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URBAN DESIGN

THEORIES
&
PRACTICES
Urban Theories & Practices
• Garden Cities
• City Beautiful Movement
• New Capitals
• City of Towers
• Broadacres
• Radical Urban Ideas
• The Neighborhood Unit
• Contemporary World Urbanization
THE GARDEN CITIES

• UK 1899, Ebenezer Howard


• Concept of “Three Magnets”.
• Town = Folk
• Country = Work
• People will prefer “Town + Country”
THE GARDEN CITIES
• An idealized city of 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres (2,400 ha),
planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and
six radial boulevards, 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the centre.
THE GARDEN CITIES
THE GARDEN CITIES
• The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached
full population, another garden city would be developed
nearby.
• The result: A cluster of several
garden cities as satellites of a
central city of 50,000 people,
linked by road and rail
THE GARDEN CITIES

Letchworth
• First Garden City (1902)
• Designed by Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker
• 4500 ACRES (3,000 for Agriculture, 1500 for City Proper)
THE GARDEN CITIES
Welwyn
• The Second Garden City
(1920)
• Designed by Louis De
Soisson
• Brought Formality &
Georgian taste
THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT

“Make no little plans;


they have no magic to stir
men's blood and
probably themselves will
not be realized..”
THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT

“Make no little plans;


they have no magic to stir
men's blood and
probably themselves will
not be realized..”
Daniel Burnham
THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT

• Social order through beautification


THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT

• Social order through beautification


• Often called the “golden age of urban design”
THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT

• Social order through beautification


• Often called the “golden age of urban design”
• Emphasis was on grand formal designs, with
wide boulevards, civic spaces, arts, etc.
What Brought About the City Beautiful Movement?
What Brought About the City Beautiful Movement?

Answer to the state


of the cities in the
1900s
What Brought About the City Beautiful Movement?

Answer to the state


of the cities in the
1900s

Overpopulated, poorly planned cities


Cities were shapeless, inefficient and ugly
What Brought About the City Beautiful Movement?

Answer to the state


of the cities in the
1900s

Overpopulated, poorly planned cities


Cities were shapeless, inefficient and ugly
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
• Beauty will inspire civic and moral loyalty and pride
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
• Beauty will inspire civic and moral loyalty and pride
• American cities would be equal to their European
competitors
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
• Beauty will inspire civic and moral loyalty and pride
• American cities would be equal to their European
competitors
• Beautiful civic spaces will encourage upper classes
to work and spend their money in the urban areas.
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
• Beauty will inspire civic and moral loyalty and pride
• American cities would be equal to their European
competitors
• Beautiful civic spaces will encourage upper classes
to work and spend their money in the urban areas.

MAJOR PROPONENT: DANIEL BURNHAM


CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
• Magnificent parks
• Grand buildings as focal
points
• Wide boulevards
• Public gathering spaces
with monuments and
fountains
• Network of parks and
plazas
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
• Magnificent parks
• Grand buildings as focal
points
• Wide boulevards
• Public gathering spaces
with monuments and
fountains
• Network of parks and
plazas

Washington, D.C.
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
• Magnificent parks
• Grand buildings as focal
points
• Wide boulevards
• Public gathering spaces
with monuments and
fountains
• Network of parks and
plazas

Chicago
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
• Magnificent parks
• Grand buildings as focal
points
• Wide boulevards
• Public gathering spaces
with monuments and
fountains
• Network of parks and
plazas
Manila
THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT

1960s MANILA
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT

Reconstruction of Paris
THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT

• Baron Haussman worked on the reconstruction of Paris


• Demolished crowded neighborhoods
• Built wide avenues to connect key points of the city
• Constructed parks, fountains and sewers
NEW CAPITALS
BRASILIA
Capital of Brazil
Designed by Lucio Costa with a lot of influence from Le Corbusier

BACKGROUND:
From 1763 to 1960, Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil.
At this time, resources tended to be centered in Brazil's southeast
region near Rio de Janeiro.
Brasília's geographically central location fostered a more regionally
neutral federal capital.
NEW CAPITALS

BRASILIA
Oscar Niemeyer, a close friend
of Lucio Costa, was the chief
architect of most public
buildings and Roberto Burle
Marx was the landscape
designer.

