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Vinoth Jebaraj

Simple Design

Elementary Equations

I Area moment of inertia of the cross section about the axes lying on the section

(i.e. xx and yy)

Necking

Why ductile materials fail in 45° plane? Why brittle materials fail in 0° plane?

Image courtesy: Google

Types of Loading

Pure shear

Under pure shear, ductile materials will fail in 0° plane and brittle materials will fail

in 45° plane. Because, at 0° plane shear stress is maximum and at 45° plane normal

stress is maximum.

Eccentric loading

Eccentric load on bolts Eccentric load on crane hook

Eccentric load on hydraulic punching

press

Eccentric Loading

If the line of action of a load is not passing through the Centroid of

the machine component, then that is knows as eccentric load.

eccentric loading

stresses have to be super imposed.

For eccentric plane load,

Theories of Failure

simple and straightforward. Because all failure criterions are reaching

the critical limit at an instant.

complicated. Because, predicting the cause of failure i.e. which

quantity of failure criterion is causing failure is difficult to find.

Thus, theories were formulated to predict this issue, which are known

as failure theories.

Real life examples for Combined loading

Crank Shaft

Side thrust from cylinder

wall, force due to piston

Connecting rod

Lifting Jack

Coupling

Propeller shaft

Tensile and direct shear

Why failure theories?

but, Shear stress exceeds its limit.

Ductile fracture Brittle fracture

Purpose of Tensile test

1 2

3 4

Simple Tension Test

In simple tension test, all six quantities reaches its critical

values simultaneously (at a single instant).

• Principal strain energy strain energy at yield point Utotal = ½ [σy εy]

Udistortion = [σy2]

Maximum Principal or Normal Stress Theory

(Rankine’s Theory)

member when the maximum principal or normal stress in a bi-axial

stress system reaches the limiting strength of the material in a simple

tension test.

the possibility of failure due to shearing stress, therefore it is not used

for ductile materials.

For Brittle materials which are relatively strong in shear but weak in

tension or compression, this theory is generally used.

(In a multi axial loading) (In a simple tension test)

σ2

σ1

Maximum Shear Stress Theory

σ2

σ1

Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Hencky

and Von Mises Theory)

According to this theory, the failure or yielding occurs at a point in a member when

the distortion strain energy (shear strain energy) per unit volume in a biaxial stress

system reaches the limiting distortion energy (distortion energy per unit volume) as

determined from a simple tension test.

Total strain energy U = Uv + Ud Ud = U - Uv

=

stress for the entire general state of stress given by σ1, σ2, and σ3.

This effective stress is usually called the von Mises stress, σ′, named

after Dr. R. von Mises, who contributed to the theory.

What is VonMises Stress?

= + +

∈ = [ − + ]

∈ = [ − + ]

∈ = [ − + ]

= [( + + ) – 2μ ( + + )]

Total strain energy U = Uv + Ud

Therefore, the corresponding stresses are resolved into three

components

= + ; = + ; = +

∈ +∈ +∈ =

∈ = [ − + ]

∈ = [ − + ]

∈ = [ − + ]

− ( + + )=0 − ≠

Therefore, ( + + )=0

+ + =

Strain energy for volume change Uv = 3

Volumetric Strain ∈ = [ − [ + ]

( )

∈ =

( )

Uv =

Uv =

Ud = U - Uv

( )

Ud = [ − + − + − ]

Distortion strain energy in triaxial loading

( )

Ud = [ − + − + − ]

( )

Ud =

Therefore, Failure criterion is,

( ) ( )

= [ − + − + − ]

= [ − + − + − ]

Maximum Principal Strain Theory (Saint

Venant’s Theory)

when the maximum principal strain in a multi axial stress system reaches the

limiting value of strain (strain at yield point) as determined from a simple

tension test.

According to this theory of failure, σ1 could be increased to a value

somewhat higher than σy without causing yielding if the second normal stress

σ2 is a tensile stress. But if σ2 is a compressive stress the maximum value of σ1

that could be applied without causing yielding would be somewhat smaller

than σy.

is applicable when the conditions are such that failure occurs by brittle

fracture.

Theory)

when the strain energy per unit volume in a biaxial stress system reaches the

limiting strain energy (strain energy at yield point) per unit volume as

determined from the simple tension test.

Stress Tensor

loading, an infinitesimally small cube around a point is assumed to

indicate the stress components in three mutually perpendicular

planes.

