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NIDM

Sikkim
National Disaster Risk Reduction Portal

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1. STATE PROFILE
1.1 General1
Sikkim is situated between 270 04' to 280 07’ North latitudes and 880 01’to 880 55’ East
longitudes. It is bound by Nepal in the west, by the vast stretches of the Tibetan plateau in the
North and by Bhutan and Chumbi Valley of Tibet in the east. Darjeeling district of West Bengal
stretches along its southern boundary. The State of Sikkim has a total area of 7096 sq. km. and is
stretched over 112 kms from North to South and 64 kms from East to West.
1.2 Administration
Sikkim is divided into four districts – East district, West district, North district and South district
with district headquarters at Gangtok, Geyzing, Mangan and Namchi respectively. The District
administration is headed by District Collector/District Magistrate and supported by Additional
District Collector. Sub-divisional Officers as supporting magistrates and the heads of respective
departments. The District Collector is responsible for maintenance of law and order, magistrate
for various cases and is the chairman of district coordinating committee to monitor the
functioning of all other departments as well.
1.2.1 Sikkim Fact File
Area 7,096 sq. km
Capital Gangtok
Principal Language Lepcha, Bhutia, Limbu, Nepali
Other Languages Hindi, English
Rainfall 2000 mm to 5000 mm
Temperature Summer: - 25 °C
Winter:- 3 °C
Season Cold Weather Season: December -February
Spring Season: March - May
South-West Monsoon: June - September
Period of retreating Monsoon: October - November
Eco System Sikkim is richly gifted with natural flora and fauna. The
natural vegetation consisting of evergreen trees, grasses and
scrub expands up to 4000m Mean Sea Level (MSL) only. At
elevations above 5000 m Mean Sea Level (MSL) barely some
vegetation is found. Distribution pattern of natural vegetation
in the State may be divided into 5 mixed forest zones.

1.3 Geology2

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Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalayas are Techno-stratigraphically defined by four domains with
characteristic stratigraphic and structural attributes. From south to north they are:
i. Foot hill belt
ii. Inner Belt
iii. Axial Belt and
iv. Trans-Axial Belt.
The state is mostly covered by Precambrian metamorphites of low to medium grade (Daling
Group), high grade gneisses (Darjeeling Gneiss and Kanchendzonga Gneiss), Chungthang
Formation (quartzite, calc-silicate rocks, marbles, graphite schist’s and occasionally
amphibolites) with intrusive granites (Lingtse granite gneiss) and Phanerezoic rocks including
Gondwana and Tethyan sedimentaries. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic (Tethyan) sequence in the
northern and north-western part of Sikkim are fossileferous.
The Gondwana super Group consists of sandstone, shale and carbonaceous shale with occasional
thin bands of coal and pebbly shale horizon.
Daling group of rocks can be classified into three formations:
a. Gorubathan Formation: characterized by quartz-chloride-sericite schists, phyllite and
quartzite’s.
b. Reyang Formation: characterized by quartzite’s (occasionally calcareous), phyllite
interbanded with carbonaceous slate.
c. Buxa Formation: characterized by presence of dolomitic limestone occasionally
interbanded with phyllite and development of organo sedimentary structure (stromatolites).
The Kanchendzonga Gneiss comprises mainly high-grade gneiss The Chungthang gneiss is a
quartz-biotite gneiss .A streaky sheared granite gneiss known as “Lingtse Gneiss” occur as a NE-
SW to N-S trending strip of rocks and forms a general line of separation between the Daling and
high grade Kanchendzonga Gneiss. The Tethyan sedimentaries, exposed in the northern part of
Sikkim represent Everest Phyllite series (shale’s/phyllite), Mount Everest Limestone series,
Lachi Formation (conglomerate with thick diamictite base) and Tso Lhamo Formation
(calcareous shale, limestone band, calcareous sandstone).

