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You are on page 1of 14

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Fall 2004

MIDTERM EXAM

Tuesday, November 9, 2004

′′

• This is a closed book exam, but two 8 12 × 11

′′ sheets of notes (both sides) are allowed.

• Calculators are not allowed.

• Make sure you have all 14 numbered pages of this exam.

• There are 4 problems on the exam.

• The problems are not in order of diﬃculty. We recommend that you read through all the

problems, then do the problems in whatever order suits you best. Note, too, that very

often the later parts of a problem can be done independently of earlier parts.

• A correct answer does not guarantee full credit, and a wrong answer does not guarantee

loss of credit. You should clearly but concisely indicate your reasoning and show all

relevant work. Your grade on each problem will be based on our assessment of your

level of understanding as reﬂected by what you have written in the space provided.

• Please be neat—we can’t grade what we can’t decipher.

• Only the booklet supplied is to be handed in. No additional pages will be considered

in the grading.You may want to work things through on the scratch paper provided

ﬁrst and then neatly transfer the work you would like us to look at into the exam booklet.

Let us know if you need additional scratch paper.

• We will be following a grading strategy which focuses on your level of understanding of

the material associated with each problem. Speciﬁcally, when we grade each part of a

problem we will do our best to assess, from your work, your level of understanding.

Based on our judgement, each part will receive one of the following: E (EXCELLENT

UNDERSTANDING), G (GOOD), R (REASONABLE), M (MARGINAL) or U (UN

SATISFACTORY). Where appropriate, we may also use grades of E/G, G/R, R/M, or

M/U so that there is a ﬁner scale.

On each part of each exam question we will also indicate the percentage of the total

exam grade represented by that part, and your numerical score on the exam will then be

calculated accordingly. (For example if a part represents 16% of the exam grade, then

E=16, E/G=14, G=12, G/R=10, R=8, R/M=6, M=4, M/U=2, U=0.)

This system (which we’ve used in the course many times in the past) is designed to focus

your attention and ours on your level of understanding of the material, rather than on

what calculations and miscalculations receive or lose points. Consequently, in looking at

your graded exam, we ask that you focus on our judgement of your level of understanding.

If you honestly feel that we’ve misjudged it based on what you’ve written in the exam

booklet, then we’d be happy to discuss it with you.

2

Fall 2004

MIDTERM EXAM

Tuesday, November 9, 2004

NAME:

1 (a)

1 (b)

1 (c)

1 (d)

2 (a)

2 (b)

2 (c)

3 (a)

3 (b)

4 (a)

4 (b)

4 (c)

Total

4

Problem 1 (28%)

In ﬁgure 1-1 are two systems consisting of a compressor and an expander.

System A:

Figure 1-1:

(a) (4%) For x[n] as shown in ﬁgure 1-2 sketch yA [n] and yB [n] (assume x[n] = 0 outside the

interval shown).

x[n]

�b

a�

�c

� � � � � � �

0 n

Figure 1-2:

Name:

5

(b) (6%) For X(ejω ) as shown in ﬁgure 1-3, sketch Wa (ejω ) and YA (ejω ).

X(ejω )

1

��

�

� �

� �

� � �

−π − π2 π

2 π

Figure 1-3:

6

System A:

(c) (8%) X(ejω ) denotes the Fourier transform for an arbitrary x[n]. Express YB (ejω ) in terms

of X(ejω ).Your answer should be in the form of an equation, not a sketch for a speciﬁc

Fourier transform.

(d) (10%) For any arbitrary x[n], will yA [n] = yB [n]? If your answer is yes, algebraically justify your

answer. If your answer is no, clearly explain or give a counterexample.

Name:

7

Problem 2 (28%)

Consider the system in Figure 2-1.

Figure 2-1:

We would like to implement the overall system (i.e. from x[n] to y[n] as eﬃciently as

possible in terms of the number of multiplies per output sample, the total number of compres-

sor/expander blocks, and the total number of delay elements.

1 − cz −1

(a) (8%) If H(z) = , where a and c are arbitrary and the system must be implemented

1 − az −1

exactly as shown in ﬁgure 2-1, with H(z) in direct form, determine the required number

of multiplies for each value of y[n].

8

For parts (b) and (c) assume that the cost of each multiply per output sample y[n] is 10,

the cost of each compressor or expander block is 5, and the cost of each delay is 2.

