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Consider an electromagnetic field at the boundary between two

materials with different properties. The tangent and the normal

component of the fields must be examined separately, in order to

understand the effects of the boundary.

G

Medium 1 G H1

ε 1 ; µ1

Hn1

G

H t1

boundary

G

G G Ht 2

Medium 2 Hn2 H2

ε2; µ2

Electromagnetic Fields

Medium 1 G

ε 1 ; µ1 H t1

G G

boundary

H n3 H n4 a

G

Medium 2 Ht2 y

ε2; µ2

b

z

. x

Ampère’s law for the boundary region in the figure can be written as

G ∂H y ∂H x

∇×H⇒ − = J z + jω ε E z

∂x ∂y

Electromagnetic Fields

H n4 − H n3 H t1 − H t 2

− = J z + jω ε E z

b a

If one lets the boundary region shrink, with a going to zero faster

than b,

H n3 − H n4

H t 2 − H t1 = lim ( J z a + jωε E z a + a )

a→ 0 b

for materials with finite conductivity

⇒ H t 2 − H t1 = 0 Tangential components are conserved

⇒ H t 2 − H t1 = lim ( J z a) = Js (surface current)

a→ 0

Electromagnetic Fields

G G G

nˆ × (H t1 − H t 2 ) = Js

In the case of a perfect conductor, the electromagnetic fields go

immediately to zero inside the material, because the conductivity is

infinite and attenuates instantly the fields. The surface current is

confined to an infinitesimally thin “skin”, and it accounts for the

discontinuity of the tangential magnetic field, which becomes

immediately zero inside the perfect conductor.

For a real medium, with finite conductivity, the fields can penetrate

over a certain distance, and there is a current distributed on a thin,

but not infinitesimal, skin layer. The tangential field components on

the two sides of the interface are the same. Nonetheless, the

perfect conductor is often a good approximation for a real metal.

Electromagnetic Fields

Medium 1 G

ε 1 ; µ1 E t1

G G

boundary

E n3 E n4 a

G

Medium 2 Et2 y

ε2; µ2

b

z

. x

G ∂ E y ∂E x

∇×E⇒ − = jω µ H z

∂x ∂y

Electromagnetic Fields

E n4 − E n3 E t1 − E t 2

− = jωµ H z

b a

If one lets the boundary region shrink, with a going to zero faster

than b,

E n3 − E n4

E t 2 − E t1 = lim ( jωµ H z a + a )

a→ 0 b

G G

nˆ × (E t1 − E t 2 ) = 0

Electromagnetic Fields

Normal components

Medium 1 G G

ε 1 ; µ1 Dn1 Bn1

boundary

ρs + + + + + + w

G G

Medium 2 Dn2 Bn2 y

ε2; µ2

Area

z

. x

with

Electromagnetic Fields

Integrate the divergence of the fields over the volume of the box:

G G G

∫∫∫ ∇ ⋅ D dr = ∫∫∫ ρ dr

Volume Volume

Divergence ⇓ theorem

G G G

∫∫

w D ⋅ n̂ ds = Flux of D out of the box

Surface

G G

∫∫∫ ∇ ⋅ B dr = 0

Volume

Divergence ⇓ theorem

G G G

∫∫

w B ⋅ n̂ ds = Flux of B out of the box

Surface

Electromagnetic Fields

If the thickness of the box tends to zero and the charge density is

assumed to be uniform over the area, we have the following fluxes

G

D-Flux out of box = Area ⋅ (D1n − D2 n ) =

= Total interface charge = Area ⋅ ρ s

G

B-Flux out of box = Area ⋅ (B1n − B2 n ) = 0

The resulting boundary conditions are

D1n − D2 n = ρ s B1n − B2 n = 0

field D is equal to the density of surface charge.

continuous across the interface.

Electromagnetic Fields

G G G G

Dn1 − D n2 = ε1E n1 − ε 2 E n2 = ρ s

G G G G

Bn1 − Bn2 = µ1H n1 − µ 2H n2 = 0

the electric field are discontinuous at the interface, if there is a

change of dielectric constant .

discontinuity at the interface due to the change in the magnetic

permeability. In many practical situations, the two media may have

the same permeability as vacuum, µ0, and in such cases the normal

component of the magnetic field is conserved across the interface.

Electromagnetic Fields

SUMMARY

If medium 2 is

perfect conductor

G

H t1 G G G G

ε 1 , µ1 H t1 = H t 2 nˆ × H t1 = J s

G ε 2 , µ2 G

Ht2 Ht2 = 0

G

E t1 G G G

ε 1 , µ1 E t1 = E t 2 E t1 = 0

G ε 2 , µ2 G

Et2

Et2 = 0

G G G G

H n1 ε 1 , µ1 µ1H n1 = µ 2 H n2 H n1 = 0

G ε 2 , µ2 G

H n2 H n2 = 0

G G G G

E n1 ε 1 , µ1 ε 1E n1 = ε 2 E n2 +ρ s E n1 = ρ s ε 1

G ε 2 , µ2 G

E n2 E n2 = 0

Electromagnetic Fields

Examples:

An infinite current sheet generates a plane wave (free space on

both sides)

x

Js

-z +z

y

H

G

Js ( t ) = − Jso cos(ω t ) iˆx

G

Phasor J s = − Jso iˆx

sheet of current.

© Amanogawa, 2006 – Digital Maestro Series 67

Electromagnetic Fields

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

G G G

nˆ × (H t1 − H t 2 ) = J s

G G

H t1 − H t 2 = Jso iˆx

G G

E t1 = E t 2

G G

E t1 = η 0 H t1

G G

Symmetry ⇒ H t1 = H t 2

Jso Jso

H1 = H2 = −

2 2

Electromagnetic Fields

has uniform surface current and generates a plane wave

x

Perfect Free Space

Conductor

Js

-z +z

y

H

G

J s = − Jso cos(ω t ) iˆx

The E.M. field is zero inside the perfect conductor. The wave is only

transmitted into free space.

Electromagnetic Fields

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

G G G

nˆ × (H t1 − H t 2 ) = J s

G G G

H t1 − H t 2 = H t1 − 0 = Jso iˆx

G

Et2 = 0

G G

Asymmetry ⇒ H t1 ≠ H t 2

H t1 = Jso Ht2 = 0

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