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Legend

Geological map of Sikkim (Source: GSI, Sikkim Centre)

1.4 Topography/Physiography
Sikkim is a small, extremely mountainous state in the Indian Himalayas with sharply defined and
extremely steep watersheds. Although, Sikkim is only about forty miles in width and seventy
miles in length, its altitude escalates rapidly from about 300 m above mean sea level in the South
to about 8583 m along the Himalayan Kanchenjunga range. Agriculture is mostly concentrated in
the lower mountain ranges, primarily in the East and South Districts. Nomadic high-altitude

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livestock herding (primarily goats, sheep and yaks) is found along the borders of Nepal, Bhutan
and in the North District approaching the Tibetan Plateau.
Profile of land elevation of Sikkim
Type of Land Level of Elevation
Lower Hills Altitude ranging from 270 to 1500 m
Mid Hills Altitude ranging from 1500 m. to 2000 m
Higher Hills Altitude ranging from 2000 m. to 3000 m
Alpine Zone Altitude above 3900 m.
Snow Bound Land Very High Mountains without vegetation and with Perpetual Snow cover up to
8580 m.

1.5 Soil3
Soil sub-group Soil series
Typic Haplumbrepts Markong, Hilley
Lithic Haplumbrepts Gompa
Typic Dystrochrepts Lingtse, Losep, Namthang
Litic Dystrochrepts Machong
Umbric Dystrocbrepts Thekabong, Chatrikola, Padamchen.
Lithic Udorthents Putuli, Simkara, Nandugaon
Aquic udifluents Majitar
Ultic Hapludalfs Tariku.

Markong Series (M): It comprises moderately deep, well-drained loamy skeletal soil with dark
brown to dark reddish brown colour. They have been developed on mica schists. This soil occurs
on strongly sloping (10-15%) hill top with moderate to severe erosion. Soils are under
moderately dense forest and pasture land.
The Markong Series is tentatively classified as a member of loamy skeletal mixed thermic family
of Topic Haplumbrepts.
Putuli Series (p): It comprises shallow excessively drained dark brown loamy skeletal soil having
some rock particles scattered over the surface. These are developed on micaceous gneissic parent
rock of talus deposits. These soils occur on moderately sloping and very steep upper hill slopes.
They are moderately to severely eroded and are susceptible to landslides.
Lingtse Series (L): It comprises very deep, moderately well-drained fine loamy soils with dark
grayish brown to dark brown colour. They have been developed on gneissic parent rock. These
soils occur on steep low hill slopes and moderately eroded. The soils are under terraced

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cultivation. The Lingtse Series is tentatively classified as a member of fine loamy mixed thermic
family of Typic Dystrochrepts.
Thekabong Series (T): It comprises moderately deep, moderately well drained loamy skeletal
soil with dark grayish brown in colour. They have developed on micaceous gneissic parent rock.
These soils occur in the steep to very steep middle and lower slopes of hill. Soils are bench
terraced for cultivation. The soils are moderately eroded and susceptible to severe erosion.
Machong Series (MA): It comprises moderately deep moderately well-drained, grayish brown
fine loamy soils. They have been formed from the underlain micaschists. These soils occur on
the moderately steep to steep low hill slopes and piedmont. The soils are under terraced
cultivation. Erosion is moderate to severe.
Chatrikhola Series (C): It comprises deep, moderately well-drained fine loamy soils with very
dark grayish brown to dark brown colour. They are developed on micaceous gneiss parent rock.
These soils occur on steep to very mid slope of low hill slopes and rare moderately to severely
eroded.
Gompa Series (G): It comprises shallow excessively drained loamy skeletal soils within brown
to dark brown colour. They have been developed on gneissic parent rock. This soil occurs on
moderately sloping and steep to very steep escarpments. The soils are under severe to very
severe erosion and are susceptible to sliding.
Losep Series (LO): It comprises deep, moderately well-drained, loamy skeletal soils with
grayish brown to yellowish brown colour. They have been developed on colluvial material over
gneissic parent rock. These soils occur on steep lower slopes of hills and are moderately to
severely eroded.
Namthang Series: It comprises deep, well-drained, loamy skeletal soils with brown to dark
yellowish brown colour developed from phyllite parent rock occurring on moderately sloping to
strongly sloping mid hill slopes and are moderately eroded. Soils are under paddy cultivation.
Simikara Series: It comprises moderately deep excessively drained coarse loamy, fragmental
soils with yellowish brown to light olive brown colour and developed on micaschist parent rock.
This soil occurs on very steep escarpment slope and is severely eroded. Soils are under dense
forest.
Nandugaon Series: It comprises well-drained coarse loamy, fragmental soils with brown to dark
brown colour, developed from sandstone parent rock, The soil occurs on steeply sloping mid and

