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- Lab 134 Ohm's Law
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You are on page 1of 6

Self-grades are due October 19, 2017, at 23:59.

Submission Format

Your homework submission should consist of one file.

• hw7.pdf: A single PDF file that contains all of your answers (any handwritten answers should be

scanned).

1. (OPTIONAL) Analysis

Solve the circuit given below.

R2

1 2

20 Ω

1A R1 10 Ω R3 50 Ω 3A

2. (OPTIONAL) Superposition

Solve the circuits shown below using superposition.

3Ω

i

1.5 Ω 1.5 Ω

1A

5V 3Ω

−

+

3. Fruity Fred

Fruity Fred just got back from Berkeley Bowl with a bunch of mangoes, pineapples, and coconuts. He wants

to sort his mangoes in order of weight, so he decides to use his knowledge from EE16A to build a scale.

He finds two identical bars of material (M1 and M2 ) of length L (meters) and cross-sectional area Ac

(meters2 ), which are made of a material with resistivity ρ. He knows that the length of these bars decreases

by k meters per Newton of force applied, while the cross-sectional area remains constant.

He builds his scale as shown below, where the top of the bars are connected with an ideal electrical wire.

The left side of the diagram shows the scale at rest (with no object placed on it), and the right side shows

it when the applied force is F (Newtons), causing the length to decrease by kF meters. Fred’s mangoes are

not very heavy, so L kF.

L M1 M2

M1 M2 L-kF

A B A B

(a) Let RAB be the resistance between nodes A and B. Write an expression for RAB as a function of Ac , L,

ρ, F, and k.

(b) Fred’s scale design is such that the resistance RAB changes depending on how much weight is placed

on it. However, he really wants to measure a voltage rather than a resistance.

Design a circuit for Fred that outputs a voltage that is some function of the weight. Your circuit should

include RAB , and you may use any number of voltage sources and resistors in your design. Be sure to

label where the voltage should be measured in your circuit. Also provide an expression relating the

output voltage of your circuit to the force applied on the scale.

As great as smartphones are, one of their main drawbacks is that their batteries don’t last a very long time.

A Google Pixel, under somewhat regular usage conditions (internet, a few cat videos, etc.) uses 0.4 W of

power. We will model the battery as a voltage source (which, as you know, will maintain a voltage across

its terminals regardless of current through it) with one caveat: they have a limited amount of charge, or

capacity. When the battery runs out of charge, it no longer provides a constant voltage, and your phone dies.

Typically, engineers specify battery capacity in terms of mAh, which indicates how many mA of current the

battery can supply for one hour before it needs to be recharged. The Pixel’s battery has a battery capacity of

2770 mAh and operates at a voltage of 3.8 V.

(a) When a battery’s capacity is depleted, it no longer operates as a voltage source. How long will a Pixel’s

full battery last under regular usage conditions?

(b) How many coulombs of charge does the battery contain? Recall that 1 C = 1 A × 1 s, which implies that

1 mC = 1 mAs. An electron has approximately 1.602 × 10−19 C of charge. How many usable electrons

worth of charge are contained in the battery when it is fully charged?

(c) Suppose the cell phone battery is completely discharged and you want to recharge it completely. How

much energy (in J) is this? Recall that a J is equivalent to a W s.

(d) Suppose PG&E charges $0.12 per kWh. Every day, you completely discharge the battery (meaning

more than typical usage) and you recharge it every night. How much will recharging cost you for the

month of October (31 days)?

(e) The battery has internal circuitry that prevents it from getting overcharged (and possibly exploding!).

The circuitry is also used to transfer power into the chemical reactions that store the energy. We

will model this internal circuitry as being one resistor with resistance Rbat , which is typically a small,

non-negative resistance. Furthermore, we’ll assume that all the energy dissipated across Rbat goes to

recharging the battery. Suppose the wall plug and wire can be modeled as a 5 V voltage source and

200 mΩ resistor, as pictured in Figure 1. What is the power dissipated across Rbat for Rbat = 1 mΩ, 1 Ω,

and 10 kΩ? How long will the battery take to charge for each of those values of Rbat ?

200 mΩ

+ Rbat

5V −

5. Temperature Sensor

Measuring quantities in the physical world is the job of sensors. This means somehow extracting that

information from the world and then converting it into a form that can be observed and processed. Electrical

circuits can be very useful for doing this.

For most materials, resistance increases with increasing temperature; that is, a resistor has higher resistance

when it is hot than when it is cold. This is often an annoyance to circuit designers who want their circuits to

work the same way at different temperatures, but this fact can also be useful. It allows us to convert temper-

ature, a “physical” quantity, into resistance, an “electrical” quantity, to build an electronic thermometer.

In this problem, we are going to explore how effective a particular circuit made out of various types of

resistors is at allowing us to measure temperature.

(a) Let’s begin by analyzing a common topology, the voltage divider shown below. Find an equation for

the voltage Vout in terms of R1 , R2 , and Vs .