1 − cz −1

(b) (10%) If H(z) = , determine the ﬂowgraph or block diagram of the overall system

1 − az −1

which minimizes the implementation cost of the overall system in Figure 2-1, and the

total cost of the implementation.

Total Cost:

Name:

9

For parts (b) and (c) assume that the cost of each multiply per output sample y[n] is 10,

the cost of each compressor or expander block is 5, and the cost of each delay is 2.

1

(c) (10%) If H(z) = , determine the ﬂowgraph or block diagram of the overall

1−az −4 − bz −8

system which minimizes the implementation cost of the overall system in Figure 2-1, and

the total cost of the implementation.

Total Cost:

10

Problem 3 (20%)

A bandlimited signal xc (t) has been sampled and the samples have been stored in memory. The

samples are to be converted to a continuous-time signal yc (t) through an ideal C/D converter.

It is known that because of a hardware fault, the input to the D/C will be faulty. The objective

in this problem is to consider the possibility of pre-compensating x[n] in memory so that the

reconstructed signal yc (t) at the output will equal xc (t)

� D/C �H(jΩ) yc (t)�

C/D values in

� memoryx[n] +c[n] errors

� �

T c[n] T

2π

Xc (jΩ) = 0, for |Ω| >

3T

w[n] = x[n] + c[n]

2π

X(ejω ) = 0, for < |ω| < π

3

2π

�

1 for |Ω| ≤ 3T

H(jΩ) =

0 otherwise

(a) (10%) For this part assume that c[n] = 0 (i.e. there’s no compensation and, consequently,

w[n] = x[n].) Assume further that the hardware errors have the eﬀect of adding an

undesired signal to w[n], i.e. g[n] = x[n] + e[n]. Under what constraints on e[n] or its

Fourier transform E(ejω ) will yc (t) = xc (t)? Clearly explain your answer.

Name: 11

(b) (10%) For this part assume that the eﬀect of the hardware error is to always force g[0] to be zero.

In designing the compensating signal we note that if c[0] = −x[0] then w[0] = 0. Then the

hardware error will not aﬀect w[n], i.e. g[n] = w[n]. With this in mind and considering

your answer in (a), determine an appropriate choice for the compensating signal c[n] so

that yc (t) = xc (t).

12

Problem 4 (24%)

For this problem you may ﬁnd useful the lecture slides which we have reproduced

on page 14.

� �n � �n

2 1

s[n] = α u[n] + β u[n]

3 4

where α and β are constants.

We wish to linearly predict s[n] from its past p values using the relationship

p

�

ŝ[n] = ak s[n − k]

k=1

+∞

�

E= (s[n] − ŝ[n])2

n=−∞

(a) (4%) With φs [m] denoting the autocorrelation of s[n], write the equations for the case p = 2

the solution to which will result in a1 , a2 (you do not need to derive the equations).

Name: 13

(b) (10%) Determine a pair of values for α and β such that when p = 2, the solution to the normal

11

equations is a1 = 12 and a2 = − 61 . Is your answer unique? Explain.

(c) (10%) If α = 8 and β = −3, determine the reﬂection coeﬃcient k3 , resulting from using the

Levinson recursion to solve the normal equations for p = 3. Is that diﬀerent from k3 when

solving for p = 4? (An answer with no explanation will receive no credit.)

END OF EXAM

14

YOU CAN USE THE BLANK PART OF THIS PAGE AS SCRATCH PAPER BUT

NOTHING ON THIS PAGE WILL BE CONSIDERED DURING GRADING

L e v i n s o n D u r b i n R e c u r s i o n

p a

[ ] = [ ] = 1 , 2 , K , p

k s i k s i i

k = 1

[ ]

[ ] [ ] L

! s 0 ! s 1 ! s p ) 1

[ ] [ ] L

! s 1 ! s 0

T p =

[ ]

L [ ]

! s p ) 1 ! s 0

[ ] T r

[ ]

[ ]

[ ] [ ]

[ ] T I

[ ]

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

( ) T ]

[ ] W X p p

k p + 1 = P s p + 1

( ) T i

[ ] c r p p

^ s 0

( ) ( )

a 1 p a p p

j p = m k p + 1 q p

( ) ( )

p p

a 2 a p ¡ 1

p + 1 = p p

( 7 )

=

M £ k M

0 k p + 1

p + 1

( ) ( )

p p

a p a 1

£ 1

( ) a k t h

i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e p t h o r d e r f i l t e r .

a k p

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