Planar Assumptions

For planar to be valid both the geometry and the loads must be constant across the thickness.

When using plane strain, we assume that the depth is infinite. Thus the effects from

end conditions may be ignored.

Plane Stress

plane.

direction. But We assume that there is no stress in

the Z – direction.

Plane Strain

plane. And hence there is no strain in the z-direction.

displacement in z – direction.

A thin planar structure with constant thickness and loading within the plane of the

structure (xy plane).

A long structure with uniform cross section and transverse loading along its length (z –

direction).

Stress Concentration

concentration

Variation in properties of

materials

Load application

Stress concentration: Localization of section

high stresses due to the irregularities

present in the component and abrupt Discontinuities in the

changes of the cross section component

Machining scratches

Stress concentration in brittle materials

Brittle materials do not yield locally and there is no readjustment of stresses at

the discontinuities. (due to inability of plastic deformation)

When the magnitude of stress reaches the ultimate strength of the material, a

crack will nucleate and increases the stress concentration at the crack.

materials.

When the stress reaches the yield point, then there will be a local plastic

deformation near the discontinuity which will lead to redistribution of stresses

near the stress concentration zone.

of stresses will be restricted to very small area.

Stress concentration in ductile materials

(fluctuating load)

Due to fluctuating load the component may fail due to fatigue. stress

concentration will leads to the reduction in endurance limit of the

ductile materials.

machine components made of ductile materials.

Buckling

Corrosion

Creep

Fracture

Rupture

Wear

Yielding

Cup and cone ductile fracture Brittle fracture

Why ductile

material fails in a

brittle fashion?

Region indicating slow growth of

crack with a fine fibrous Region of sudden fracture with

appearance a coarse granular appearance

Crack initiation Crack propagation Fracture

Factor of Safety

Fluctuating stresses

σmean = mean stress

The stresses induced in a machine component due to dynamic load

(change in magnitude with respect to time) is known as fluctuating

stresses.

Variable loading

Types of loading

• Change in magnitude of the

• Fully Reversed loading

applied load

Example: Punching machine

Example: Connecting rod

• Repeated loading

Example: Rotating shaft

Fatigue failure

( Time delayed fracture under cyclic loading)

surface, stamp mark, inspection marks)

then due to fluctuating load the crack spreads.

Design of machine components for fluctuating load

Number of Stress

cycles amplitude

Stress

Mean stress Fatigue concentration

Residual Corrosion

stresses & creep

Endurance limit or fatigue limit of a material is defined as the maximum amplitude of

completely reversed stress that the standard specimen can sustain for an unlimited number

of cycles without fatigue failure.

106 cycles are considered as a sufficient number of cycles to define the endurance limit.

Fatigue life: The total number of stress cycles that the standard specimen can complete

during the test before appearance of the first fatigue crack.

S-N Curve

Low cycle fatigue:

Examples: Failure of studs on truck wheels, failure of set screws for locating

Examples: Failure of springs, ball bearings and gears that are subjected to

fluctuating stresses.

Effect of stress concentration on fatigue life

Size factor, surface finish factor, load factor, reliability factor, temperature factor,

impact factor

Surface finish factor Ka: It takes into account the reduction in

design of the component. The greater the likelihood that a part will

survive, the more is the reliability and lower is the reliability factor.

Macro observation of the Micro observation of the metal

metal Surface Surface

components.

Macro and micro observation of

the polished metal Surface

metal due to the absence of stress raisers observed in the as

received conditions of a surface.

The graph shows that the

endurance limit is very low

in the corrosive

environment.

surface will induce crack

in the component surface

which will reduce the life

drastically.

Stress concentration in ductile materials

(fluctuating load)

Due to fluctuating load the component may fail due to fatigue. stress

concentration will leads to the reduction in endurance limit of the

ductile materials.

machine components made of ductile materials.

Notch sensitivity factor (q)

In case of dynamic loading, if stress concentration present in the material, then it will

reduce the endurance limit.

The actual reduction in the endurance limit of a material due to stress concentration

under dynamic loading is varied by the theoretical values predicted using theoretical stress

concentration factor.

