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Prepared by Dr.A.

Vinoth Jebaraj
Simple Design

Image courtesy: NPTEL


Elementary Equations

For Direct loading or Axial loading

For transverse loading

For tangential loading or twisting

Where I and J  Resistance properties of cross sectional area

I  Area moment of inertia of the cross section about the axes lying on the section
(i.e. xx and yy)

J  Polar moment of inertia about the axis perpendicular to the section


Necking

Ductile fracture of Al-Mg-Si alloy Brittle fracture of Cast Iron

Why ductile materials fail in 45° plane? Why brittle materials fail in 0° plane?
Image courtesy: Google
Types of Loading
Pure shear

Normal stress σn = τ sin 2θ  At θ = 45° σn = σmax = τ

Shear stress τ = τ cos 2θ  At θ = 0°, τ max = τ

 Under pure shear, ductile materials will fail in 0° plane and brittle materials will fail
in 45° plane. Because, at 0° plane shear stress is maximum and at 45° plane normal
stress is maximum.
Eccentric loading
Eccentric load on bolts Eccentric load on crane hook

Eccentric load on column


Eccentric load on hydraulic punching
press

Image courtesy: Google


Eccentric Loading
If the line of action of a load is not passing through the Centroid of
the machine component, then that is knows as eccentric load.

There are different kinds of stresses will be induced during


eccentric loading

For eccentric axial load,

 Direct stress and bending stress

 To find out the magnitude of resultant stress, these combination of


stresses have to be super imposed.
For eccentric plane load,

 Direct shear and torsional shear stress


Theories of Failure

 Predicting failure in the members subjected to uniaxial stress is very


simple and straightforward. Because all failure criterions are reaching
the critical limit at an instant.

 But, in multi axial loading the prediction of failure is much


complicated. Because, predicting the cause of failure i.e. which
quantity of failure criterion is causing failure is difficult to find.

Thus, theories were formulated to predict this issue, which are known
as failure theories.
Real life examples for Combined loading

Torsion and bending

Crank Shaft
Side thrust from cylinder
wall, force due to piston

Thrust and torsional shear


Connecting rod
Lifting Jack

Axial, bending and Torsion

Coupling

Propeller shaft
Tensile and direct shear
Why failure theories?

Principal stress < Yield stress [safe]


but, Shear stress exceeds its limit.
Ductile fracture Brittle fracture

Shear plane Normal plane


Purpose of Tensile test

1 2

3 4

Image courtesy: YouTube


Simple Tension Test
 In simple tension test, all six quantities reaches its critical
values simultaneously (at a single instant).

Any one of the following will cause failure.

• Principal normal stress yield stress σmax = σy or σu

• Principal shear stress yield shear stress τmax = σy /2

• Principal strain energy strain energy at yield point Utotal = ½ [σy εy]

• Principal strain strain at yield point εmax = σy /E (or) σu /E

• Distortion energy distortion energy at yield point


Udistortion = [σy2]
Maximum Principal or Normal Stress Theory
(Rankine’s Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a


member when the maximum principal or normal stress in a bi-axial
stress system reaches the limiting strength of the material in a simple
tension test.

This theory is based on failure in tension or compression and ignores


the possibility of failure due to shearing stress, therefore it is not used
for ductile materials.

For Brittle materials which are relatively strong in shear but weak in
tension or compression, this theory is generally used.

Max principal stress [σ1] ≥ [σy] yield stress


(In a multi axial loading) (In a simple tension test)
σ2

σ1
Maximum Shear Stress Theory
σ2

σ1
Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Hencky
and Von Mises Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when
the distortion strain energy (shear strain energy) per unit volume in a biaxial stress
system reaches the limiting distortion energy (distortion energy per unit volume) as
determined from a simple tension test.

Image courtesy: Shigley


Total strain energy U = Uv + Ud Ud = U - Uv

For triaxial loading, the distortion energy

Ud = (1+µ) / 6E [(σ1 - σ2) 2 + (σ2 - σ3)2 + (σ3 – σ1)2]

For uniaxial tension test

Ud = (1+µ) / 6E [(σ1 2 + σ1)2] Ud = (1+µ) / 3E [σy2]

[When σ1 reaches σy]


=

Thus, the left side of the Equation is a single, equivalent, or effective


stress for the entire general state of stress given by σ1, σ2, and σ3.
This effective stress is usually called the von Mises stress, σ′, named
after Dr. R. von Mises, who contributed to the theory.
What is VonMises Stress?

= + +

Where ε1, ε2, ε3 are strain three principal directions

∈ = [ − + ]

∈ = [ − + ]

∈ = [ − + ]

Substituting the above equations,

= [( + + ) – 2μ ( + + )]
Total strain energy U = Uv + Ud
Therefore, the corresponding stresses are resolved into three
components

= + ; = + ; = +
∈ +∈ +∈ =

∈ = [ − + ]

∈ = [ − + ]

∈ = [ − + ]

− ( + + )=0 − ≠

Therefore, ( + + )=0

+ + =
Strain energy for volume change Uv = 3

Volumetric Strain ∈ = [ − [ + ]

( )
∈ =

( )
Uv =

Uv =

Ud = U - Uv

( )
Ud = [ − + − + − ]
Distortion strain energy in triaxial loading

( )
Ud = [ − + − + − ]

In simple tension test, when yielding starts = = =

Distortion strain energy in uniaxial loading

( )
Ud =
Therefore, Failure criterion is,
( ) ( )
= [ − + − + − ]

= [ − + − + − ]
Maximum Principal Strain Theory (Saint
Venant’s Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member


when the maximum principal strain in a multi axial stress system reaches the
limiting value of strain (strain at yield point) as determined from a simple
tension test.