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upper part of hills are severely eroded. Soils are under predominantly cultivation maize.
Hilly Series: It comprises very deep moderately well-drained fine loamy soils with dark reddish
brown to reddish brown colour developed on gneissic parent material. The soil occurs on steeply
sloping upper hill slope and is moderately eroded. Soils are under cultivation.
Padamchen Series: It comprises moderately deep, moderately well-drained, fine loamy soils
with brown to yellowish brown colour and developed from gneissic parent material. This soil
occurs on moderately steep to upper hill slope with severe erosion under thin forest vegetation.
Taraku Series: It comprises very deep, moderately well-drained fine loamy soils with brown to
dark colour developed on sand stones. Soils occur on moderately steep to steep upper and mid-
hill slopes and are moderately eroded. Soils are under horticultural crops.
Majitar Series: It comprises deep, well-drained loamy soils with grayish brown to light gray
colour. They are of alluvial and collurial origin. This soil occurs on gently sloping to moderately
sloping uplifted river terraces and is susceptible for river bank erosion and flooding. Soils are
under horticultural crops.

1.6 Rainfall4
An examination of available rainfall data shows that the mean annual rainfall is minimum at
Thangu (82 mm/) in north Sikkim and maximum at Gangtok (3494 mm/) in east Sikkim. An
isohyetal analysis of this data reveals that there are two maximum rainfall areas: (i) South- East
quadrant, including Mangan, Singhik, Dikchu,Gangtok and Rongli (ii) South- West quadrant,
including Hilley. In between these two regions, there is a low rainfall region (e.g. Namchi).
Rainfall in this area is about half of that in the former areas. There is an area in north - west
Sikkim which gets very little rainfall (even less than 4.9 mm/). This area is mainly snow-covered
mountains. Rainfall is heavy and well distributed during the months of May to early October.
July is the wettest month in most places. The intensity of rainfall during south - west monsoon
season decreases from south to north, while the distribution of winter rainfall is in the opposite
order. The highest annual rainfall for individual stations may exceed 5000 mm/ and average
number of rainy days (days with rain of 2.5 mm/ of more) range from 100 at Thangu to 184 at
Gangtok.
1.7 Agro-climatic Zones5
The agro-climatic classification is nothing but an extension of the climate classification keeping
in view the suitability to agriculture. Earlier many methods have been devised for climatic

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classification and the most widely used classifications being Koeppen’s and Thronghwaite’s.
Generally, the climate types may be distinguished on the rainfall, temperature and as these two
characteristics are influenced by altitude, the climate can also be classified on the basis of above
three parameters. National Commission on Agriculture (1971) classified the country into 127
agro-climatic zones. The Planning Commission has adopted Agricultural Zones on the various
parameters for agricultural planning. The soil climatic zones can be classified on the basis of
rainfall, temperature and prevalent soil types in the region.

