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CONTENTS Preface to Second Edition ..................................................................................................

vii Preface to First Edition ........................................................... : ........................................... ix


Symbols ................................................................................................................................ xv Brief
History of Electronics .............................................................................................. xix Unit - 1 Single
Stage Amplifiers ..................................................... 1 1.1 Introduction
........................................................................................................................... 2 12 Small Signal
Analysis of Junction Transistor ......................................................................... 3 1.3 Common Emitter
Amplifier ...................................................................................................... 4 1.4 Common Base
Amplifier ......................................................................................................... 9 1.5 Common Collector
Amplifier ................................................................................................ 12 1.6 JFET Amplifiers
.................................................................................................................... 21 1.7 Common Drain (CD)
Amplifier .............................................................................................. 27 1.8 Common Gate Amplifier
(CG) ................................................................................................ 27 1.9 Gain - Bandwidth Product
.................................................................................................... 29 Objective Type Questions
.......................................................................................................... 30 Essay Type Questions
.............................. , .................................................................................. 31 Answers to Objective
Type Questions ........................................................................................ 32 Unit - 2 Multistage
Amplifiers ...................................................... 33 2.1 Multistage Amplifiers Methods of Inter Stage
Coupling ...................................................... 34 22 n - Stage Cascaded Amplifier
................................................................................................ 43 2.3 Equivalent Circuits
................................................................. '" ........................................... 54 2.4 Miller's Theorem
.................................................................................................................. 55 2.5 Frequency Effects
................................................................................................................ '5l xii 2.5 Frequency Effects
................................................................................................................ 57 2.6 Amplifier Analysis
................................................................ , ............................................... 59 2.7 High Input Resistance
Transistor Circuits ........................................................................... 65 2.8 The Cascode Transistor
Configuration ................................................................................ 72 2.9 CE-CCAmplifiers
............................................................................................................... 77 2.10 Two Stage RC Coupled
JFET amplifier (in Common Source (CS) configuration) .................. 78 2.11 Difference Amplifier
.............................................................................................................. 78 2.12 Circuit for Differential
Amplifier ............................................................................................ ll) Objective Type Questions
.............................................................................................................. 84 Essay Type Questions
................................................................................................................... 86 Answers to Objective
Type Questions .......................................................................................... K7 Unit - 3 High Frequency
Transistor Circuits ............................... 89 3.1 Transistors at High Frequencies
.......................................................................................... 90 32 Hybrid - 1t Common Emitter
Transconductance Model ....................................................... 90 3.3 Determination of Hybrid-1t
Conductances .......................................................................... 92 3.4 Variation of Hybrid Parameters
with IIeI, IVeEI and T ............................................................ 99 3.5 The Parameters/T
............................................................................................................... 102 3.6 Expression for I~
..................................................................................................................................................... 104 3.7
Current Gain with Resistance Load: .................................................................................. 105 3.8
Miller's Theorem ................................................................................................................ 106 3.9 CE
Short Circuit Current Gain ............................................................................................ 107 3.10 Hybrid
-1t (pi) Parameters .................................................................................................. 116 3.11
Measurement of IT ...................................................................... : ..................................... 121 3.12
Variation ofHybrid-1t Parameter with Voltage, Current and Temperature ........................... 121 3.13
Specifications of Amplifiers ............................................................................................... 126 3.14
Design of High Frequency Amplifiers ................................................................................ 127 Objective
Type Questions ............................................................................................................ 141 Essay Type
Questions ................................................................................................................. 142 Answers to
Objective Type Questions ........................................................................................ 143 Unit - 4 Power
Amplifiers ............................................. 145 4.1 Introduction
....................................................................................................................... 146 42 Class A Power
Amplifier ..................................................................................................... 148 xiii 4.3 Maximum Value
of Efficiency of Class A Amplifier ............................................................. ISO 4.4 Transformer Coupled
Amplifier .......................................................................................... 153 4.5 Transformer Coupled
Audio Amplifier ................................................................................ 157 4.6 Push Pull Amplifiers
........................................................................................................... 162 4.7 Complimentary
Symmetry Circuits (Transformer Less Class B Power Amplifier) ................ 168 4.8 Phase Inverters
.................................................................................................................. 170 4.9 Class D: Operation
........................................................................................................... 174 4.10 Class S: Operation
........................................................................................................... 175 4.1 1 Heat Sinks
.......................................................................................................................... ISO Objective Type
Questions ............................................................................................................ 183 Essay Type
Questions ................................................................................................................. 185 Answers to
Objective Type Questions ........................................................................................ 186 Unit - 5 Tuned
Amplifiers - I ...................................................... 189 5.1 Introduction
....................................................................................................................... 190 52 Single Tuned
Capacitive Coupled Amplifier ....................................................................... 191 5.3 Tapped Single
Tuned Capacitance Coupled Amplifier ....................................................... 196 5.4 Single Tuned
Transformer Coupled or Inductively Coupled Amplifier ............................... 200 5.5 CE Double Tuned
Amplifier ................................................................................................ 204 5.6 Applications of Tuned
Amplifiers ...................................................................................... 208 Objective Type Questions
.............................................. '" ........................................................ '2JJJ Essay Type Questions
............................................................................................................... 210 Answers to Objective Type
Questions ...................................................................................... 211 Unit - 6 Tuned Amplifiers - II
..................................................... 21 3 6.1 Stagger Tuning
.................................................................................................................. 214 62 Single Tuned
Transistor Amplifier ...................................................................................... 214 63 Stability
Considerations ..................................................................................................... 214 6.4 Tuned Class B
and Class C Amplifiers ............................................................................... 216 6.5 WidebandAmplifiers
.......................................................................................................... 221 6.6 Tuned Amplifiers .. ,
............................................................................................................. 225 Objective Type Questions
......................................................................................................... 234 Essay Type Questions
............................................................................................................... 235 Answers to Objective Type
Questions ...................................................................................... 236 xiv Unit - 7 Voltage Regulators
....................................................... 237 7.1 Introduction
....................................................................................................................... 238 72 Tenninology
....................................................................................................................... 247 7.3 Basic Regulator
Circuit ....................................................................................................... 248 7.4 Short Circuit
Protection ............................................................................ : ......................... 249 Objective Type
Questions ......................................................................................................... 251 Essay Type
Questions ............................................................................................................... 252 Answers to
Objective Type Questions ...................................................................................... 253 Unit - 8
Switching and Ie Voltage Regulators .......................... 255 8.1 IC 723 Voltage Regulators and 3
Tenninal IC Regulators .................................................... 256 82 Current Limiting
.................................................................................................................. '2fj2 8.3 Specifications of
Voltage Regulator Circuits ....................................................................... 264 8.4 DC To DC Converter
.......................................................................................................... 264 8.5 Switching Regulators
......................................................................................................... 264 8.6 Voltage Multipliers
............................................................................................................. 267 8.7 Uninterrupted Power
Supply (UPS) .................................................................................... 286 8.8 Switched Mode Power
Supplies (SMPS) ............................................................................ 290 Objective Type Questions
.......................................................................................................... 295 Essay Type Questions
................................................................................................................ 296 Answers to Objective
Type Questions ....................................................................................... 297 Appendices
................................................................................................................................. 299 Index
.......................................................................................................................................... 332
References ................................................................................................................................. 335
SYMBOLS gb'e Input Conductance of BJT in C