The strain in the direction of σ1 [ε1] =


 According to this theory of failure, σ1 could be increased to a value
somewhat higher than σy without causing yielding if the second normal stress
σ2 is a tensile stress. But if σ2 is a compressive stress the maximum value of σ1
that could be applied without causing yielding would be somewhat smaller
than σy.

 This theory is not applicable if the failure in elastic behavior is by yielding. It


is applicable when the conditions are such that failure occurs by brittle
fracture.

Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Haigh’s


Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member


when the strain energy per unit volume in a biaxial stress system reaches the
limiting strain energy (strain energy at yield point) per unit volume as
determined from the simple tension test.
Stress Tensor

 To define a stress at any point in a member subjected to multi axial


loading, an infinitesimally small cube around a point is assumed to
indicate the stress components in three mutually perpendicular
planes.
Planar Assumptions

 All real world structures are three dimensional.


 For planar to be valid both the geometry and the loads must be constant across the thickness.

When using plane strain, we assume that the depth is infinite. Thus the effects from
end conditions may be ignored.
Plane Stress

 All stresses act on the one plane – normally the XY


plane.

 Due to Poisson effect there will be strain in the Z


direction. But We assume that there is no stress in
the Z – direction.

 σx, τxz, τyz will all be zero.

Plane Strain

 All strains act on the one plane – normally the XY


plane. And hence there is no strain in the z-direction.

 σz will not equal to zero. Stress induced to prevent


displacement in z – direction.

 εx, εxz, εyz will all be zero.


 A thin planar structure with constant thickness and loading within the plane of the
structure (xy plane).

 A long structure with uniform cross section and transverse loading along its length (z –
direction).
Stress Concentration

Reasons for stress


concentration

 Variation in properties of
materials

 Load application

 Abrupt changes in cross


Stress concentration: Localization of section
high stresses due to the irregularities
present in the component and abrupt  Discontinuities in the
changes of the cross section component

 Machining scratches
Stress concentration in brittle materials
 Brittle materials do not yield locally and there is no readjustment of stresses at
the discontinuities. (due to inability of plastic deformation)

 When the magnitude of stress reaches the ultimate strength of the material, a
crack will nucleate and increases the stress concentration at the crack.

 Therefore, stress concentration factors have to be used in the design of brittle


materials.

Stress concentration in ductile materials (static load)


 When the stress reaches the yield point, then there will be a local plastic
deformation near the discontinuity which will lead to redistribution of stresses
near the stress concentration zone.

 There is no remarkable damage to the machine component. This redistribution


of stresses will be restricted to very small area.
Stress concentration in ductile materials
(fluctuating load)
 Due to fluctuating load the component may fail due to fatigue. stress
concentration will leads to the reduction in endurance limit of the
ductile materials.

 Therefore stress concentration factors have to be used in the design of


machine components made of ductile materials.
Buckling
Corrosion
Creep

Fatigue  failure due to cyclic load


Fracture
Rupture
Wear
Yielding
Cup and cone ductile fracture Brittle fracture

Why ductile
material fails in a
brittle fashion?
Region indicating slow growth of
crack with a fine fibrous Region of sudden fracture with
appearance a coarse granular appearance
Crack initiation  Crack propagation  Fracture
Factor of Safety

For Ductile Materials

For Brittle Materials

For Variable loading


Fluctuating stresses

σmax = max stress ; σmin = min stress ; σa = stress amplitude


σmean = mean stress
The stresses induced in a machine component due to dynamic load
(change in magnitude with respect to time) is known as fluctuating
stresses.
Variable loading
Types of loading
• Change in magnitude of the
• Fully Reversed loading
applied load
Example: Punching machine

• Change in direction of the load


Example: Connecting rod

• Change in point of application


• Repeated loading
Example: Rotating shaft
Fatigue failure
( Time delayed fracture under cyclic loading)

Fatigue failure begins with a crack at some point in the material .

Regions of discontinuities (oil holes, keyways and screw threads)

Regions of irregularities in machining operations (scratches on the


surface, stamp mark, inspection marks)

Internal cracks due to defects in materials like blow holes

 These regions are subjected to stress concentration due to crack,


then due to fluctuating load the crack spreads.
Design of machine components for fluctuating load

Number of Stress
cycles amplitude

Stress
Mean stress Fatigue concentration

Residual Corrosion
stresses & creep
Endurance limit or fatigue limit of a material is defined as the maximum amplitude of
completely reversed stress that the standard specimen can sustain for an unlimited number
of cycles without fatigue failure.

106 cycles are considered as a sufficient number of cycles to define the endurance limit.

Fatigue life: The total number of stress cycles that the standard specimen can complete
during the test before appearance of the first fatigue crack.
S-N Curve

Fatigue test specimen


Low cycle fatigue:

Any fatigue failure when the number of stress cycles are

less than 1000, is called low cycle fatigue.