Therefore two separate stress concentration factors are used . i.e. Kt and Kf.

kf = Endurance limit of the notch free specimen / Endurance limit of the notched

specimen

stress raising notches in fatigue loading.

q = Increase of actual stress over nominal stress / Increase of theoretical stress over

nominal stress

Notch sensitivity (q) for different materials

σo = nominal stress obtained by the elementary equations

Theoretical stress = Kt σ0

q=

Kf = 1 + q (Kt – 1)

q = 0 and Kf = 1

q = 1 and Kf = Kt

Design for Variable loading

Modified Goodman line

According to Soderberg line,

= + [ ( & )]

= + [ ( & )]

Combined variable loading

According to Soderberg line, (for normal stresses)

= +

Multiplying throughout by we get,

= +

= +

Multiplying throughout by we get,

= +

Fluctuating torsional shear stress

torsional shear loading is obtained from endurance limit

in reversed bending using theories of failures.

= 0.5 = 0.577

the endurance limit in reversed bending rotating beam

test.

Impact Loading

h = height through which the weight falls (mm)

δ = displacement of the point of load application (mm)

L = length of the bar (mm)

A = Cross sectional area of the bar mm2

P = impact force which produces deflection δ (N)

E = Modulus of elasticity of bar material (N/mm2)

σi = impact stress in the bar

Energy released by the falling weight = potential energy = W (h + δ)

= +

Also, P = = = OR =

− − =

The above equation is a quadratic equation. Solving the equation and using the positive sign

for getting maximum value

= + + P=W + +

Where , = shock factor which indicates the magnification of the load W into the impact

force P during impact.

Titanic failure

Why Environment is Important

in Design?

IMPACT LOADING

Design for Strength (Based on permissible shear stress)

Equivalent torque

= + =

Torsional equation

= =

ASME code for shaft design

Permissible shear stress τmax = 0.30 σyt [Or] τmax = 0.18 σut

(whichever is minimum)

reduced by 25%.

multiplied by factors kb and kt respectively to account for shock

and fatigue in operating condition.

Equivalent torque Te = ( ) +( )

Critical speed or Whirling speed of shafts

(Natural frequency of vibration)

The speed at which the rotating shaft becomes dynamically unstable and start to

vibrate violently in transverse direction.

Avoiding Resonance ?

Shafts can be made very rigid with high critical speed which is far away from the

running speed

Combined bending, torsion and axial

loading in Shaft

A hollow shaft is subjected to a maximum torque of 1.5 kN-m and a maximum bending

moment of 3 kN-m. It is subjected, at the same time, to an axial thrust load of 10 kN.

Assume that the load is applied gradually and the ratio of the inner diameter to the

outer diameter is 0.5. If the outer diameter of the shaft is 80 mm, find the shear stress

induced in the shaft. Consider the length of the shaft is 1m.

Mechanical device that permanently joins two rotating shafts to each other.

Oldham’s coupling Connecting two parallel shafts when they are at a small distance

apart.

Rigid & Flexible coupling connecting two shafts having collinear axes.

Cannot tolerate misalignments Can tolerate misalignments Lateral,

Angular (5°) & Axial (5mm)

Simple and inexpensive

Flexible elements absorb shocks and

Motion should be free from vibration

shocks and vibration

Comparatively costlier due to

additional parts

Types of coupling

Clamp coupling (or) Split muff coupling Sleeve coupling

Flange coupling

(Unprotected & Protected )

Rigid Flange Coupling

Bolts fitted in reamed and ground holes

Torque transmitted by the coupling

= × ×

P = Force acting on each bolt

D = Pitch diameter of bolts

N = Number of bolts

d1 = nominal diameter of the bolt

Friction radius =

Ri = inner radius of recess

= × × ×

Bushed pin flexible coupling

Design of Flexible coupling

Step I: Shaft diameter (d) Step IV: Dimensions of Bushes

Step II: Dimensions of flanges

= = × ×

= .

D = 3d to 4d

t = 0.5d =

t1 = 0.25d

= =

.

Diameter of pin d1 = Step V: Dimensions of keys

Shear stress induced in the pin =

Shear stress =

Bending stress induced in the pin =

Crushing stress =

Keys & Keyway (or) keyseat

Through this connection the key prevents relative rotation between the two parts

and allows torque to be transmitted through.

The whole system is called a keyed joint. Commonly keyed components include

gears, pulleys, and couplings.

Types of keys

Stress analysis of a key

Gear

Reaction Torque

Torque Applied

Key

Shaft

A key has two failure mechanisms.

forces.

