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Determination of the Type of Fluid Flow using Reynold’s Apparatus


Arates, Marielle
Besa, Leo
Catulay, Almie Jane
Rubio, Rochelle Marie

13 February 2018
School of Technology
Dennis Ong
Table of Contents

No. Title

1 Introduction 1

2 Objectives 2

3 Scope and limitations 2

4 Methodology 2-3

5 Data Sheet 3

6 References/Bibliography 4

A fluid is a substance that undergoes in the process of deformation continuously when

subjected to shear force. When the force is applied in the fluid, it will continue to deform
(infinite deformation) unlike the solid which only undergoes in finite deformation.
Kinematics is described as a quantitative description to determine the fluid motion or
deformation of any liquid especially about the fluid velocity which is a vector quantity. The rate
of deformation is always dependent to the distribution of velocity within the fluid (Perry’s
Handbook, 2008). When the condition inside the process such as the temperature, flow rate,
pressure, and mass of a system are remain unchanged or constant with the time, it is considered
as steady-state system. It also means that it is in a steady flow state when the velocity does not
change or independent with time. On the other hand, unsteady-state system conditions are not
constant so they are dependent with time. It means that it is in unsteady flow when the velocity
changes with time (Himmelblau and Riggs, 2005). There are fluids that considered as a
incompressible which means that their densities are constant while compressible fluids are fluids
that their densities varies by more than 5 to 10 percent (Perry’s Handbook, 2008).
The type of flow that occurs in a pipe is very important in the study of fluid dynamics. There
are two types of flow that are usually seen in a flowing stream or channel. The first type of flow
is laminar which means that the velocity of a fluid is low and it flows in a smooth pattern. There
are no eddies and swirls occurred in the process. Another type of flow is a turbulent which means
that the fluid velocity is very high and eddies and swirls occurred in the flow and move in a
different directions (Geankoplis, 1995).
Reynolds Number is a dimensionless that determines the type of flow of the fluid. The
diameter of the pipe, the average velocity of the fluid, the density of the fluid and its viscosity are
the parameters used to determine the value of the Reynolds number.

where: D is the diameter of the pipe (m)
v- average velocity of the fluid (m/s) (average velocity is the volumetric flow divided by the
cross-sectional area of the pipe)
p- density of the fluid (kg/m3)
u-viscosity of the fluid (Pa s)

When the Reynolds number is less than 2100 for a straight circular path, it means that the
flow is laminar. But when the value is more than 4000, the flow is turbulent. The value between
2100-4000 is a transition region. It means that the flow can be laminar or turbulent (Geankoplis,


The specific objective of this experiment is to determine and predict the type of flow of the
fluid if it is a laminar, transitional, or turbulent by knowing the density of the fluid, viscosity of
the fluid, diameter of the pipe, and the average velocity of the fluid by getting the flow rate of the
In general, it is important to determine the flow regime to apply the engineering problems in
real situations and to deeply understand the relationships of these parameters and their effects to
the type of flow.

Scope and Limitations

This experiment will be conducted to predict the flow of the fluid if it is a laminar,
transitional, or turbulent using the parameters such as the diameter of the pipe, average velocity
of the fluid, density of the fluid and its viscosity. The Reynolds Apparatus found in School of
Technology, University of the Philippines Visayas will be used for this study. Quantitative and
qualitative analysis will be used in this experiment.



• Calibrated container or Measuring cup

• Dye
• Water
• Reynolds Apparatus
• Syringe
• Stopwatch
• Thermometer

Sketch of Reynold’s Apparatus


1. Fill the reservoir of the dye injector with the dye.

2. Slightly open the inlet valve until the water flows slowly from the outlet pipe.
3. Turn on the valve that controls the dye injector.
4. The traces of dye that flows in a flow channel determine the type or character of the flow.
5. Slowly open the control valve and collect the discharge of 200 mL and determine the time it
takes to fill the 200 mL container.
6. Record the temperature of water using thermometer.
7. Repeat the procedure to have 10 trials for different discharges.

Data Sheet

Inside Diameter of Tube= 34.43 mm

Trial Temperature Volume Viscosity Density Time Velocity Computed Type of

of water NRe Flow


Careo, Neil Dominic and Glanelle Ivy Cea (2017). Improvised Reynold’s Apparatus for Laminar,
Transitional and Turbulent Flow Determination of Fluids.

Geankoplis, Christi J. (1995). Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd ed. Singapore:
Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Green, Don and Robert Perry (2008). Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook 8th Edition. United
States: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Print.

Himmelblau, David and James Riggs (2005). Principles of Chemical Engineering 7th Edition.
United States: Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. Print.

MEEG331 Incompressible Fluids Laboratory, Reynolds Experiment.

Uysal, Gokcen and M. Cansaran Ertas (2013). INS 306 (Y&Z) Hydraulics Laboratory Handout:
Reynolds Experiment.