Examples: Failure of studs on truck wheels, failure of set screws for locating

gears on shafts, short lived components like missiles.

High cycle fatigue:

Any fatigue failure when the number of stress cycles are

more than 1000, is called high cycle fatigue.

Examples: Failure of springs, ball bearings and gears that are subjected to

fluctuating stresses.
Effect of stress concentration on fatigue life

Real-World Allowable Cyclic Stress = ka * kb * kc * kd * ke * kf * EL

 Size factor, surface finish factor, load factor, reliability factor, temperature factor,
impact factor
Surface finish factor Ka: It takes into account the reduction in

endurance limit due to variation in the surface finish between the

specimen and the actual component.

Size factor Kb : It takes into account the reduction in endurance limit

due to increase in the size of the component.

Reliability factor Kc : It depends upon the reliability that is used in the

design of the component. The greater the likelihood that a part will

survive, the more is the reliability and lower is the reliability factor.
Macro observation of the Micro observation of the metal
metal Surface Surface

Surface roughness plays major role in the fatigue life of machine


components.
Macro and micro observation of
the polished metal Surface

Polished surface with minimum roughness increases the life of a


metal due to the absence of stress raisers observed in the as
received conditions of a surface.
The graph shows that the
endurance limit is very low
in the corrosive
environment.

Because, the corroded


surface will induce crack
in the component surface
which will reduce the life
drastically.
Stress concentration in ductile materials
(fluctuating load)
 Due to fluctuating load the component may fail due to fatigue. stress
concentration will leads to the reduction in endurance limit of the
ductile materials.

 Therefore stress concentration factors have to be used in the design of


machine components made of ductile materials.

Keyways Stepped shaft Screw threads

Effect of stress raisers  Geometrical irregularities


Notch sensitivity factor (q)

In case of dynamic loading, if stress concentration present in the material, then it will
reduce the endurance limit.

The actual reduction in the endurance limit of a material due to stress concentration
under dynamic loading is varied by the theoretical values predicted using theoretical stress
concentration factor.

Therefore two separate stress concentration factors are used . i.e. Kt and Kf.

 kf is the fatigue stress concentration factor

 kf = Endurance limit of the notch free specimen / Endurance limit of the notched
specimen

Notch sensitivity [q] : Susceptibility of a material to succumb to the damaging effects of


stress raising notches in fatigue loading.

q = Increase of actual stress over nominal stress / Increase of theoretical stress over
nominal stress
Notch sensitivity (q) for different materials
σo = nominal stress obtained by the elementary equations

Actual stress due to fatigue loading = Kf σ0

Theoretical stress = Kt σ0

Increase of actual stress over nominal stress = (Kf σ0 - σ0)

Increase of theoretical stress over nominal stress = (Kt σ0 - σ0)

q=

Kf = 1 + q (Kt – 1)

When the material has no sensitivity to notches,


q = 0 and Kf = 1

When the material is fully sensitive to notches,


q = 1 and Kf = Kt
Design for Variable loading

Modified Goodman diagram?


Modified Goodman line
According to Soderberg line,

= + [ ( & )]

= + [For shear stress]

According to Goodman line,

= + [ ( & )]

= + [For shear stress]


Combined variable loading
According to Soderberg line, (for normal stresses)

= +
Multiplying throughout by we get,
= +

Equivalent normal stress = +

According to Soderberg line, (for shear stresses)

= +
Multiplying throughout by we get,
= +

Equivalent shear stress = +


Fluctuating torsional shear stress

The endurance limit of a component subjected to


torsional shear loading is obtained from endurance limit
in reversed bending using theories of failures.

Maximum shear stress theory Distortion energy theory


= 0.5 = 0.577

Endurance limit in axial reversed loading is lower than


the endurance limit in reversed bending rotating beam
test.

For axial loading, ( )axial = 0.8 ( ) Bending


Impact Loading

Consider an elastic system loaded by a falling weight ‘W’

W = Falling Weight (N)


h = height through which the weight falls (mm)
δ = displacement of the point of load application (mm)
L = length of the bar (mm)
A = Cross sectional area of the bar mm2
P = impact force which produces deflection δ (N)
E = Modulus of elasticity of bar material (N/mm2)
σi = impact stress in the bar
Energy released by the falling weight = potential energy = W (h + δ)

Energy absorbed by the system = strain energy = Average load x deflection =

Equating the above two equations,

= +

Also, P = = = OR =

Substituting the above values, we get

− − =

The above equation is a quadratic equation. Solving the equation and using the positive sign
for getting maximum value

= + + P=W + +

Where , = shock factor which indicates the magnification of the load W into the impact
force P during impact.
Titanic failure
Why Environment is Important
in Design?

IMPACT LOADING
Design for Strength (Based on permissible shear stress)

Equivalent torque
= + =

Design for Rigidity (Based on permissible angle of twist)

Torsional equation
= =
ASME code for shaft design

According to ASME code,

 Permissible shear stress τmax = 0.30 σyt [Or] τmax = 0.18 σut
(whichever is minimum)

 If keyways are present, the permissible shear stress is to be


reduced by 25%.

 Also, Acc. To ASME code, bending and twisting moments are to be


multiplied by factors kb and kt respectively to account for shock
and fatigue in operating condition.

