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Sudarea cu arc electric - referat

I. Notiuni de baza. Scurt istoric al sudurii cu arc electric

Sudarea este operatia tehnologica prin care se realizeaza o asamblare nedemontabila a doua piese
metalice (cu compozitii apropiate) prin topire sau presiune, cu sau fara material de adaos.

Elementele care se sudeaza (table, profile, etc.) se prelucreaza, in prealabil, la marginile ce vor fi
sudate, obtinindu-se un spatiu de dimensiuni reduse numit rost.. In urma aplicarii procedeului de
sudare rezulta o cusatura sau un cordon de sudura.

Sudura cu arc electric este un procedeu de imbinare a pieselor metalice prin topire, cu material
de adaos, temperatura necesara realizarii imbinarii obtinindu-se prin crearea unui arc electric
intre electrodul de sudura si piesa de imbinat. In acest proces energia electrica este transformata
in caldura, metalul topindu-se si astfel realizindu-se imbinarea dupa racire si revenirea in stare
solida.

Incepind cu anii 1800 au existat mai multe incercari si studii in domeniul sudurii cu arc electric.
In anul 1865 un englez pe nume Wilde obtine primul patent pentru sudura electrica. El a reusit
unirea a doua piese de metal cu ajutorul curentului electric, incalzirea obtinindu-se prin trecerea
curentului direct prin cele doua piese. Aproximativ douazeci de ani mai tarziu omul de stiinta de
origine rusa Bernado, a obtinut primul brevet pentru sudura cu arc electric. El a obtinut un arc
electric intre un electrod de carbon si piesele de asamblat, fixand piesele impreuna pe masura ce
arcul electric era trecut manual peste imbinarea sudata.

In ani 1890, sudura cu arc electric a inceput sa fie utilizata pe scara industriala pentru imbinarea
pieselor metalice. La inceput sudura se realiza cu electrod din metal neacoperit, care in urma
topirii devenea material de adaos pentru imbinare. Sudurile erau de proasta calitate datorita
oxigenului si azotului din atmosfera care forma oxizi in materialul sudurii. De aceea in aceasta
perioada sudura nu era folosita pentru elemente cu solicitari mari, pentru acestea asamblarea
nituita ramanand cea mai des folosita. La inceputurile secolului douazeci a fost constientizata
importanta protejarii arcului de gazele din atmosfera. Acoperirea electrodului cu un material ce
se evapora in timpul procesului de sudare si formeaza um mediu gazos protector a fost
considerata a fi cea mai buna solutie la acel moment. Ca urmare diverse metode de acoperire a
electrozilor au fost folosite. Eforturile au culminat cu realizarea electrozilor acoperiti prin
extrudare la mijlocul anilor 1920, calitatea imbinarii sudate crescand spectaculos. Incepand cu
aceasta perioada sudura cu arc electric devine din ce in ce mai folosita ajungand cel mai des
utilizat procedeu de asamblare nedemontabila.

Deoarece sudura cu electrod acoperit este o procedura destul de lenta, in


ultima perioadaau fost dezvoltate proceduri de sudare cu arc electric mult
mai rapide.

II. Clasificarea asamblarilor sudate


II.1. Dupa modul de realizare

 Sudare prin topire

La randul lor dupa modul de topire al materialului pot fi:

-cu flacara

-electrica

 Sudare prin presiune

II. 2. Dupa materialul de adaos

 Cu material de adaos

 Fara material de adaos

II.3. Dupa pozitia elementelor de sudat

 Cap la cap

 Suprapusa
 De colt

 Pe muchie

 In T

II.4. Dupa forma geometrica a rostului in sectiune transversala

 In I
 In V

 In U

 In Y

 In gauri

II.5. Dupa continuitatea cordonului de sudura

 Sudura continua

 Sudura in puncte

II.6. Dupa forma exterioara a cordonului de sudura

 Plana

 Convexa
 Concava

III. SUDURA CU ARC ELECTRIC

In prezent exista mai multe metode de sudare cu arc electric. Dintre acestea
doua sunt cele mai des utilizate si anume:

 Sudura cu arc electric cu electrod acoperit.

 Sudura in mediu protector de gaz.