Key with gear Key with pulley

Note: Two parallel keys can be used either 90° or 180° apart from each other if the shaft

connection needs to be more robust.

Design of Helical Springs

Flexible machine element Absorb energy regains its original shape after

removing load

sudden impact load.

(Compression coil (Tension coil spring)

helical spring)

Helical Spring Nomenclature

Stresses in Helical Spring

load is replaced to the other point without

changing its effect.]

Axially loaded helical spring

Applied force (F) Induces direct shear stress &

Twisting moment (T) Induces torsional shear stress

Therefore, Resultant shear stress = Direct shear stress+ torsional shear stress

Stress distribution in helical springs

Resultant shear stress

Therefore, resultant shear stress the spring wire is

Curvature Effect

Shear strain [γi ] inside > shear strain [γo ] outside

A spring with smaller diameter will experience more difference of shear strain

between outside surface and inside surface compared to its larger counter part.

To take care of the curvature effect, the earlier equation for maximum shear

stress in the spring wire is modified as,

Where, KW is Wahl correction factor, which takes care of both curvature effect and

shear stress correction factor and is expressed as

Angle of twist θ=

Where, T = Torque ( ) ; θ = Angle of twist; l = length of the bar; J = Polar moment of

inertia; G = Modulus of rigidity

[ ]

Angle of twist θ=

[ ]

θ=

The axial deflection ‘δ’ of the spring, for small values of θ,

δ=θ( )

Therefore,

Axial deflection δ=

Springs in series and parallel

= ; = + [ ]

+

Types of Springs

Leaf spring

Springs under variable loading

Subjected to millions of

stress cycles during its

lifetime.

changes its magnitude from Pmax to

Pmin.

Mean force Pm =

Amplitude force Pa =

Therefore,

.

Mean shear stress = , = +

.

Amplitude shear stress = , = +

K = Wahl stress factor, which takes into consideration the effect of direct shear stress as

well as stress concentration due to curvature.

Pulsating stress cycle

Fatigue diagram for spring design

−

+ =

This equation is used in the design of springs

subjected to fluctuating stresses.

Concentric springs

Maximum torsional shear stresses induced in outer and inner springs are equal.

Both springs are having same free length and deflected by the same amount.

Therefore,

Concentric springs

Solid length of the outer spring = solid length

In concentric spring, of the inner spring

= =

= [ ] =[ ]

For the time being, neglect the effect of Wahl factor and [ ] =[ ]

assume K1 = K2 Therefore,

= =

=

[ ] =[ ] =

[ ] =[ ] = =

When both springs are completely compressed, their The load shared by each spring is proportional

adjacent coils touch each other. to the cross section area of wire.

Surge in springs

Natural frequency of spring = Frequency of external periodic force

Wave of successive compressions of coils that travels from one end to other end and

back vibratory motion (surge)

Time required for the wave to travel from one end to other end = Time interval between

load applications

Free Length: Axial length of an unloaded

helical compression spring.

= Solid length + total axial gap + δ

spring which is subjected to maximum

compressive force. There should be some gap or

clearance between the adjacent coils.

is so compressed that the adjacent coils touch

each other.

Solid length = N× d

Design of Leaf spring

P P

2P

Act as a structural member and carry lateral loads, brake torque, driving torque etc., in

addition to shocks.

For the purpose of analysis, Leaves are divided into two groups.

A simple cantilever type leaf spring is shown.

Non uniform width leaf is a better design than a uniform width leaf.

Portion of load P taken by

graduated length leaves

= =

Deflection

= =

Graduated length leaves as triangular plate

Portion of load P taken by extra

full length leaves

= =

Deflection

= =

Extra full length leaves as rectangular plate

Since the deflection of full length leaves is equal to the deflection of graduated length leaves,

=

+ =

Therefore,

= and =

= and =

=

( + )

Nipping of leaf springs

Stresses in extra full length leaves are greater than the graduated length leaves.

One of the methods of equalising the stresses in different leaves is to pre-stress the spring. It

is achieved by different radii of curvature is known as ‘nipping’.

the spring

Used in plate clutches and brakes, relief valves and gun recoil

mechanisms.

Disc type flywheel Rim type flywheel

Power Smoothening

Power output +

Power Input

Mechanical losses

System

Power Input

Power Output +

Losses

Speed of the machine

speed

gradually increases

Losses

Power Input

speed

gradually decreases

Both are unsteady system

Time

Input Power Output Power

Time Time

IC

Generator Punching

Engine Motor

machine

Output power

is constant

Output power

Input Power is variable

Output Power

Ideal steady

operation

Fluctuation of Energy

cylinder double acting steam engine.