Kb = Combined shock and fatigue factor applied to bending moment

Kt = Combined shock and fatigue factor applied to twisting moment

Equivalent torque Te = ( ) +( )
Critical speed or Whirling speed of shafts
(Natural frequency of vibration)
 The speed at which the rotating shaft becomes dynamically unstable and start to
vibrate violently in transverse direction.

Reason for vibration:

 Mass is not uniformly distributed about its geometric axis

 Deflection due to self weight, gear forces, belt or chain tensions

Avoiding Resonance ?

 Shafts can be made very rigid with high critical speed which is far away from the
running speed

 Shaft passes quickly through the critical speed.


Combined bending, torsion and axial
loading in Shaft
A hollow shaft is subjected to a maximum torque of 1.5 kN-m and a maximum bending
moment of 3 kN-m. It is subjected, at the same time, to an axial thrust load of 10 kN.
Assume that the load is applied gradually and the ratio of the inner diameter to the
outer diameter is 0.5. If the outer diameter of the shaft is 80 mm, find the shear stress
induced in the shaft. Consider the length of the shaft is 1m.
Mechanical device that permanently joins two rotating shafts to each other.

(Joining shafts of two separately built units)

 Engine Output shaft  hydraulic pump

 Electric motor  machine tool gear box


Oldham’s coupling  Connecting two parallel shafts when they are at a small distance
apart.

Hooke’s coupling  Connecting two shafts having intersecting axes.

Rigid & Flexible coupling  connecting two shafts having collinear axes.
 Cannot tolerate misalignments  Can tolerate misalignments Lateral,
Angular (5°) & Axial (5mm)
 Simple and inexpensive
 Flexible elements absorb shocks and
 Motion should be free from vibration
shocks and vibration
 Comparatively costlier due to
additional parts
Types of coupling
Clamp coupling (or) Split muff coupling Sleeve coupling
Flange coupling
(Unprotected & Protected )
Rigid Flange Coupling
 Bolts fitted in reamed and ground holes
Torque transmitted by the coupling

= × ×
P = Force acting on each bolt
D = Pitch diameter of bolts
N = Number of bolts

Direct shear stress =


d1 = nominal diameter of the bolt

 Bolts fitted in large clearance holes

For uniformly distributed pressure

Friction radius =

Ro = outer radius of flange


Ri = inner radius of recess

Torque transmitted by the coupling


= × × ×
Bushed pin flexible coupling
Design of Flexible coupling
Step I: Shaft diameter (d) Step IV: Dimensions of Bushes
Step II: Dimensions of flanges
= = × ×
= .
D = 3d to 4d
t = 0.5d =
t1 = 0.25d

= =

Step III: Diameter of pins (d1) =


.
Diameter of pin d1 = Step V: Dimensions of keys

Length of the key L =


Shear stress induced in the pin =
Shear stress =
Bending stress induced in the pin =
Crushing stress =
Keys & Keyway (or) keyseat

key is a machine element used to connect a rotating machine element to a shaft.

Through this connection the key prevents relative rotation between the two parts
and allows torque to be transmitted through.

The whole system is called a keyed joint. Commonly keyed components include
gears, pulleys, and couplings.
Types of keys
Stress analysis of a key

Gear

Reaction Torque

Torque Applied
Key

Resisting Tangential force

Shaft
A key has two failure mechanisms.

•It can be sheared off.

• It can be crushed due to compressive bearing


forces.
Key with gear Key with pulley

Note: Two parallel keys can be used either 90° or 180° apart from each other if the shaft
connection needs to be more robust.
Design of Helical Springs
 Flexible machine element  Absorb energy  regains its original shape after
removing load

 Used in suspension systems of Automobiles and railway wagons to withstand


sudden impact load.

Purpose of Design: To resist compression Purpose of Design: To resist stretching


(Compression coil (Tension coil spring)
helical spring)
Helical Spring Nomenclature
Stresses in Helical Spring

[Using force – couple method, axial applied


load is replaced to the other point without
changing its effect.]
Axially loaded helical spring
 Applied force (F)  Induces direct shear stress &
 Twisting moment (T)  Induces torsional shear stress
Therefore, Resultant shear stress = Direct shear stress+ torsional shear stress
Stress distribution in helical springs
Resultant shear stress

Torque (T) acting on the spring

If d is the diameter of the coil wire and polar moment of inertia,

Torsional shear stress in the spring wire

Direct shear stress in the spring wire due to force F is


Therefore, resultant shear stress the spring wire is
Curvature Effect
Shear strain [γi ] inside > shear strain [γo ] outside
A spring with smaller diameter will experience more difference of shear strain
between outside surface and inside surface compared to its larger counter part.

The above phenomenon is termed as curvature effect.

To take care of the curvature effect, the earlier equation for maximum shear
stress in the spring wire is modified as,

Where, KW is Wahl correction factor, which takes care of both curvature effect and
shear stress correction factor and is expressed as
Angle of twist θ=
Where, T = Torque ( ) ; θ = Angle of twist; l = length of the bar; J = Polar moment of
inertia; G = Modulus of rigidity

[ ]
Angle of twist θ=
[ ]

θ=
The axial deflection ‘δ’ of the spring, for small values of θ,

δ = θ (Length of the bracket)

δ=θ( )
Therefore,

Axial deflection δ=

Therefore, rate of spring OR Stiffness k= =

Strain energy stored in the spring E=


Springs in series and parallel

= ; = + [ ]
+
Types of Springs

Helical compression spring


Leaf spring

Helical tension spring Belleville spring


Springs under variable loading

Subjected to millions of
stress cycles during its
lifetime.