1.8 Socio Economic Profile6


The state of Sikkim enveloped by the Himalayas, is home to one of the world's highest peaks,
Kanchenjunga, and as with most of the Himalayan region, Sikkim is rich in bio-diversity and
natural beauty, making it a sought after tourist destination. Sikkim draws its culture from its
neighbors which are Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet, and many dialects are spoken here. The cuisine,
music and other recreational activities like festivals are also influenced by Sikkim's border-
mates. The Sikkim census of 2011 says population of Sikkim is the least in all of India. This
thinly populated state has a population of mere 6 lakh, and has grown by approximately one
lakh since the last census.

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Description 2011
Population 607,688
Population Growth 12.36%
Population Density/sq. km 86
Male 321,661
Female 286,027
Sex Ratio 889
Percentage of total Population 0.05%
Literacy 82.20%
Male Literacy 87.29%
Female Literacy 76.43%
Total Literate 449,294
Male Literate 253,364
Female Literate 195,930

2. DISASTER RISK PROFILE7


2.1 Hazard Vulnerability
Multi Hazards Risk Vulnerability Assessment (MHRVA) are being undertaken where the
following hazards are considered for Sikkim as mountainous state as per IS codes and other
requisite data from the field, which is required for MHRVA study in the Himalayan Region.
a) Earthquake hazards.
b) Landslide hazards.
c) Fire hazards
d) Flood/ flash floods hazards
e) Snow Avalanches hazards
f) Drought hazards
g) Hailstorm, Thundering and lightening hazards
h) Riots and stampede
In every hazard following components or parameters are studied and identified.
a) Hazards areas identified in terms of its intensity and scale.
b) Risk Level is identified up to household levels.
c) Vulnerable areas are identified.

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Multi-Hazards Risk Assessment of Turung Mamring Gram Panchyat Unit and its Suburbs is
completed and the study is taken as model study of Multi Hazards Risk Vulnerability
Assessment (MHRVA) of Sikkim.

Multi-Hazard Hazards

Hazards Category % of Area % of Household Risk type

Very High Hazardsds 1.05 1.90 Very High

Medium High 12.55 16.81 High


Hazards
Medium Hazards 38.70 48.67 Medium

Medium Low Hazards 36.30 23.77 Low

Low Hazards 10.98 9.19 Low

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Multi- Hazards

Hazards % of Area % of Household Risk type


Category
Very High Hazards 8.10 8.52 Very High

Medium High 23.40 23.03 High


Hazards
Medium Hazards 44.67 43.06 Medium

Medium Low Hazards 22.71 24.38 Low

Low Hazards 1.13 0.87 Low

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Multi- Hazards

Hazards % of Area % of Household Risk type


Category
Very High Hazardsds 2.17 1.52 Very High

Medium High 32.97 21.95 High


Hazards
Medium Hazards 45.00 40.49 Medium

Medium Low Hazards 18.23 33.86 Low

Low Hazards 1.64 3.58 Low

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Multi- Hazards
Hazards
Category % of Area % of Household Risk type