R1

Vs +

− +

R2 Vout

(b) Now let’s suppose that R1 is an ideal resistor that does not depend on temperature, but R2 is a

temperature-dependent resistor whose resistance R is set by R = Ro (1 + αT ), where T is the abso-

lute temperature. Find an equation for the temperature T in terms of the voltage Vout , Vs , R1 , Ro , and

α.

R1

Vs +

− +

Ro (1 + αT ) Vout

(c) It turns out that almost all resisitors have some temperature dependence. Consider the same circuit as

before, but now, R01 has a temperature dependence given by R01 = R1 (1 + β T ). Find an equation for the

temperature T in terms of the voltage Vout , R1 , Ro , Vs , α, and β .

R1 (1 + β T )

Vs +

− +

Ro (1 + αT ) Vout

(d) Your colleague who has not taken EE16A thinks that they can improve this circuit’s ability to measure

temperature by making both resistors depend on temperature in the same way. He hence came up with

the circuit shown below, where both R1 and R2 have nominally different values, but both vary with

temperature as a function of (1 + αT ). Can this circuit be used to measure temperature? Why or why

not?

Ro1 (1 + αT )

Vs +

− +

Ro2 (1 + αT ) Vout

In this problem, we will look at a simplified version of the multitouch resistive touchscreen. In particular,

rather than measuring the position of two potential touch points in both dimensions (i.e. a pair of coordinates

(x1 , y1 ) and (x2 , y2 ) corresponding to two touch positions), let’s think about a version where we are interested

in measuring only the vertical position of the two touch points (i.e. y1 and y2 ). Therefore, unlike the

touchscreens we looked at in class, both of the resistive plates (i.e. both the top and the bottom plate) would

have conductive strips placed along their top and bottom edges, as shown below.

(no touch)

E4

E2 E2 E1

H

T

E3 H

E1 E4 E3

(a) Assuming that both of the plates are made out of a material with ρ = 1 Ω m and that the dimensions

of the plates are W = 3 cm, H = 12 cm, and T = 1 mm, with no touches at all, what is the resistance

between terminals E1 and E2 (which would be the same as the resistance between terminals E3 and

E4 )?

(b) Now let’s look at what happens when we have two touch points. Let’s assume that at wherever height

the touch occurs, a perfect contact is made between the top plate and the bottom plate along the entire

width of the plates (i.e. you don’t have to worry about any lateral resistors), but that otherwise none of

the electrical characteristics of the plates change. Defining the bottom of the plate as being y = 0 cm

(i.e. a touch at E1 would be at y = 0 cm), let’s assume that the two touches happen at y1 = 3 cm and

y2 = 7 cm and that your answer to part (a) was 5 kΩ (which may or may not be the right answer).

Draw a model with 6 resistors that captures the electrical connections between E1 , E2 , E3 , and E4

and calculate their resistances. Note that for clarity, the system has been redrawn below to depict this

scenario.

(2 touches)

E4

E2 E2 E1

H

H

y2 T

y1 E3 y1

E4 y2

E1

E3

W

(c) Using the same assumptions as part (b), if you drove terminals E3 and E4 with a 1 mA current source

(as shown below) but left terminals E1 and E2 open-circuited, what is the voltage you would measure

across E4 − E3 (i.e. VE4−E3 )?

E4

+

1 mA VE4−E3

−

E3

(d) Now let’s try to generalize the situation by assuming that the two touches can happen at any two

arbitrary points y1 and y2 , but with y1 defined to always be less than y2 (i.e. y1 is always the bottom

touch point). Leaving the setup the same as in part (c) except for the arbitrary y1 and y2 , by measuring

only the voltage between E4 and E3 , what information can you extract about the two touch positions?

Please be sure to provide an equation relating VE4−E3 to y1 and y2 as a part of your answer, and note

that you may want to redraw the model from part (b) to help you with this.

(e) One of your colleagues claims that by measuring the appropriate voltages, not only can they extract

what both y1 and y2 are in this system, but they can even do so by formulating a system of three

independent voltage equations related to y1 and y2 . As we will see later, this will allow us to gain some

robustness to noise in the voltage measurements.

In order to facilitate this, write equations relating VE4−E2 and VE1−E3 to y1 and y2 . (The third voltage

we’ll use is VE4−E3 , which you should have already derived an equation for in the previous part of the

problem.)

Writing your own problems is a very important way to really learn material. The famous “Bloom’s Tax-

onomy” that lists the levels of learning is: Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, and Create.

Using what you know to create is the top level. We rarely ask you any homework questions about the lowest

level of straight-up remembering, expecting you to be able to do that yourself (e.g. making flashcards). But

we don’t want the same to be true about the highest level. As a practical matter, having some practice at

trying to create problems helps you study for exams much better than simply counting on solving existing

practice problems. This is because thinking about how to create an interesting problem forces you to really

look at the material from the perspective of those who are going to create the exams. Besides, this is fun. If

you want to make a boring problem, go ahead. That is your prerogative. But it is more fun to really engage

with the material, discover something interesting, and then come up with a problem that walks others down

a journey that lets them share your discovery. You don’t have to achieve this every week. But unless you try

every week, it probably won’t ever happen.

Who else did you work with on this homework? List names and student ID’s. (In case of homework party,

you can also just describe the group.) How did you work on this homework?

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