Fluctuating force in a spring


changes its magnitude from Pmax to
Pmin.

Valve spring of an IC engine

Mean force Pm =

Fatigue failure of spring


Amplitude force Pa =
Therefore,
.
Mean shear stress = , = +

Where Ks = shear correction factor

.
Amplitude shear stress = , = +

K = Wahl stress factor, which takes into consideration the effect of direct shear stress as
well as stress concentration due to curvature.
Pulsating stress cycle

In general, helical springs are subjected to pulsating shear stresses.


Fatigue diagram for spring design


+ =
This equation is used in the design of springs
subjected to fluctuating stresses.
Concentric springs

Benefits of concentric spring design

 Fail safe system

 Spring vibrations are eliminated

 Increased load carrying capacity

The design of concentric springs is based on the following assumptions:

 The springs are made of same material.

 Maximum torsional shear stresses induced in outer and inner springs are equal.

 Both springs are having same free length and deflected by the same amount.
Therefore,
Concentric springs
Solid length of the outer spring = solid length
In concentric spring, of the inner spring
= =

= [ ] =[ ]

For the time being, neglect the effect of Wahl factor and [ ] =[ ]
assume K1 = K2 Therefore,

= =

Since the deflections of the two springs are equal, = =


=

[ ] =[ ] =

[ ] =[ ] = =

When both springs are completely compressed, their The load shared by each spring is proportional
adjacent coils touch each other. to the cross section area of wire.
Surge in springs

Condition for resonance in springs,


Natural frequency of spring = Frequency of external periodic force

 Wave of successive compressions of coils that travels from one end to other end and
back  vibratory motion (surge)

Time required for the wave to travel from one end to other end = Time interval between
load applications

Surge is the main cause of failure in valve springs.

How to avoid surging?


Free Length: Axial length of an unloaded
helical compression spring.

Free length = compressed length + δ


= Solid length + total axial gap + δ

Compressed Length: Axial length of the


spring which is subjected to maximum
compressive force. There should be some gap or
clearance between the adjacent coils.

Total gap = (N – 1) × gap between two coils

Solid Length: Axial length of the spring which


is so compressed that the adjacent coils touch
each other.

Solid length = N× d

Where N = total number of coils


Design of Leaf spring

P P

2P
Act as a structural member and carry lateral loads, brake torque, driving torque etc., in
addition to shocks.
For the purpose of analysis, Leaves are divided into two groups.

 Master leaf along with graduated length leaves

 Extra full length leaves


A simple cantilever type leaf spring is shown.

For case 1(uniform width)

For case 2 (non-uniform width)

Non uniform width leaf is a better design than a uniform width leaf.
Portion of load P taken by
graduated length leaves

Length of the cantilever

Bending stress in graduated length leaves

= =

Deflection

= =
Graduated length leaves as triangular plate
Portion of load P taken by extra
full length leaves

Bending stress in graduated length leaves

= =

Deflection

= =
Extra full length leaves as rectangular plate
Since the deflection of full length leaves is equal to the deflection of graduated length leaves,
=

+ =
Therefore,

= and =

= and =

=
( + )
Nipping of leaf springs
Stresses in extra full length leaves are greater than the graduated length leaves.

One of the methods of equalising the stresses in different leaves is to pre-stress the spring. It
is achieved by different radii of curvature is known as ‘nipping’.

Belleville spring (Coned disc spring)

Useful where very large force is desired for small deflection of


the spring

Used in plate clutches and brakes, relief valves and gun recoil
mechanisms.
Disc type flywheel Rim type flywheel
Power Smoothening
Power output +
Power Input
Mechanical losses

System
Power Input
Power Output +
Losses
Speed of the machine
speed
gradually increases

Power Output + Time


Losses
Power Input

Speed of the machine


speed
gradually decreases
Both are unsteady system
Time
Input Power Output Power

Output Power Input Power

Time Time

IC
Generator Punching
Engine Motor
machine
Output power
is constant

Output power
Input Power is variable
Output Power

Ideal steady
operation
Fluctuation of Energy

Turning moment diagram for a single


cylinder double acting steam engine.
Turning moment diagram for a four stroke
internal combustion engine.
Maximum Fluctuation of Energy
Coefficient of Fluctuation of Energy (CE)
Ratio of the maximum fluctuation of energy to the work done per cycle.
Energy Stored in a Flywheel
Mean kinetic energy of the flywheel

As the speed of the flywheel changes from ω1 to ω2,

The maximum fluctuation of energy,


STRESSES IN FLYWHEEL RIM

 Tensile stress due to centrifugal force

 Tensile bending stress [caused by restraint of the arms]

 Shrinkage stresses [due to unequal rate of cooling]


 Tensile stress due to centrifugal force
 Tensile bending stress [caused by restraint of the arms]
 If the arms of a flywheel do not stretch at all and are placed very close together, then
centrifugal force will not set up stress in the rim  σt will be zero.