III.1. Sudura cu arc electric cu electrod acoperit

Sudura cu arc electric cu electrod acoperit este cel mai des utilizat procedeu de sudura. Sudura
este realizata prin caldura degajata de un arc electric mentinut intre intre capatul electrodului
acoperit si piesele de imbinat. Caldura produsa de arcul electric topeste metalul de baza, miezul
electrodului si materialul de acoperire a electrodului. In timpul transferarii picaturilor de metal
topit de la electrod la imbinare aceste sunt protejate de gazele oxidante din atmosfera prin
intermediul mediului gazos protector obtinut ca urmare a evaporarii materialului invelisului
electrodului. De asemenea materialul protector topit pluteste peste sudura protejind-o pana la
solidificarea acesteia.

Alta functie a acoperirii electrodului este aceea de a conferi o mai buna stabilitate arcului electric
si un mai bun control asupra formei sudurii.

III.1.1. Echipamente si tehnologia de lucru.

Unul din motivele largii raspandiri a procedeului de sudare cu electrod acoperit este simplitatea
echipamentului necesar sudarii. Echipamentul se compune din urmatoarele (vezi figura):

1. Sursa de sudura

2. Suportul electrodului

3. Clema de masa

4. Cabluri si conectori
5. Echipamente auxiliare (ciocan pentru indepartat zgura, perie de sarma)

6. Echipamente de protectie (masca de sudor, manusi, sort etc.)

1. Sursa de sudura

Sudura cu arc electric protejat poate utiliza fie curent continuu fie curent alternativ, dar in ambele
cazuri sursa trebuie sa fie cu reglaj in curent constant. Acest tip de sursa livreaza un curent de
intensitate relativ constanta, indiferent de lungimea arcului electric data de operator. Intensitatea
curentului determina cantitatea de caldura degajata de arcul electric, si deoarece este constanta
sudura va fi uniforma ca marime si forma indiferent de variatiile lungimii arcului electric.
Decizia de utilizare a surselor de curent alternativ sau continuu depinde de tipul de sudura ce
trebuie realizat si de tipul electrodului folosit. Majoritatea electrozilor sunt conceputi astfel incit
sa poata fi folositi atit in curent continuu cit si in curent alternativ, totusi exista si electrozi care
nu pot fi folositi decit in curent continuu. Un alt factor de decizie privind tipul de curent utilizat
este grosimea materialului. Sursele de curent continuu se pot utiliza atit pentru grosimi mici cit si
pentru grosimi foarte mari. Pentru table mai subtiri se prefera curentul continuu pentru ca arcul
electric poate fi mentinut mai usor la curenti mai mici.
2. Suportul electrodului

Suportul electrodului se conecteaza la cablul de sudura si conduce curentul electric catre


electrod. Manerul izolat este folosit pentru a ghida electrodul peste imbinare si apropierea
electrodului de baia de sudura pe masura ce acesta se consuma. Suporturile de electrod sunt de
diferite tipuri si marimi si se prezinta de obicei sub forma unui cleste.

3.

an explosion and fire risk, some common precautions include limiting the amount of oxygen in
the air and keeping combustible materials away from the workplace

2.2.4 Ground Clamp - The ground clamp is used to connect the ground cable to the
work piece. It may be connected directly to the work or to the table or fixture upon which the
work is positioned. Being a part of the welding circuit, the ground clamp must be capable of
carrying the welding current without overheating due to electrical resistance.

2.2.5 Welding Cables - The electrode cable and the ground cable are important parts of the
welding circuit. They must be very flexible and have a tough heat-resistant
insulation. Connections at the electrode holder, the ground clamp, and at the power source lugs
must be soldered or well crimped to assure low electrical resistance. The cross-sectional area of
the cable must be sufficient size to carry the welding current with a minimum of voltage
drop. Increasing the cable length necessitates increasing the cable diameter to lessen
resistance and voltage drop. The table in Figure 4 lists the suggested American Wire Gauge
(AWG) cable size to be used for various welding currents and cable lengths.

2.2.6 Coated Electrodes - Various types of coated electrodes are used in shielded metal arc
welding. Electrodes used for welding mild or carbon steels are quite different than those used
for welding the low alloys and stainless steels. Details on the specific types will be covered in
subsequent lessons.