Brasília was built in 41 months,


from 1956 to April 21, 1960,
when it was officially
inaugurated.
NEW CAPITALS

The city has been both acclaimed and criticized for its use of modernist
architecture on a grand scale and for its somewhat utopian city plan.
NEW CAPITALS

The city has been both acclaimed and criticized for its use of modernist
architecture on a grand scale and for its somewhat utopian city plan.
NEW CAPITALS
CHANDIGARH (India)

• The only realized


plan of Le
Corbusier
• Original Masterplan
by Albert Myer
NEW CAPITALS

CHANDIGARH (India)
NEW CAPITALS

CHANDIGARH (India)
NEW CAPITALS
CHANDIGARH (India)
• A regular grid of major roads for rapid transport
surrounding residential superblocks or sections each
based on the rectangle and measuring 800x1200 meters
NEW CAPITALS
CHANDIGARH (India)

• The whole plan represents a


large scale application of the
Radburn principle
regularized by Le Corbusier’s
predilection for the rectilinear
and the monumental.
The 'Radburn' design is typified by
the backyards of homes facing the street and
the fronts of homes facing each other over
common yards.
Example of using Radburn Principle
THE CITY OF TOWERS
• Conceptualized by Le Corbusier in his book
(“The Cities of Tomorrow”)
• A “super building with 337 dwellings in 10 acres of land
THE CITY OF TOWERS
• Also known as “The Radiant
City” (Ville Radieuse)
THE CITY OF TOWERS
• Also known as “The Radiant
City” (Ville Radieuse)
• Designed to contain
effective means of
transportation, as well as
abundance of green space
and sunlight.
THE CITY OF TOWERS
• Also known as “The Radiant
City” (Ville Radieuse)
• Designed to contain
effective means of
transportation, as well as
abundance of green space
and sunlight.
• Radical, strict and nearly
totalitarian in its order,
symmetry and
standardization.
THE CITY OF TOWERS
• Also known as “The Radiant
City” (Ville Radieuse)
• Designed to contain
effective means of
transportation, as well as
abundance of green space
and sunlight.
• Radical, strict and nearly
totalitarian in its order,
symmetry and
standardization.
• Intended to be a living
machine.
THE CITY OF TOWERS
Solution to overcrowding: Building UP!
THE CITY OF TOWERS

Note:
Corbusier’s first plan for high density living
was Unite d’ Habitation (Marseilles)
THE CITY OF TOWERS

• Corbusier also conceptualized Le Contemporaine,


high rise offices and residential buildings with a
greenbelt for a population of 3,000,000 people
NEW YORK CITY
BROADACRES
• An urban or suburban development concept proposed by
Frank Lloyd Wright

• Each U.S. family would be given a


one acre (4,000 m²) plot of land
• All important transport is done by
automobile
BROADACRES
• An urban or suburban development concept proposed by
Frank Lloyd Wright

• Each U.S. family would be given a


one acre (4,000 m²) plot of land
• All important transport is done by
automobile
The Mile High Tower

• A proposed skyscraper that would have


been 1 mile (1,600 m) high, described by
Frank Lloyd Wright in his 1956 book,
“A Testament”.
• The design, intended to be built in
Chicago, would have included 528 stories,
with a gross area of 18,460,000 square
feet (1,715,000 m2).
• Wright stated that there would be parking
for 15,000 cars and 150 helicopters.
RADICAL IDEAS
The Linear City
(Soria Y Mata, Spanish Engineer)

• An urban plan for an elongated urban formation.


• The city would consist of a series of functionally specialized parallel
sectors.
• Generally, the city would run parallel to a river and be built so that
the dominant wind would blow from the residential areas to the
industrial strip.
RADICAL IDEAS
The Arcology Alternative
(3D City by Paolo Soleri)

“The problem I am confronting is the


present design of cities only a few stories
high, stretching outward in unwieldy
sprawl for miles. As a result of their
sprawl, they literally transform the earth,
turn farms into parking lots and waste
enormous amounts of time and energy
transporting people, goods and services
over their expanses. My proposition is
urban implosion rather than explosion”.
-Paolo Soleri, Earth’s Answer, 1977
RADICAL IDEAS
The Arcology Alternative
(3D City by Paolo Soleri)

“The problem I am confronting is the


present design of cities only a few stories
high, stretching outward in unwieldy
sprawl for miles. As a result of their
sprawl, they literally transform the earth,
turn farms into parking lots and waste
enormous amounts of time and energy
transporting people, goods and services
over their expanses. My proposition is
urban implosion rather than explosion”.
-Paolo Soleri, Earth’s Answer, 1977
RADICAL IDEAS
The Arcology Alternative
(3D City by Paolo Soleri)

• Automobiles are
eliminated from the
confines of the city.
• Multi-use nature of the
buildings --- living, working
and public spaces within
easy reach of each other
• Walking as the main form
of transportation
RADICAL IDEAS
The Arcology Alternative
(3D City by Paolo Soleri)

• A huge structure housing a


self – sustaining
community isolated from
the rest of the world
RADICAL IDEAS
The Arcology Alternative
(3D City by Paolo Soleri)

• A huge structure housing a


self – sustaining
community isolated from
the rest of the world
• An “arcology” is supposed
to sustainably supply all or
most of the resources for
comfortable life
(i.e. power, climate control,
food production, air &
water purification, sewage
treatment)
RADICAL IDEAS
MASDAR CITY