Turning moment diagram for a four stroke

internal combustion engine.

Maximum Fluctuation of Energy

Coefficient of Fluctuation of Energy (CE)

Ratio of the maximum fluctuation of energy to the work done per cycle.

Energy Stored in a Flywheel

Mean kinetic energy of the flywheel

STRESSES IN FLYWHEEL RIM

Tensile stress due to centrifugal force

Tensile bending stress [caused by restraint of the arms]

If the arms of a flywheel do not stretch at all and are placed very close together, then

centrifugal force will not set up stress in the rim σt will be zero.

If the arms are stretched enough to allow free expansion of the rim due to centrifugal

action, there will be no restraint due to the arms σb will be zero.

Arms of a flywheel stretch about 3/4th of the amount necessary for free expansion

[Lanza]

STRESSES IN FLYWHEEL ARMS

Bending stress due to the torque transmitted from the rim to the shaft

Welded joints are permanent fasteners which are

obtained by the fusion of edges of the two parts to be

joined together, with or without the application of

pressure and a filler material.

be obtained by burning of gas or by an electric arc.

Important types of welded joints are

1. Lap joint or fillet joint, and 2. Butt joint.

h

h

Double parallel fillet welded Joints

A steel plate, 100mm wide and 10mm thick is welded to another steel plate by means

of double parallel fillet welds. The plates are subjected to a static tensile force of 50 kN.

Determine the required length of the welds if the permissible shear stress in the weld is

94 N/mm2 .

L

Single transverse double parallel fillet welded Joints

Throat section

A plate, 75mm wide and 10 mm thick, is joined with another steel plate by means of

subjected to

single transverse and double parallel fillet welds. The joint is subjected to a maximum

shear stress

tensile force of 55 kN. The permissible tensile and shear stresses in the weld material are

70 and 50N/mm2 . Determine the required length of each parallel fillet weld.

Axially loaded unsymmetrical welded Joints

P1

P2

P = P1 + P2

Under equilibrium, the moment of the forces about the C.G. is equal to zero.

P1×a = P2×b

A 200×150×10 mm steel angle is to be welded to a steel plate by the fillet welds along

the edges of the 200 mm leg. The angle is subjected to a static load of 200 kN. The line

of action of the load is the intersection of the centroidal plane of the angle and the

plane of the weld. Find the lengths of the weld at the top and bottom, if the allowable

shear stress for the weld material is 75 MPa.

Q. A welded connection subjected to an eccentric force of 7.5 kN is shown.

Determine the size of the welds if the permissible shear stress for the weld is 100

N/mm2. Assume static conditions.

50

50

150

7.5 KN

Eccentric load in the plane of welds

P

(Direct shear) (Torsional shear)

A shaft of rectangular cross section is welded to a support by means of fillet welds.

Determine the size of the welds, if the permissible shear stress in the weld is limited to

75 N/mm2 .

A circular shaft of diameter 50mm is welded to a support by means of a fillet welds.

Determine the size of the weld, if the permissible shear stress in the weld is limited to

100 N/mm2 .

Consider an elemental section of area dA. It

is located at an angle θ with x-axis and

subtends an angle dθ.

Welded joint subjected to torsional moment

= ×r

J = Ixx + Iyy = πtr3 + πtr3

A welded connection shown in fig is subjected to an eccentric force of 60 kN in the

plane of welds. Determine the size of the welds, if the permissible shear stress for the

weld is 100 N/mm2. Assume static conditions.

Butt welded Joints

Advantages of welded joints over riveted joints

Lighter weight

Smooth appearance

Ease in alteration and addition

Less expensive

Ease in joining at difficult locations

Threaded Fasteners

together by means of bolts, nuts and washers.

groove on the cylindrical surface and hole.

manufacturing process Self locking characteristics

Bolted Joint: for relatively small thickness components and where there is enough space to

accommodate parts.

Screw Joint: fixed into a threaded hole in one of the component being assembled not in a

nut.

Stud Joint: cylindrical rod threaded at both ends. One end of stud is screwed to nut and the

other end is screwed into connecting components.