2.3 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING Gas Tungsten Arc Welding* is a welding process
performed using the heat of an arc established between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and
the work piece. See Figure 5. The electrode, the arc, and the area surrounding the molten weld
puddle are protected from the atmosphere by an inert gas shield. The electrode is not consumed
in the weld puddle as in shielded metal arc welding. If a filler metal is necessary, it is added to
the leading the molten puddle as shown in 2.3.0.1 Gas tungsten arc welding produces
exceptionally clean welds no slag is produced, the chance inclusions in the weld metal is and the
finished weld requires virtually no cleaning. Argon and Helium, the primary shielding gases
employed, are inert gases. Inert gases do not chemically combine with other elements
and therefore, are used to exclude the reactive gases, such as oxygen and nitrogen, from forming
compounds that could be detrimental to the weld metal. 2.3.0.2 Gas tungsten arc welding may be
used for welding almost all metals — mild steel, low alloys, stainless steel, copper and copper
alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys, nickel and nickel alloys, magnesium and magnesium
alloys, titanium, and others. This process is most extensively used for welding aluminum and
stainless steel alloys where weld integrity is of the utmost importance. Another use is for the
root pass (initial pass) in pipe welding, which requires a weld of the highest quality. Full
penetration without an excessively high inside bead is important in the root pass, and due to the
ease of current control of this process, it lends itself to control of back-bead size. For high
quality welds, it is usually necessary to provide an inert shielding gas inside the pipe to prevent
oxidation of the inside weld bead.

2.3.0.3 Gas tungsten arc welding lends itself to both manual and automatic operation. In manual
operation, the welder holds the torch in one hand and directs the arc into the weld joint. The filler
metal is fed manually into the leading edge of the puddle. In automatic applications, the torch
may be automatically moved over a stationary work piece or the torch may be stationary with the
work moved or rotated in relation to the torch. Filler metal, if required, is also fed
automatically. 2.3.1 EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION - Gas tungsten arc welding may be
accomplished with relatively simple equipment, or it may require some highly sophisticated
components. Choice of equipment depends upon the type of metal being joined, the position of
the weld being made, and the quality of the weld metal necessary for the application. The basic
equip- ment consists of the following: 1.The power source 2. Electrode holder
(torch) 3. Shielding gas 4. Tungsten electrode 5. Water supply when necessary 6. Ground
cable 7. Protective equipment
2.3.2 Power Sources - Both AC and DC power sources are used in gas tungsten
arc welding. They are the constant current type with a drooping volt-ampere curve. This type
of power source produces very slight changes in the arc current when the arc length (voltage)
is varied. Refer to Lesson I, Section 1.9. 2.3.2.1 The choice between an AC or DC welder
depends on the type and thickness of the metal to be welded. Distinct differences exist between
AC and DC arc characteristics, and if DC is chosen, the polarity also becomes an important
factor. The effects of polarity in GTAW are directly opposite the effects of polarity in SMAW as
described in paragraphs 2.2.2.3 through 2.2.2.5. In SMAW, the distribution of heat between the
electrode and work, which determines the penetration and weld bead width, is controlled mainly
by the ingredients in the flux coating on the electrode. In GTAW where no flux coating exists,
heat distribution between the electrode and the work is controlled solely by the polarity. The
choice of the proper welding current will be better understood by analyzing each type
separately. The chart in Figure 7 lists current recommendations.

2.4 GAS METAL ARC WELDING Gas Metal Arc Welding* is an arc welding process that
uses the heat of an electric arcestablished between a consumable metal electrode and the work to
be welded. The electrode is a bare metal wire that is transferred across the arc and into the
molten weld puddle. The wire, the weld puddle, and the area in the arc zone are protected from
the atmosphere by a gaseous shield. Inert gases, reactive gases, and gas mixtures are used for
shielding. The metal transfer mode is dependent on shielding gas choice and welding current
level. Figure 9is a sketch of the process showing the basic features.
2.4.0.1 Gas metal arc welding is a versatile process that may be used to weld a wide variety of
metals including carbon steels, low alloy steels, stainless steels, aluminum alloys, magnesium,
copper and copper alloys, and nickel alloys. It can be used to weld sheet metal or relatively
heavy sections. Welds may be made in all positions, and the process may be used for
semiautomatic welding or automatic welding. In semiautomatic welding, the wire feedspeed,
voltage, amperage, and gas flow are all preset on the control equipment. The operator needs
merely to guide the welding gun along the joint at a uniform speed and hold a relatively constant
arc length. In automatic welding, the gun is mounted on a travel carriage that moves along the
joint, or the gun may be stationary with the work moving or revolving beneath
it. 2.4.0.2 Practically all GMAW is done using DCEP (Electrode positive). This
polarity provides deep penetration, a stable arc and low spatter levels. A small amount of
GMAW welding is done with DCEN and although the melting rate of the electrode is high, the
arc is erratic. Alternating current is not used for gas metal arc welding.