 If the arms are stretched enough to allow free expansion of the rim due to centrifugal
action, there will be no restraint due to the arms  σb will be zero.

 Arms of a flywheel stretch about 3/4th of the amount necessary for free expansion
[Lanza]
STRESSES IN FLYWHEEL ARMS

Tensile stress due to centrifugal force acting on the rim.

Bending stress due to the torque transmitted from the rim to the shaft
 Welded joints are permanent fasteners which are
obtained by the fusion of edges of the two parts to be
joined together, with or without the application of
pressure and a filler material.

 The heat required for the fusion of the material may


be obtained by burning of gas or by an electric arc.

Components held by mechanical forces - Riveted joints

Components held by molecular forces - Welded joints


Important types of welded joints are
1. Lap joint or fillet joint, and 2. Butt joint.
h

h
Double parallel fillet welded Joints

A steel plate, 100mm wide and 10mm thick is welded to another steel plate by means
of double parallel fillet welds. The plates are subjected to a static tensile force of 50 kN.
Determine the required length of the welds if the permissible shear stress in the weld is
94 N/mm2 .

L
Single transverse double parallel fillet welded Joints

Throat section
A plate, 75mm wide and 10 mm thick, is joined with another steel plate by means of
subjected to
single transverse and double parallel fillet welds. The joint is subjected to a maximum
shear stress
tensile force of 55 kN. The permissible tensile and shear stresses in the weld material are
70 and 50N/mm2 . Determine the required length of each parallel fillet weld.
Axially loaded unsymmetrical welded Joints

P1

P2

Under Equilibrium, sum of the horizontal forces acting is equal to zero.

P = P1 + P2
Under equilibrium, the moment of the forces about the C.G. is equal to zero.
P1×a = P2×b

P1 = 0.707hLaτ ; P2 = 0.707hLbτ La×a = Lb×b


A 200×150×10 mm steel angle is to be welded to a steel plate by the fillet welds along
the edges of the 200 mm leg. The angle is subjected to a static load of 200 kN. The line
of action of the load is the intersection of the centroidal plane of the angle and the
plane of the weld. Find the lengths of the weld at the top and bottom, if the allowable
shear stress for the weld material is 75 MPa.
Q. A welded connection subjected to an eccentric force of 7.5 kN is shown.

Determine the size of the welds if the permissible shear stress for the weld is 100
N/mm2. Assume static conditions.

50

50

150

7.5 KN
Eccentric load in the plane of welds
P

Resultant shear stress = Primary shear stress + secondary shear stress


(Direct shear) (Torsional shear)
A shaft of rectangular cross section is welded to a support by means of fillet welds.
Determine the size of the welds, if the permissible shear stress in the weld is limited to
75 N/mm2 .

Resultant stress = Direct shear stress + Bending stress


A circular shaft of diameter 50mm is welded to a support by means of a fillet welds.
Determine the size of the weld, if the permissible shear stress in the weld is limited to
100 N/mm2 .

Resultant stress = Direct shear stress + Bending stress


Consider an elemental section of area dA. It
is located at an angle θ with x-axis and
subtends an angle dθ.
Welded joint subjected to torsional moment

Torsional shear stress

= ×r

Polar moment of inertia


J = Ixx + Iyy = πtr3 + πtr3
A welded connection shown in fig is subjected to an eccentric force of 60 kN in the
plane of welds. Determine the size of the welds, if the permissible shear stress for the
weld is 100 N/mm2. Assume static conditions.
Butt welded Joints
Advantages of welded joints over riveted joints

 High joint efficiency


 Lighter weight
 Smooth appearance
 Ease in alteration and addition
 Less expensive
 Ease in joining at difficult locations
Threaded Fasteners

Threaded fasteners are separable joints, held


together by means of bolts, nuts and washers.

Threads are machined by cutting helical


groove on the cylindrical surface and hole.

High clamping force  Small tightening force  Simple


manufacturing process  Self locking characteristics
Bolted Joint: for relatively small thickness components and where there is enough space to
accommodate parts.

Screw Joint: fixed into a threaded hole in one of the component being assembled not in a
nut.

Stud Joint: cylindrical rod threaded at both ends. One end of stud is screwed to nut and the
other end is screwed into connecting components.
Nomenclature of the Threads
Bolt of uniform strength

 Same stress level at different cross-sections of the bolt.

 Reduced shank diameter is preferred over a bolt with an axial hole.


Eccentric load perpendicular to axis of bolt
Shear force on each bolt P1’ = P2’ =

Each bolt is stretched by an amount ‘δ’ which is proportional to its vertical distance from
the point ‘C’.
and

= and =

Pe=2 +

= and =
( ) ( )

Shear stress on each bolt =


Tensile stress in the bolt =

Bolt denoted by ‘1’ are subjected to maximum force.


Eccentric load on circular base
Elastic analysis of bolted joints P

P
Preload: When the nut is initially tightened, the bolt is subjected to
an initial tension, which is called preload (Pi).
Under the action of preload, the bolt is elongated by an amount δb
and the two parts are compressed by an amount of δc.