Very High Hazardsds 5.16 2.15 Very High


Medium High
10.91
Hazards 6.23 High

Medium Hazards 22.71 29.04 Medium

Medium Low Hazards 25.07 36.54 Low

Low Hazards 36.15 26.04 Low

2.2 Major Disaster Events


2.2.1 Earthquake8
Sikkim is located in the high risk seismic zone IV of the Indian seismic zoning map. The state is
spread out on the Himalayan mountain range with two main thrust faults, the Main Boundary
Thrust (MBT) and Main Central Thrust (MCT) crossing the state. Continuous thrusting of the
Indo-Australian plate against the Eurasian plate has made most parts of the Himalayan collision
zone seismically active. Sikkim is a part of this zone; therefore it had been a moderately active
seismic region in historical times.
Date/Year Latitude Longitude Magnitude Region
(Deg. N) (Deg. E)
23/5/2000 27.23 88.11 3 Singtam, Geyzing, Jorethang
3/6/2000 27.21 88.44 3 Geyzing, Gangtok, Jorethang
2/8/2000 27.36 88.28 3 Singtam, Mangan, Jorethang
6/8/2002 27.462 88.701 3 Mangan, Gangtok, Chungthang
8/7/2002 27.157 88.478 3.1 Jorethang, Aritar, Melli
5/10/2001 27.23 88.38 3.4 Singtam, Geyzing, Jorethang
3/12/2001 27.36 88.23 3.4 Singtam, Mangan, Jorethang
7/4/2000 27.38 88.52 3.5 Mangang, Lachen, Chungthang
24/4/2002 27.09 88.86 3.5 Singtam, Gangtok, Aritar
18/6/2002 27.216 88.774 3.5 Singtam, Aritar, Melli
3/6/2000 27.33 88.43 3.6 Geyzing, Mangang, Jorethang
21/8/2002 27.265 88.611 3.6 Singtam, Gangtok, Aritar
14/7/1999 27.25 88.48 3.7 Singtam, Geyzing, Gangtok
23/8/2000 27.26 88.31 3.7 Singtam, Gangtok, Jorethang

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4/9/2000 27.28 88.35 3.7 Singtam, Geyzing, Mangan
29/4/2002 27.41 88.39 3.7 Singtam, Gangtok, Jorethang
26/6/2002 27.183 88.359 3.8 Geyzing, Jorethang, Melli
28/8/2000 27.15 88.3 3.9 Singtam, Geyzing, Jorethang
27/4/2002 27.57 88.66 3.9 Mangan, Gangtok, Chungthang
10/7/1999 27.36 88.36 4 Singtam, Geyzing, Mangan
1/1/2000 27.3 88.58 4 Singtam, Mangan, Gangtok
9/2/2001 27.3 88.28 4 Singtam, Mangan, Jorethang
30/6/2002 27.429 88.664 4 Mangan, Gangtok, Chungthang
18/4/2000 27.52 88.63 4.1 Mangan, Gangtok, Chungthang
2/9/2000 27.37 88.27 4.1 Singtam, Geyzing, Mangan
15/11/2001 27.15 88.3 4.1 Singtam, Geyzing, Jorethang
26/4/2002 27.3 88.64 4.1 Singtam, Chungthang, Aritar
30/10/2005 27.9 88.1 4.1 India (Sikkim)-China border region
3/6/2000 27.27 88.29 4.2 Singtam, Geyzing, Jorethang
8/6/2000 27.24 88.34 4.2 Singtam, Geyzing, Jorethang
16/7/2000 27.2 88.48 4.2 Singtam, Mangan, Gangtok
25/9/2000 27.39 88.37 4.2 Singtam, Geyzing, Gangtok
29/4/2002 27.23 88.58 4.2 Singtam, Gangtok, Melli
15/6/2002 27.757 88.714 4.2 Mangan, Lachen, Chungthang
18/6/2000 27.39 88.38 4.3 Singtam, Mangan, Jorethang
8/9/2000 27.43 88.44 4.3 Singtam, Geyzing, Mangan
1/12/2000 27.22 88.31 4.3 Singtam, Gezing, Jorethang
4/10/2001 27.22 88.36 4.3 Singtam, Gezing, Jorethang
8/4/2002 27.47 88.34 4.3 Gezing, Mangan, Gangtok
26/4/2002 27.35 88.58 4.3 Singtam, Mangan, Gangtok
7/8/2000 27.32 88.42 4.4 Gezing, Mangan, Jorethang
26/4/2002 27.48 88.4 4.4 Mangan, Gangtok, Chungthang
1/5/2002 27.57 88.54 4.4 Singtam, Aritar, Melli
6/9/2000 27.5 88.52 4.5 Mangan, Gangtok, Chungthang
23/11/2000 27.25 88.3 4.5 Singtam, Gezing, Jorethang
16/3/2002 27.35 88.58 4.5 Singtam, Geyzing, Mangan
29/6/2000 27.4 88.83 4.6 Gezing, Mangan, Jorethang
7/8/2000 27.28 88.33 4.6 Singtam, Gezing, Jorethang
1/5/2002 27.35 88.58 4.7 Mangan, Gangtok, Melli
17/11/2000 27.24 88.54 4.8 Gezing, Mangan, Jorethang
16/11/2001 27.36 88.16 4.8 Singtam, Mangan, Jorethang
23/11/2001 27.37 88.43 4.8 Singtam, Mangan, Gangtok
22/8/2002 27.135 88.388 4.8 Singtam, Jorethang, Melli
7/6/2000 27 88 4.9 Singtam, Gezing, Jorethang
18/10/2000 27.35 88.48 4.9 Singtam, Mangan, Gangtok
1996 27.4 88.5 5 Sikkim
31/5/2000 27.55 88.4 5 Singtam, Gezing, Chungthang

