines) ...............................113
Drain .......................................................... 102
Engine Crankcase Breather Element -
Fill............................................................... 103
Replace (Turbocharged Engines).................113
Flush .......................................................... 102
Engine Diagnostics.......................................... 46
158 SEBU8607
Index Section

Engine Mounts - Inspect.................................114 Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .... 71


Engine Oil and Filter - Change (Duplex Oil Fuel Filters ................................................... 71
Filters)...........................................................116 Fuel Heaters ................................................ 72
Commissioning Procedure for Duplex Oil Fuel Tanks.................................................... 71
Filters ........................................................118 Fuel System - Prime (Duplex Fuel Filter if
Replace Engine Oil .....................................116 Equipped) .................................................... 123
Engine Oil and Filter - Change (Single Oil Priming a Duplex Fuel Filter with the Engine in
Filter)............................................................ 120 Operation ................................................. 126
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil ................ 120 Priming the Duplex Fuel Filters with the
Fill the Oil Pan............................................ 122 Engine Stopped........................................ 124
Single Oil Filter........................................... 121 Fuel System Primary Filter (Water
Engine Oil Level - Check ................................115 Separator) Element - Replace (if Equipped
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ............................115 ).................................................................... 126
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis...........115 Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ....... 127
Engine Operation............................................. 53 Duplex Filters ............................................. 128
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain.......... 129
Codes ............................................................ 46 Drain the Water and the Sediment............. 129
Control Panel for MCS ................................. 46 Fuel Storage Tanks .................................... 129
Engine Operation with Intermittent Fuel Tank ................................................... 129
Diagnostic Codes........................................... 46
Control Panel for MCS ................................. 46
Engine Protective Devices - Check ............... 122
G
Calibration Check....................................... 122 Gauges and Indicators .................................... 42
Visual Inspection........................................ 122 General Hazard Information ............................ 10
Engine Rating Conditions.............................. 151 Asbestos Information ................................... 12
Engine Rating Definitions .............................. 151 Containing Fluid Spillage ..............................11
Ratings for Generator Set Engines ............ 151 Dispose of Waste Properly........................... 12
Engine Ratings .............................................. 151 Fluid Penetration...........................................11
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/ Pressurized Air and Water ............................11
Inspect ......................................................... 123 General Information......................................... 19
Engine Starting ...........................................16, 48 General Maintenance Information ................... 84
Engine Stopping .........................................17, 73 Generator - Dry.............................................. 129
Engine Valve Lash - Check............................ 123 Circulating Current..................................... 131
External Heat ............................................. 131
Internal Heating.......................................... 131
F Generator - Inspect........................................ 131
Features and Controls ..................................... 36 Cleaning (Assembled Generators) ............ 132
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ...... 13 Cleaning (Disassembled Generators)........ 132
Ether ............................................................ 15 Generator Isolating for Maintenance ............... 17
Fire Extinguisher.......................................... 15 Generator Lead Connections .......................... 65
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ............................. 15 Connection Diagrams .................................. 66
Foreword............................................................ 4 Grounding the Frame................................... 65
California Proposition 65 Warning ................. 4 Neutral Connections .................................... 65
Literature Information..................................... 4 Single Units.................................................. 66
Maintenance .................................................. 4 Generator Load - Check ................................ 133
Maintenance Intervals.................................... 4 Generator Operation........................................ 54
Operation ....................................................... 4 Block Loading .............................................. 54
Overhaul ........................................................ 4 Excitation Systems....................................... 55
Safety............................................................. 4 Loading of the Generator ............................. 54
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather............ 71 Options for the Generator ............................ 55
Fuel Conservation Practices............................ 53 Power Factor................................................ 54
SEBU8607 159
Index Section