2.4.3 EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION - The equipment used for gas metal arc welding is
more complicated than that required for shielded metal arc welding. Initial cost is
relatively high, but the cost is rapidly amortized due to the savings in labor and overhead
achieved by the rapid weld metal deposition. 2.4.3.1 The equipment necessary for gas metal arc
welding is listed below: 1) Power source 2) Wire feeder 3) Welding gun4) Shielding gas
supply 5) Solid electrode wire 6) Protective equipment
Welding, without the proper precautions, can be a dangerous and unhealthy practice. However, with the use of new
technology and proper protection, the risks of injury and death associated with welding can be greatly reduced. Because
many common welding procedures involve an open electric arc or flame, the risk of burns is significant. To prevent them,
welders wear protective clothing in the form of heavy leather gloves and protective long sleeve jackets to avoid exposure
to extreme heat and flames. Additionally, the brightness of the weld area leads to a condition called arc eye in which
ultraviolet light causes the inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas of the eyes. Goggles and helmets with dark
face plates are worn to prevent this exposure, and in recent years, new helmet models have been produced that feature a
face plate that self-darkens upon exposure to high amounts of UV light. To protect bystanders, transparent welding
curtains often surround the welding area. These curtains, made of a polyvinyl chloride plastic film, shield nearby workers
from exposure to the UV light from the electric arc, but should not be used to replace the filter glass used in helmets.[39]

Welders are also often exposed to dangerous gases and particulate matter. Processes like flux-cored arc welding and
shielded metal arc welding produce smoke containing particles of various types of oxides, which in some cases can lead to
medical conditions like metal fume fever. The size of the particles in question tends to influence the toxicity of the fumes,
with smaller particles presenting a greater danger. Additionally, many processes produce fumes and various gases, most
commonly carbon dioxide and ozone, that can prove dangerous if ventilation is inadequate. Furthermore, because the use
of compressed gases and flames in many welding processes pose

SIMBOLIZAREA SUDURILOR PE DESENELE TEHNICE

Notarea sudurilor pe desenele tehnice se face prin intermediul unei linii de indicatie ce se
termina cu o sageata ce se sprijina pe cordon. Pe aceasta linie de indicatie se noteaza simbolul
sudurii, simbolurile suplimentare si dimensiunile sudurii.
Notare utilizeaza urmatoarele elemente:

 Simbolul de baza
 Simboluri suplimentare
 Dimensiuni si indicatii suplimentare

In tabelele de mai jos se pot vedea simbolurile de baza si simbolurile suplimentare folosite la
notarea sudurilor.
EXEMPLE DE NOTARE A SUDURILOR

Suduri cap la cap


Suduri de colt
Inscrierea cotelor se face astfel :

 Deasupra sau dedesubtul simbolului se inscriu cotele referitoare la dimensiunile rostului


 La stanga simbolului se inscriu cotele referitoare la dimensiunile cordonului de sudura in sectiune transversala
 La dreapta simbolului se inscriu datele privind lungimea cordonului de sudura

Cotele legate de pozitionarea cordonului de sudura in raport cu marginea piesei se inscriu direct
pe desen.

AVANTAJELE IMBINARILOR SUDATE

1. AVANTAJE

a. Economia de metal
Folosirea costructiilor sudate asigura o importanta economie de metal in comparatie cu piesele
turnate sau nituite. Aceasta economie se obtine in special datorita :

 Utilizarii complete a sectiunii pieselor, fara slabirea lor prin gauri de nituri
 Posibilitatii imbinarii pieselor direct cap la cap fara alte piese suplimentare (eclise, corniere de imbinare)
 Proprietati superioare ale metalelor in comparatie cu piesele turnate
 Forme constructive mai bune decat in cazul pieselor turnate
 Adaosuri de prelucrare mai mici

b. Greutate totala mai mica

Datorita proprietatilor foarte bune a materialelor ce se sudeaza si a eliminarii pieselor


intermediare, constructiile sudate sunt mai usoare decat alte tipuri de costructii metalice

c. Costuri de realizare mai scazute

Date din faptul ca nu necesita utilaje scumpe. De asemenea se realizeaza si o economie de


energie fata de cazul pieselor turnate unde se topeste o cantitate de metal mult mai mare.

d. Se preteaza bine automatizarii si robotizarii

2. DEZAVANTAJE

Principalul dezavantaj al imbinarilor sudate este dat de faptul ca au o calitate ce depinde foarte
mult de pregatirea si atentia operatorului. Rezulta nevoia de personal foarte calificat si o
posibilitate mai greoaie de control a calitatii procesului. Totusi acest dezavantaj este eliminat in
cazul instalatiilor automatizate de sudura.