• An arcology project in
Dubai, UAE
• Designed by Foster &
Partners
• Will rely solely on solar
and renewable energy
sources with a principle of
“zero – carbon, zero
waste”
RADICAL IDEAS
CRYSTAL ISLAND

• A proposed arcology project by Norman Foster & partners


• To be built in Moscow
• Will run on built – in soalr panels and wind turbines.
RADICAL IDEAS
CRYSTAL ISLAND
• The tent-like superstructure
would rise to 450 m, and
form a breathable "second
skin" and thermal buffer for
the main building, shielding
the interior spaces from
Moscow’s weather.
• This section skin will be
sealed in winter to minimize
heat loss, and opened in the
summer to naturally cool
the interior.
RADICAL IDEAS
CRYSTAL ISLAND

• The building would be


integrated into a new
park, which would provide
a range of activities
throughout the year, with
cross country skiing and
ice skating in the winter.
RADICAL IDEAS
CRYSTAL ISLAND
• If constructed, tower component will be the largest structure on earth
in terms of floor space --- 2,500,000 square meters (27,000,000
square ft) of floor space and a height of 450 meters (1,476 ft)
• In 2009, due to the global economic crisis, financial backing for the
project was lost, and construction of the project was postponed.
RADICAL IDEAS
Motopia
(Edgar Chambless)

- Vehicular traffic will be along


rooftops of a continuous
network of buildings, while
the streets will be for
pedestrian use only
RADICAL IDEAS
Science Cities
• Proposed by the “metabolism group” --- Visionary
urban designers that proposed underwater cities,
“biological” cities, cities in pyramids, etc.
RADICAL IDEAS
The Floating City
(Kiyonori Kikutake)

• A city that would float free in the ocean and would be free of ties to
a particular nation and therefore free from the threat of war.
• The artificial ground of the city would house agriculture, industry and
entertainment and the residential towers would descend into the
ocean to a depth of 200 metres.
RADICAL IDEAS
The Floating City
(Kiyonori Kikutake)

• The city itself was not tied to the


land and was free to float across the
ocean and grow organically like an
organism.
• Once it became too aged for
habitation it would sink itself
RADICAL IDEAS
The Barbican City
A 63 acre area mixed used development that was built in response
to the pressures of the automobile.
An early type of Planned Urban development that had all amenities
in one compound with multi-level circulation patterns.
CONTEMPORARY WORLD URBANIZATION
“Millionaire” cities –
Large cities used to be the exception prior to the twentieth century,
but a few did exist in antiquity.
CONTEMPORARY WORLD URBANIZATION
Industrial Revolution
Generated jobs, increased productivity, and opened up mass
markets for goods.

Factors that contributed to urban growth:


• Transportation innovations,
specially “farm to market”
roads
• Improved infrastructure
• Iron and steel construction
technology
• the electric elevator
• Improved medicine
CONTEMPORARY WORLD URBANIZATION

Megalopolis
Concept coined by Jean Gottmann (1954) for urban complexes
in the Northeastern United States.

The term means “Great City” in Greek.


Today it is used to refer to massive urban concentrations
created from strong physical linkages between three or more
large cities.

“Cities in Evolution”, Patrick Geddes (1915)


“The Decline of the West, Oswald Spengler (1918)
“The Culture of Cities”, Lewis Mumford (1938)
URBAN MODELS
URBAN MODELS

• Concentric Zone Theory


• Central Place Theory
• Sector Theory
• Multiple Nuclei Model
• Urban Realms
CONCENTRIC ZONE THEORY (1923)

• Erness W. Burgess
(an economist)
• Includes transition zone
for eventual CBD
expansion
• Simplicity has stood the
test of time
CENTRAL PLACE THEORY (1933)

• Walter Cristaller (Geographer)


• Asserts that settlements simply functioned
as 'central places' providing services to
surrounding areas
SECTOR MODEL (1939)
• Homer Hoyt (Economist)
• Developed under the
premise that other uses
grow with the CBD
• Consistent with the
observation that most
cities grow in the
direction of the higher
income
MULTIPLE NUCLEI MODEL (1945)
• Chauncy Harris & Edward Pullman (Geographers)
• Uses (and users) do not evolve around a single core but at
several nodes and focal points
• Recognizes that different activities have varying
accessibility requirements
URBAN REALMS (1964)

• James Vance (Geographer)


• Presents the emergence of self-sufficient sectors
• Explaining suburban growth and how certain functions that are
normally found in the CBD can be moved to the suburbs (such
as shopping malls, hospitals, schools, etc.).
• These functions diminish the importance of the CBD and
instead create distant realms that accomplish approximately the
same thing.
URBAN REALMS (1964)