∆ ∆
Stiffness of the bolt Kb = Stiffness of the component Kc =
∆ ∆

Dividing the equations,


Note:
∆ = =
+

The resultant load of the bolt Pb = Pi + ΔP


A rivet is a short cylindrical bar with a head integral to
it. The cylindrical portion of the rivet is called shank or
body and lower portion of shank is known as tail.

Rivet Parts

Method of Riveting
Caulking and Fullering: To make the joints leak proof or fluid tight.

Caulking tool closes the surface asperities and cracks on the contacting surfaces between
two plates and also between the rivet and the plates, resulting in leak proof joints.

Fullering is similar to caulking except the shape of the tool. The blows of the fullering tool
result in simultaneous pressure on the entire edge of the plate.
Pitch [P]. It is the distance from the centre of one rivet to the centre of the next rivet
measured parallel to the seam.

Back pitch [Pb]. It is the perpendicular distance between the centre lines of the successive
rows.

Diagonal pitch [Pd]. It is the distance between the centres of the rivets in adjacent rows of
zig-zag riveted joint.
Triple Riveted Lap Joint
Single riveted double strap butt joint Double riveted double strap (equal) butt joint

Double riveted double strap (unequal) butt joint


Failures of a Riveted
Joint

Tearing of the plate at an edge

Tearing of the plate across the


Shearing off a rivet in lap joint
rows of rivets

Shearing off a rivet in single cover butt joint

Crushing of a Rivet
Shearing off a rivet in double cover butt joint
Strength equations for riveted joints

In analysis of riveted joints, mainly three types of failure are


considered. They are as follows:
Shear failure of the rivet:
Shear strength of the rivet Ps = d2. τ

Tensile failure of the plate between the rivets:


Tensile strength of the plate Pt =(p – d).t. σt

Crushing failure of the plate:


Crushing strength of plate Pc = d. t.σc
, ,
Efficiency of the joint = =

Where, Strength of the solid plate ‘P’ = p. t. σt


A double riveted double cover butt joint in plates 20 mm thick is made with 25 mm diameter rivets at
100 mm pitch. The permissible stresses are : σt = 120 MPa; τ = 100 MPa; σc = 150 MPa. Find the
efficiency of joint, taking the strength of the rivet in double shear as twice than that of single shear.

 Tearing resistance of the plate


Tearing resistance of the plate per pitch length
Pt =( p – d ) t × σt = (100 – 25) 20 × 120 = 180 000 N

 Shearing resistance of the rivets


Since the joint is double riveted butt joint, therefore the strength of two rivets in double shear is
taken.
Ps = n × 2 × π/4 × d 2 × τ = 2 × 2 × π/4 (25)2 ×100 = 196 375 N
 Crushing resistance of the rivets
Since the joint is double riveted, therefore the strength of two rivets is taken. We know that
crushing resistance of the rivets,
Pc = n × d × t × σc = 2 × 25 × 20 × 150 = 150 000 N
 Efficiency of the joint

The strength of the unriveted or solid plate, P = p × t × σt = 100 × 20 × 120 = 240 000 N
,
Efficiency of the joint = = 0.625 or 62.5%
1. Thickness of the vessel

t= +
2. Diameter of rivets (If t > 8mm then use Unwin’s
formula)
=
3. Pitch of the rivets (According to IBR)
pmin = 2d
pmax =Ct + 41.28
pt = 0.2p + 1.15d (distance between outer and middle row)
pt=0.165p+0.67d (distance between middle and inner row)
Margin m = 1.5d
4. Thickness of straps
t1= 0.625t [ ]
5. Efficiency of the joint

Tensile strength of plate per pitch length Pt = (p – d) t

Shear strength of rivets per pitch length Ps = 1.875n ( )

Crushing strength Pc = n.d.t.

Tensile strength of the solid plate per pitch length P = p.t.

,
Efficiency of the joint =
Eccentrically loaded riveted Joints in shear
Direct load ‘P’ at C.G results in primary shear forces P1’, P2’, P3’, P4’ (Reaction
forces).

P1’ = P2’ = P3’ =P4’ =


.

The moment at C.G results in secondary shear forces P1’’, P2’’, P3’’, P4’’

P.e = P1’’.r1 + P2’’.r2+ P3’’.r3+ P4’’.r4

Secondary shear force at any rivet is proportional to its distance from the C.G.

P1’’=C. r1 ; P2’’=C. r2 ; P3’’=C.r3 ; P4’’= C.r4

.
=
+ + +

. .
P1’’=
Design of Connecting Rod

Small End

Big End Shank

Bolt
Castle Nut

 Transmits reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotary motion of the crank shaft
Buckling of Connecting Rod
 Buckling in the plane of motion (Ends are Hinged) (n = 1)

 Buckling in the plane perpendicular to the plane of motion (Ends are fixed) (n = 4)

 Connecting rod is four times stronger for buckling about the YY axis as compared to
the buckling about the XX axis.
Therefore, for equal resistant to buckling in both the planes, Ixx = 4 Iyy
B = 4t
Y  Width of ‘B’ is kept constant
throughout the length of the
connecting rod
t
 Height ‘H’ varies from the big end to
t small end
H = 5t At the middle section,
X X H= 5t
At the small end,
H1 = 0.75 H to 0.9 H
At the big end,
H2 = 1.1H to 1.25H
t

