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You are on page 1of 6

By:

Arates, Marielle

Besa, Leo

Catulay, Almie Jane

Rubio, Rochelle Marie

13 February 2018

School of Technology

Dennis Ong

Table of Contents

Page

No. Title

no.

1 Introduction 1

2 Objectives 2

4 Methodology 2-3

5 Data Sheet 3

6 References/Bibliography 4

Introduction

subjected to shear force. When the force is applied in the fluid, it will continue to deform

(infinite deformation) unlike the solid which only undergoes in finite deformation.

Kinematics is described as a quantitative description to determine the fluid motion or

deformation of any liquid especially about the fluid velocity which is a vector quantity. The rate

of deformation is always dependent to the distribution of velocity within the fluid (Perry’s

Handbook, 2008). When the condition inside the process such as the temperature, flow rate,

pressure, and mass of a system are remain unchanged or constant with the time, it is considered

as steady-state system. It also means that it is in a steady flow state when the velocity does not

change or independent with time. On the other hand, unsteady-state system conditions are not

constant so they are dependent with time. It means that it is in unsteady flow when the velocity

changes with time (Himmelblau and Riggs, 2005). There are fluids that considered as a

incompressible which means that their densities are constant while compressible fluids are fluids

that their densities varies by more than 5 to 10 percent (Perry’s Handbook, 2008).

The type of flow that occurs in a pipe is very important in the study of fluid dynamics. There

are two types of flow that are usually seen in a flowing stream or channel. The first type of flow

is laminar which means that the velocity of a fluid is low and it flows in a smooth pattern. There

are no eddies and swirls occurred in the process. Another type of flow is a turbulent which means

that the fluid velocity is very high and eddies and swirls occurred in the flow and move in a

different directions (Geankoplis, 1995).

Reynolds Number is a dimensionless that determines the type of flow of the fluid. The

diameter of the pipe, the average velocity of the fluid, the density of the fluid and its viscosity are

the parameters used to determine the value of the Reynolds number.

Dvp

Nre=

u

where: D is the diameter of the pipe (m)

v- average velocity of the fluid (m/s) (average velocity is the volumetric flow divided by the

cross-sectional area of the pipe)

p- density of the fluid (kg/m3)

u-viscosity of the fluid (Pa s)

When the Reynolds number is less than 2100 for a straight circular path, it means that the

flow is laminar. But when the value is more than 4000, the flow is turbulent. The value between

2100-4000 is a transition region. It means that the flow can be laminar or turbulent (Geankoplis,

1995).

1

Objectives

The specific objective of this experiment is to determine and predict the type of flow of the

fluid if it is a laminar, transitional, or turbulent by knowing the density of the fluid, viscosity of

the fluid, diameter of the pipe, and the average velocity of the fluid by getting the flow rate of the

discharged.

In general, it is important to determine the flow regime to apply the engineering problems in

real situations and to deeply understand the relationships of these parameters and their effects to

the type of flow.

This experiment will be conducted to predict the flow of the fluid if it is a laminar,

transitional, or turbulent using the parameters such as the diameter of the pipe, average velocity

of the fluid, density of the fluid and its viscosity. The Reynolds Apparatus found in School of

Technology, University of the Philippines Visayas will be used for this study. Quantitative and

qualitative analysis will be used in this experiment.

Methodology

Materials

• Dye

• Water

• Reynolds Apparatus

• Syringe

• Stopwatch

• Thermometer

2

Procedure

2. Slightly open the inlet valve until the water flows slowly from the outlet pipe.

3. Turn on the valve that controls the dye injector.

4. The traces of dye that flows in a flow channel determine the type or character of the flow.

5. Slowly open the control valve and collect the discharge of 200 mL and determine the time it

takes to fill the 200 mL container.

6. Record the temperature of water using thermometer.

7. Repeat the procedure to have 10 trials for different discharges.

Data Sheet

of water NRe Flow

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

3

Bibliography

Careo, Neil Dominic and Glanelle Ivy Cea (2017). Improvised Reynold’s Apparatus for Laminar,

Transitional and Turbulent Flow Determination of Fluids.

https://www.scribd.com/document/343587424/Reynolds-Apparatus-Experiment-Bicol-

University.

Geankoplis, Christi J. (1995). Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd ed. Singapore:

Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Green, Don and Robert Perry (2008). Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook 8th Edition. United

States: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Print.

Himmelblau, David and James Riggs (2005). Principles of Chemical Engineering 7th Edition.

United States: Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. Print.

http://research.me.udel.edu/~lywang/meeg331/labs/reynolds.pdf.

Uysal, Gokcen and M. Cansaran Ertas (2013). INS 306 (Y&Z) Hydraulics Laboratory Handout:

Reynolds Experiment.

http://www.insaat.anadolu.edu.tr/aocelik/ins306/duyuru/1_reynolds_handout_2013_spring_updat

ed_25_march2013.pdf.

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