Nomenclature of the Threads

Bolt of uniform strength

Eccentric load perpendicular to axis of bolt

Shear force on each bolt P1’ = P2’ =

Each bolt is stretched by an amount ‘δ’ which is proportional to its vertical distance from

the point ‘C’.

and

= and =

Pe=2 +

= and =

( ) ( )

Tensile stress in the bolt =

Eccentric load on circular base

Elastic analysis of bolted joints P

P

Preload: When the nut is initially tightened, the bolt is subjected to

an initial tension, which is called preload (Pi).

Under the action of preload, the bolt is elongated by an amount δb

and the two parts are compressed by an amount of δc.

∆ ∆

Stiffness of the bolt Kb = Stiffness of the component Kc =

∆ ∆

Note:

∆ = =

+

A rivet is a short cylindrical bar with a head integral to

it. The cylindrical portion of the rivet is called shank or

body and lower portion of shank is known as tail.

Rivet Parts

Method of Riveting

Caulking and Fullering: To make the joints leak proof or fluid tight.

Caulking tool closes the surface asperities and cracks on the contacting surfaces between

two plates and also between the rivet and the plates, resulting in leak proof joints.

Fullering is similar to caulking except the shape of the tool. The blows of the fullering tool

result in simultaneous pressure on the entire edge of the plate.

Pitch [P]. It is the distance from the centre of one rivet to the centre of the next rivet

measured parallel to the seam.

Back pitch [Pb]. It is the perpendicular distance between the centre lines of the successive

rows.

Diagonal pitch [Pd]. It is the distance between the centres of the rivets in adjacent rows of

zig-zag riveted joint.

Triple Riveted Lap Joint

Single riveted double strap butt joint Double riveted double strap (equal) butt joint

Failures of a Riveted

Joint

Shearing off a rivet in lap joint

rows of rivets

Crushing of a Rivet

Shearing off a rivet in double cover butt joint

Strength equations for riveted joints

considered. They are as follows:

Shear failure of the rivet:

Shear strength of the rivet Ps = d2. τ

Tensile strength of the plate Pt =(p – d).t. σt

Crushing strength of plate Pc = d. t.σc

, ,

Efficiency of the joint = =

A double riveted double cover butt joint in plates 20 mm thick is made with 25 mm diameter rivets at

100 mm pitch. The permissible stresses are : σt = 120 MPa; τ = 100 MPa; σc = 150 MPa. Find the

efficiency of joint, taking the strength of the rivet in double shear as twice than that of single shear.

Tearing resistance of the plate per pitch length

Pt =( p – d ) t × σt = (100 – 25) 20 × 120 = 180 000 N

Since the joint is double riveted butt joint, therefore the strength of two rivets in double shear is

taken.

Ps = n × 2 × π/4 × d 2 × τ = 2 × 2 × π/4 (25)2 ×100 = 196 375 N

Crushing resistance of the rivets

Since the joint is double riveted, therefore the strength of two rivets is taken. We know that

crushing resistance of the rivets,

Pc = n × d × t × σc = 2 × 25 × 20 × 150 = 150 000 N

Efficiency of the joint

The strength of the unriveted or solid plate, P = p × t × σt = 100 × 20 × 120 = 240 000 N

,

Efficiency of the joint = = 0.625 or 62.5%

1. Thickness of the vessel

t= +

2. Diameter of rivets (If t > 8mm then use Unwin’s

formula)

=

3. Pitch of the rivets (According to IBR)

pmin = 2d

pmax =Ct + 41.28

pt = 0.2p + 1.15d (distance between outer and middle row)

pt=0.165p+0.67d (distance between middle and inner row)

Margin m = 1.5d

4. Thickness of straps

t1= 0.625t [ ]

5. Efficiency of the joint

,

Efficiency of the joint =

Eccentrically loaded riveted Joints in shear

Direct load ‘P’ at C.G results in primary shear forces P1’, P2’, P3’, P4’ (Reaction

forces).

.

The moment at C.G results in secondary shear forces P1’’, P2’’, P3’’, P4’’

Secondary shear force at any rivet is proportional to its distance from the C.G.

.

=

+ + +

. .

P1’’=

Design of Connecting Rod

Small End

Bolt

Castle Nut

Transmits reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotary motion of the crank shaft

Buckling of Connecting Rod

Buckling in the plane of motion (Ends are Hinged) (n = 1)

Buckling in the plane perpendicular to the plane of motion (Ends are fixed) (n = 4)

Connecting rod is four times stronger for buckling about the YY axis as compared to

the buckling about the XX axis.