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22/4/2002 27.09 88.86 5 Gezing, Aritar, Melli
28/4/2002 27.18 88.71 5 Singtam, Gangtok, Aritar
29/4/2002 27.2 88.7 5 Gangtok, Aritar, Melli
2/6/2000 27.2 88.48 5.1 Singtam, Mangan, Jorethang
1/6/2000 27.18 88.31 5.1 Singtam, Gezing, Jorethang
4/7/2000 27.17 88.45 5.1 Singtam, Gezing, Gangtok
21/9/2000 27.38 88.52 5.1 Singtam, Mangan, Gangtok
25/4/2002 27.28 88.63 5.1 Mangan, Gangtok, Chungthang
25/4/2002 27.15 88.83 5.1 Mangan, Chungthang, Jorethang
25/4/2002 27.32 88.3 5.1 Singtam, Gangtok, Jorethang
26/3/2005 27.7 88.0 5.1 India (Sikkim)-Nepal border region
1996 28 87 5.2 Sikkim
1996 27.8 87.6 5.2 Sikkim
16/6/2000 27.68 88.29 5.2 Singtam, Gezing, Mangan
30/4/2002 27.91 88.54 5.2 Singtam, Jorethang, Melli
13/6/2000 27.5 88.36 5.3 Singtam, Gezing, Mangan
3/10/2000 27.23 88.48 5.3 Singtam, Gangtok, Jorethang
25/4/2002 27.24 88.78 5.3 Singtam, Mangan, Aritar
2/5/2002 27.97 88.87 5.3 Mangan, Gangtok, Jorethang
3/2/2006 27.4 86.7 5.3 Nepal (Remark: Close to Sikkim -
Bihar Border)
2/11/2001 27.25 88.46 5.6 Singtam, Gezing, Mangan
1990 28.2 88.1 5.7 Sikkim
14/2/2006 27.7 88.8 5.7 Sikkim
1938 27.5 87 5.8 Sikkim
1965 27.4 87.8 5.8 Sikkim
1849 27 88.3 6 Sikkim
1980 27.4 88.8 6 Sikkim
30/4/2002 27.35 88.8 6 Mangan, Gangtok, Aritar
1852 27 88 6.5 Sikkim
18/08/2012 27.72 88.06 6.8 Sikkim
31/8/1906 27 97 7 Sikkim
14/8/1932 25.80 95.7 7 Sikkim
16/8/1950 28.7 96.6 7 Sikkim
26/8/1950 26.8 95 7 Sikkim
13/9/1950 27.50 96.4 7 Sikkim
9/9/1923 25.30 91 7.1 Sikkim
2/7/1930 25.80 90.2 7.1 Sikkim
21/3/1954 27.20 95.1 7.3 Sikkim
12/12/1908 26.50 97 7.5 Sikkim
12/9/1946 23.90 96.2 7.5 Sikkim
8/7/1918 24.50 91 7.6 Sikkim
27/1/1931 24.4 96.8 7.6 Sikkim

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29/7/1947 28.8 93.7 7.7 Sikkim
23/3/1839 22 96 7.8 Sikkim
1934 26.6 86.8 8.3 Sikkim
15/8/1950 28.46 96.66 8.5 Sikkim
1897 26.00 91 8.7 Sikkim