Standby Generator Sets .............................. 55 Initial 500 Hours (for New Systems, Refilled
Generator Set - Test ...................................... 133 Systems, and Converted Systems)............ 91
Generator Set Intended for Stationary Use When Required............................................ 91
Only ............................................................... 29 Maintenance Interval Schedule
Generator Set Vibration - Inspect .................. 134 (Turbocharged Aftercooled Marine
Generator Start-up Checklist ........................... 87 Generator Set Rated at 50 Hz 69 ekW and
Generator Winding Insulation - Test .............. 134 60 Hz 76 ekW) ............................................... 95
Recommended Periodic Insulation Tests... 134 Daily ............................................................. 95
Recommended Procedure for A Periodic Every 1000 Service Hours ........................... 96
Insulation Test .......................................... 135 Every 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year............ 96
Every 110 400 L (29 160 US gal) of Fuel or
8000 Service Hours.................................... 96
H Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years ....... 96
Heat Exchanger - Inspect/Clean.................... 139 Every 13 800 L (3650 US gal) of Fuel or 1000
Cleaning the Heat Exchanger.................... 139 Service Hours or 1 Year ............................. 96
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ........... 139 Every 165 600 L (43 750 US gal) of Fuel or 12
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .......... 140 000 Service Hours...................................... 96
Every 250 Service Hours ............................. 96
Every 27 600 L (7290 US gal) of Fuel or 2000
I Service Hours or 2 Years ........................... 96
Important Safety Information ............................. 2 Every 3000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 96
Installation ....................................................... 35 Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year.............. 96
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 96
Every 6900 L (1820 US gal) of Fuel or 500
L Service Hours or 1 Year ............................. 96
Lifting and Storage........................................... 31 Every Week.................................................. 96
Every Year.................................................... 96
Initial 500 Hours (for New Systems, Refilled
M Systems, and Converted Systems)............ 96
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Naturally When Required............................................ 95
Aspirated Marine Generator Sets) ................. 91 Maintenance Interval Schedule
Daily ............................................................. 91 (Turbocharged Aftercooled Marine
Every 1000 Service Hours ........................... 91 Generator Sets Rated at 50 Hz 86 ekW
Every 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year............ 91 and 60 Hz 93 ekW) ........................................ 94
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years ....... 91 Daily ............................................................. 94
Every 16 600 L (4390 US gal) of Fuel or 2000 Every 10 350 L (2730 US gal) of Fuel or 500
Service Hours or 2 Years ........................... 92 Service Hours or 1 Year ............................. 94
Every 250 Service Hours ............................. 91 Every 1000 Service Hours ........................... 94
Every 3000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 91 Every 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year............ 94
Every 4150 L (1100 US gal) of Fuel or 500 Every 110 400 L (29 160 US gal) of Fuel or
Service Hours or 1 Year ............................. 91 8000 Service Hours.................................... 95
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year.............. 91 Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years ....... 94
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 91 Every 165 600 L (43 750 US gal) of Fuel or 12
Every 8000 Service Hours ........................... 91 000 Service Hours...................................... 95
Every 8300 L (2190 US gal) of Fuel or 1000 Every 20 700 L (5470 US gal) of Fuel or 1000
Service Hours or 1 Year ............................. 92 Service Hours or 1 Year ............................. 95
Every 99 600 L (26 310 US gal) of Fuel or 12 Every 250 Service Hours ............................. 94
000 Service Hours...................................... 92 Every 3000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 94
Every Week.................................................. 91 Every 41 400 L (10 940 US gal) of Fuel or
Every Year.................................................... 91 2000 Service Hours or 2 Years .................. 95
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year.............. 94
160 SEBU8607
Index Section

Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 94 Overhaul Considerations ............................... 140
Every Week.................................................. 94 Oil Consumption as an Overhaul Indicator
Every Year.................................................... 94 ................................................................. 141
Initial 500 Hours (for New Systems, Refilled Overhaul Recommendation ....................... 141
Systems, and Converted Systems)............ 94 Overspeed ....................................................... 43
When Required............................................ 94
Maintenance Interval Schedule
(Turbocharged Marine Generator Set P
Without Aftercooler)....................................... 92 Parallel Operation............................................ 56
Daily ............................................................. 92 Circulating Currents ..................................... 59
Every 1000 Service Hours ........................... 93 Initial Start-Up .............................................. 56
Every 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year............ 93 Load Division and Speed Droop (If Equipped)
Every 11 100 L (2930 US gal) of Fuel or 1000 ................................................................... 58
Service Hours or 1 Year ............................. 93 Parallel Operation Of Governors.................. 58
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years ....... 93 Paralleling Multiple Units.............................. 58
Every 133 200 L (35 190 US gal) of Fuel or 12 Starting Multiple Units .................................. 57
000 Service Hours...................................... 93 Stopping....................................................... 59
Every 22 200 L (5860 US gal) of Fuel or 2000 Plate Locations and Film Locations................. 26
Service Hours or 2 Years ........................... 93 Engine Information Plate 1........................... 27
Every 250 Service Hours ............................. 93 Generator Identification Plate 3 ................... 27
Every 3000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 93 Serial Number Plate 2 .................................. 27
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year.............. 93 Power Factor - Check .................................... 143
Every 5550 L (1470 US gal) of Fuel or 500 Product Description ......................................... 24
Service Hours or 1 Year ............................. 93 Engine Cooling and Lubrication................... 25
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 93 Engine Service Life ...................................... 25
Every 8300 L (2190 US gal) of Fuel or 1000 Engine Specifications .................................. 24
Service Hours or 1 Year ............................. 93 Product Identification Information.................... 26
Every 88 800 L (23 460 US gal) of Fuel or Product Information Section ............................ 19
8000 Service Hours.................................... 93 Product Installation.......................................... 35
Every Week.................................................. 92 Electrical Measurements ............................. 35
Every Year.................................................... 93 Location ....................................................... 35
Initial 500 Hours (for New Systems, Refilled Protective Devices ....................................... 35
Systems, and Converted Systems)............ 93 Receiving Inspection.................................... 35
When Required............................................ 92 Unpacking.................................................... 35
Maintenance Log ........................................... 155 Product Lifting.................................................. 31
Maintenance Recommendations..................... 84 Engine Views ............................................... 31
Maintenance Records.................................... 154 Lifting the Engine Only................................. 33
Maintenance Section....................................... 77 Lifting the Entire Package ............................ 33
Manual Stop Procedure................................... 74 Lifting the Generator Only ............................ 33
Stopping Procedure for the MCS Control Product Storage............................................... 33
Panel .......................................................... 74 Bearing Inspection ....................................... 34
Model View Illustrations................................... 19 Electrical Measurements ............................. 34
A Keel Cooled System ................................. 21 Long Time Storage....................................... 33
Radiator Cooled System.............................. 23 Short Time Storage...................................... 33
Sea Water Cooled........................................ 19
Mounting and Dismounting.............................. 15
R
Reference Information..................................... 30
O
Record for Reference................................... 30
Operation Section............................................ 31 Reference Information Section ...................... 151
Ordering Replacement Parts ......................... 153 Reference Material ........................................ 156
SEBU8607 161
Index Section