Y Ixx = 3.2 Iyy


Proportions for the cross section of
connecting rod
P Cross section for Connecting Rod

PS P = force acting on the piston due to gas


PISTON pressure (N)

Ps = side thrust on the cylinder wall (N)


φ
Pc = force acting on the connecting rod (N)
PC
φ = angle of inclination of connecting rod
CONNECTING with line of stroke
ROD
θ = angle of inclination of crank from TDC
position

φ
θ
CRANK PC
P = Pc ∅ P

=

At φ = 3.3°, maximum load occurs PS


shortly after the TDC
Step I: Force acting on the connecting rod is equal to the maximum force acting on the
piston due to gas pressure

=
Step II: Critical buckling load

= [FOS = 5 OR 6]

Step III: Calculate dimensions by applying Rankine’s formula

Pcr = critical buckling load (N)


σc = compressive yield stress (N/mm2) [σc = 330 N/mm2]
A = cross sectional area of connecting rod (mm2) [A = 11t2]
a = constant depending upon material and end fixity coefficient [a = 1/7500]
L = length of the connecting rod (mm)
Kxx = radius of gyration (mm) [Kxx = 1.78t]
Different failures in Connecting Rod

Side buckling Front rear buckling

Catastrophic buckling Plastic torque Fatigue failure


Multi throw crank shaft
 Converts reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion through the connecting
rod.

 It Consists of crank pin, crank web and shaft.

 Plain carbon steels 40C8, 45C8 and 50C4, Alloy steels 16Ni3Cr2, 35Ni5Cr2 and
40Ni10Cr3Mo6
 Overhung crank
 Has two crank webs and three bearings
 Has one crank web and two
bearings
 More popular in automotive engines
 Used in medium size engines and
 Used in radial aircraft engines, and
large size horizontal engines
marine engines
Piston: To receive the impulse from the expanding gas and to transmit the energy
to the crank shaft through the connecting rod.

Heat
Head
High Strength dissipation
capacity

Rings

Piston pin High Speed


Minimum mass Skirt with minimum
noise

Resistance to
Effective sealing
distortion
High wear
resistance
Cast iron Piston Aluminium Piston

 Moderately rated engines with


 Highly rated engines with greater Piston
Piston speed below 6 m/s
speed
 High temperature strength
 α Aluminium = 2.5 times α cast iron
 K Aluminium = Nearly 4 times K cast iron
Aluminium alloys are  Keeps down the maximum temperature
three times lighter than difference between centre and edges of the
Cast iron. piston head
Piston Head (or) Crown

 To withstand the straining action due to the pressure of explosion inside the engine
cylinder

 Quick dissipation of heat to the cylinder walls

According to Grashoff’s formula,

Thickness of the piston Head

p = Maximum Gas pressure, N/mm2


D = cylinder bore or outside diameter of piston (mm)
σt = Permissible bending (tensile) stress for the material of the piston, N/mm2

For , Grey cast iron  35 to 40 MPa


Nickel cast iron  50 to 90 MPa
Aluminium alloy 60 to 100 MPa
Treating the piston head as a Flat circular plate,
Piston rings

Compression rings (or) Pressure Oil control rings


rings

 Acts as a seal between the piston and  Provide proper lubrication to the liner
cylinder bore

 Imparts radial pressure

 Transfer the heat from the piston to


cylinder liner

 Absorb fluctuations of piston due to side


thrust
Radial thickness (t1) of the ring

The axial thickness (t2) of the rings may be taken as 0.7 t1 to t1.

The minimum axial thickness (t2) may also be obtained from the following
empirical relation
Piston Barrel
Maximum thickness of the piston barrel

b = Radial depth of piston ring


groove which is taken as 0.4 mm
larger than the radial thickness of the
piston ring (t1)
Piston skirt
 Acts as a bearing for the side thrust from the cylinder wall.

For low speed engines,

Bearing pressure on the piston barrel due to side thrust does not exceed 0.25 N/mm2.

For high speed engines,

Bearing pressure on the piston barrel due to side thrust does not exceed 0.5 N/mm2.
Piston pin
Full floating type Semi floating type
Design check for bending:
Piston failures
Damage From Running Unmixed Fuel Damage From Detonation

Damage From Debris Getting Through the Air Damage From Heat Seizure
Filter
DESIGN OF KNUCKLE JOINT
Collar

Taper Pin

Eye
Fork

Knuckle Pin
The modes of failure are :

1.Shear failure of pin.

2.Crushing of pin against rod.

3.Tensile failure of flat end bar.

4.Tensile failure of fork and eye

5. Shearing out of pin from fork and eye

 A knuckle joint is used to connect the two rods which are


under the tensile load, when there is requirement of small
amount of flexibility or angular movement is necessary. There is
always axial or linear line of action of load.
 Failure of the solid rod in tension

 Failure of the knuckle pin in shear

 Failure of the knuckle pin in bending


 Failure of the single eye or rod end in tension

 Failure of the single eye or rod end in shearing

 Failure of the single eye or rod end in crushing


 Failure of the forked end in tension

 Failure of the forked end in shear

 Failure of the forked end in crushing

Q. Design a knuckle joint to transmit 150 kN. The design stresses may be taken as 75 MPa in
tension, 60 MPa in shear and 150 MPa in compression.