Therefore, for equal resistant to buckling in both the planes, Ixx = 4 Iyy

B = 4t

Y Width of ‘B’ is kept constant

throughout the length of the

connecting rod

t

Height ‘H’ varies from the big end to

t small end

H = 5t At the middle section,

X X H= 5t

At the small end,

H1 = 0.75 H to 0.9 H

At the big end,

H2 = 1.1H to 1.25H

t

Proportions for the cross section of

connecting rod

P Cross section for Connecting Rod

PISTON pressure (N)

φ

Pc = force acting on the connecting rod (N)

PC

φ = angle of inclination of connecting rod

CONNECTING with line of stroke

ROD

θ = angle of inclination of crank from TDC

position

φ

θ

CRANK PC

P = Pc ∅ P

=

∅

shortly after the TDC

Step I: Force acting on the connecting rod is equal to the maximum force acting on the

piston due to gas pressure

=

Step II: Critical buckling load

= [FOS = 5 OR 6]

σc = compressive yield stress (N/mm2) [σc = 330 N/mm2]

A = cross sectional area of connecting rod (mm2) [A = 11t2]

a = constant depending upon material and end fixity coefficient [a = 1/7500]

L = length of the connecting rod (mm)

Kxx = radius of gyration (mm) [Kxx = 1.78t]

Different failures in Connecting Rod

Multi throw crank shaft

Converts reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion through the connecting

rod.

Plain carbon steels 40C8, 45C8 and 50C4, Alloy steels 16Ni3Cr2, 35Ni5Cr2 and

40Ni10Cr3Mo6

Overhung crank

Has two crank webs and three bearings

Has one crank web and two

bearings

More popular in automotive engines

Used in medium size engines and

Used in radial aircraft engines, and

large size horizontal engines

marine engines

Piston: To receive the impulse from the expanding gas and to transmit the energy

to the crank shaft through the connecting rod.

Heat

Head

High Strength dissipation

capacity

Rings

Minimum mass Skirt with minimum

noise

Resistance to

Effective sealing

distortion

High wear

resistance

Cast iron Piston Aluminium Piston

Highly rated engines with greater Piston

Piston speed below 6 m/s

speed

High temperature strength

α Aluminium = 2.5 times α cast iron

K Aluminium = Nearly 4 times K cast iron

Aluminium alloys are Keeps down the maximum temperature

three times lighter than difference between centre and edges of the

Cast iron. piston head

Piston Head (or) Crown

To withstand the straining action due to the pressure of explosion inside the engine

cylinder

D = cylinder bore or outside diameter of piston (mm)

σt = Permissible bending (tensile) stress for the material of the piston, N/mm2

Nickel cast iron 50 to 90 MPa

Aluminium alloy 60 to 100 MPa

Treating the piston head as a Flat circular plate,

Piston rings

rings

Acts as a seal between the piston and Provide proper lubrication to the liner

cylinder bore

cylinder liner

thrust

Radial thickness (t1) of the ring

The axial thickness (t2) of the rings may be taken as 0.7 t1 to t1.

The minimum axial thickness (t2) may also be obtained from the following

empirical relation

Piston Barrel

Maximum thickness of the piston barrel

groove which is taken as 0.4 mm

larger than the radial thickness of the

piston ring (t1)

Piston skirt

Acts as a bearing for the side thrust from the cylinder wall.

Bearing pressure on the piston barrel due to side thrust does not exceed 0.25 N/mm2.

Bearing pressure on the piston barrel due to side thrust does not exceed 0.5 N/mm2.

Piston pin

Full floating type Semi floating type

Design check for bending:

Piston failures

Damage From Running Unmixed Fuel Damage From Detonation

Damage From Debris Getting Through the Air Damage From Heat Seizure

Filter

DESIGN OF KNUCKLE JOINT

Collar

Taper Pin

Eye

Fork

Knuckle Pin

The modes of failure are :

under the tensile load, when there is requirement of small

amount of flexibility or angular movement is necessary. There is

always axial or linear line of action of load.

Failure of the solid rod in tension

Failure of the single eye or rod end in tension

Failure of the forked end in tension

Q. Design a knuckle joint to transmit 150 kN. The design stresses may be taken as 75 MPa in

tension, 60 MPa in shear and 150 MPa in compression.

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