Coolants..................................................... 156 Starting with Jump Start Cables ...................... 51


Emissions Warranty ................................... 156 Stopping the Engine ........................................ 73
Fuels .......................................................... 156 System Pressure Release............................... 84
Lubricants .................................................. 156 Coolant System............................................ 84
Miscellaneous ............................................ 156 Engine Oil .................................................... 84
Reference Materials ...................................... 154 Fuel System ................................................. 84
Refill Capacities............................................... 77
Refill Capacities and Recommendations......... 77
Coolant Recommendations ......................... 82 T
Engine Oil .................................................... 77 Table of Contents............................................... 3
General Coolant Information........................ 80 Turbocharger - Inspect .................................. 147
General Fuel Information ............................. 80 Inspecting................................................... 148
Lubricating Grease....................................... 79 Removal and Installation............................ 147
Refill Capacity of the Cooling System.......... 83
S·O·S Coolant Analysis ............................... 82
Rotating Rectifier - Check.............................. 143 V
Rotating Rectifier - Inspect/Test..................... 143 Voltage Regulators .......................................... 60
R448 Adjustment for Maximum Excitation... 64
R448 Adjustments........................................ 62
S
Special Use.................................................. 64
Safety Messages............................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .................................... 8
Automatic Starting (5) .................................... 9 W
Do Not Use Ether (3)...................................... 8 Walk-Around Inspection ................................ 148
Electrocution (4)............................................. 9 Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Hot Fluid Under Pressure (2) ......................... 8 Connections ............................................. 148
Lifting the Generator Set (6)........................... 9 Warranty Information ..................................... 150
Safety Section ................................................... 5 Warranty Section ........................................... 150
Sea Water Strainer - Clean/Inspect............... 144 Water Pump - Inspect .................................... 149
Clean the Sea Water Strainer .................... 145 Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls .. 84
Drain the Sea Water Cooling System ........ 144
Filling the Sea Water Cooling System........ 145
Sensors and Electrical Components (MCS
Switches and Alarms).................................... 43
Locations of Electrical Components ............ 43
Severe Service Application.............................. 89
Environmental Factors................................. 89
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures.............. 90
Incorrect Operating Procedures................... 90
Single Unit Operation....................................... 55
Adjust the Voltage ........................................ 55
Initial Start-Up .............................................. 55
Starting......................................................... 55
Stopping....................................................... 56
Standby Generator Set Maintenance
Recommendations....................................... 146
Maintenance and Operation Procedures ... 146
Starting Motor - Inspect ................................. 147
Starting the Engine .......................................... 48
Marine Certification Society (MCS) Control
Panel .......................................................... 48
162 SEBU8607
Index Section
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For
product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification
Information” in the Operation and Maintenance Manual.

Delivery Date:

Product Information
Model:

Product Identification Number:

Engine Serial Number:

Transmission
Serial Number:

Generator Serial Number:

Attachment Serial Numbers:

Attachment Information:

Customer Equipment Number:

Dealer Equipment
Number:

Dealer Information
Name: Branch:

Address:

Dealer Phone Hours


Contact Number

Sales:

Parts:

Service:
©2013 Caterpillar CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, “Caterpillar Yellow”, and the POWER EDGE trade
All Rights Reserved dress as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and
may not be used without permission.