• Independent urban
realms brought by the
impact of the
automobile
• Shows that the outer
cities are not "satellites"
of the central city, but
are in fact becoming
cities themselves and
shaping the metropolis.
EMERGING THEORIES
Planned Unit Developments
(Cluster Zoning)
• Used in areas that are being
intensively developed for the
first time
• Ordinary zoning regulations
can be suspended for this
particular property
• usually consists of a variety of
uses, anchored by commercial
establishments and supported
by office and residential space
Transit Oriented Developments
• A mixed use community with an average 670 meter
distance of a transit stop and commercial core area.
• Mixes residential, retail, office, open space, and public uses in a
walkable environment, making it convenient for residents and
employees to travel by transit, bicycle, foot, or car.
Transit Oriented Developments
• A mixed use community with an average 670 meter
distance of a transit stop and commercial core area.
• Mixes residential, retail, office, open space, and public uses in a
walkable environment, making it convenient for residents and
employees to travel by transit, bicycle, foot, or car.

• Most TODs place residents within 600 to 700m of transit


stations.
This is equivalent to an average walking time of about 5
minutes.
Curitiba, Brazil
Vancouver, Canada
• With TOD, the city and
the transit system
“meet in the middle”
• Allows residents to
have easy access to
transit stations,
lessening dependence
on the automobile.
• Boosts transit
ridership and revenue
URBAN TOD

• Located directly on the trunk line transit network: at light rail,


heavy rail, or express bus stops.
• They should be developed with high commercial intensities,
job clusters, and moderate to high residential densities
URBAN TOD
NEIGHBORHOOD TOD
• On a local or feeder bus line within 10 minutes transit travel
time (no more than 3 miles) from a trunk line transit stop.
• They should place an emphasis on moderate density
residential, service, retail, entertainment, civic, and
recreational uses.
NEIGHBORHOOD TOD
• Street and Circulation System
Should be recognizable and interconnected, converging to
transit stops, core commercial areas or open spaces
Streets must be pedestrian friendly
TODs should be located to
maximize access to core
commercial areas without relying
solely on arterials.

TODs with major competing retail


centers should be spaced a
minimum of 1 mile apart and
should be distributed to serve
different neighborhoods.

When located on fixed rail transit


systems, they should be located to
allow efficient station spacing
THE NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT
• By Clarence Perry and Clarence
Stein
• The Physical Environment wherein
social, cultural, educational, and
commercial are within easy reach of
each other

• concerns self sustainability


of smaller units
• the elementary school as the
center of development
determines the size of the
neighborhood
Traditional Neighborhoods
• Developments that take the form
of traditional neighborhoods, while
still accommodating the
automobile and other modern
amenities.
• These are finely integrated,
walkable communities with a
strong local identity and with
convivial public places
NEW URBANISM
THE PROBLEM: SPRAWL
THE PROBLEM: SPRAWL

Sprawl is the expansion of human


population away from central urban
areas into previously remote and rural
areas, often resulting in communities
reliant upon heavy automobile usage.
THE ANSWER (TO SPRAWL)
• The Congress for the New Urbanism (1993)
Founders:
Peter Calthorpe
Andres Duany
Elizabeth Moule
Elizabeth Plater – Zyberk
Stefanos Polyzoides
Dan Solomon
Peter Katz
Hierarchy of Spaces
REGION
- In urbanism, defined by its diversity,
pedestrian scale, public space & structure
of bounded neighborhoods, should be
applied throughout a metropolitan region
regardless of location.
- The entire region should be
designed according to similar urban
principles.
neighborhoods - areas with a balanced mix of human activity
districts - areas dominated by a single activity
corridors - connectors and separators of
neighborhoods and districts
streets are not the dividing lines within a city, but are
to be communal rooms and passages

blocks are the field on which unfolds both the


building fabric and the public realm of the city

buildings are the smallest increment of growth in


the city. Their proper configuration and placement
relative to each other determines the character of
each settlement
The Context of New Urbanism
- The neighborhood has a discernible center or a
focal point

- Most of the dwellings are within a five-minute walk


of the center, an average of roughly 600 to 700
meters (2,000 feet)
- There is a variety of dwelling types

- There are mixed uses

- Streets within the neighborhood are a connected


network, preferably a grid pattern, which
disperses traffic by providing a variety of
pedestrian and vehicular routes to any destination
- There are small playgrounds near every dwelling –
not more than 200 meters away.
New Urbanism
-An elementary school is close enough so that most
children can walk from their home.
- The streets and sidewalks are covered with rows of
trees and other landscaping elements that provide
shade to pedestrians and an overall pleasant environment
- Parallel parking will also be allowed along the streets,
with trees in between each designated space
- Parking lots and garage doors rarely front the street.
Parking is relegated to underground, to multi-level
structures, or to the rear of buildings, usually
accessed by alleys.
THREE PARADIGMS IN URBANISM