Earthquake on 18th September, 2011 – On September 18, 2011 an earthquake of the magnitude
of 6.8 on Richter scale struck Sikkim at 6.10 PM. The epicenter of the quake was about 64 kms
north-west of Gangtok along the junction point of Teesta lineament and Kanchenjunga fault in
the North District of Sikkim, Depth : 19.7 Km (shallow depth) and Location : 27.72º N, 88.06º E
Impact
Human life: 63 human lives lost. Many people lost their limbs and eyes, 597 people were
injured and hospitalized with grievous injuries
Social infrastructure: Total schools damaged: 759 nos., Hospitals / PHCs damaged: 377 nos ;
ICDS (Anganwadi) damaged : 875 nos; Other Government Buildings damaged: 1255 nos.
Transportation infrastructure: Total Roads damaged: 3230 kms; Village footpaths (cement
concrete) damaged: 1596 nos; Bridges / Culverts damaged: 8135 nos.
Energy infrastructure: Power infrastructure: Major damage to generation plants, electrical grid,
substations, transformers and local distribution network
Water management infrastructure: Water supply schemes damaged: 1529 nos; Minor Irrigation
works damaged: 204 nos; Flood Control Management works damaged: 533 nos.
Community infrastructure: Gram Panchayats offices damaged: 60 nos.; Community toilets
damaged: 155 nos. ; Village level cooperatives (MPCS) damaged: 49 nos. Rural Product
Marketing Centers (RPMC) damaged: 8 nos.
Cultural heritage institutions: Damage to 259 nos of religious institutions, monuments and
various heritage monasteries, temples and churches. Along with this valuable artifacts have also
been destroyed which also included historic manuscripts.

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(Source: Sikkim State Disaster Management Plan)
2.2.2 Landslides9
Landslide Magnitude and Area in Danger Strike Time Damage
Name Intensity
9th mile 30ha. Slow, NH 31A, Namli 1957 NH 31A, houses, land
NH 31A, slump, creep Village. forest
Namli subsidence
Manul Debris avalanche North Sikkim 11/9/1983 65 dead GREF camp
Highway wiped out

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Burdang, 10ha fast, rock/ NH 31A State October 1997 NH31A, Silinge RF
Singtam, soil/ topple road Silinge RF
Rangpo avalanche
Tsochen, Huge fast Rongli Bazar 21/ 5/1997 Agriculture, roads,
Pheri avalanche 12:30pm bridges, houses
Ao Khola Huge fast Rongli bazaar 21/ 5/1997 7 persons dead, 1
Rongli avalanche 12:30pm injured
Gangtok Wide spread fast Devlopment 8-9:30 pm 43 persons dead, 300
and vicinity mud and debris Rongnek Syari, 8/6/97 house completey 1000
flow Mintokgang, partially
Sichey
Deorali, Localised Fast Kopibari school 9:30pm 5/9/95 32 people dead, 08
Gangtok flow and area, deorali houses completely
avalanche
Gyakshing Localised Fast Road to Kyongsa Morning 26/9/ 05 persons dead, 28
Bazaar Avalnche and Legship and 2000 families evacuated
Houses
Rakdong Large 3rd Mile Rakdong 12:30 AM 03 person dead
26/9/2005
Chawang 25ha. Fast Rock/ North Sikkim 19/7/2005 41 families
Soil falls Highway
Sardong Widespread Dentam Pelling 30/9/2005 15 houses
avalanches road
Manzing Massive fast 22Kms from 5pm 24/9/2005 07 families dead 28
avalanche Ravangla to families evacuated
Lingmoo
LANDSLI MAGNITUDE AREA IN STRIKE TIME DAMAGE DONE
DE NAME AND DANGER
INTENSITY
9th mile 30ha. Slow, NH 31A, Namli 1957 NH 31A, houses, land
NH 31A, slump, creep Village. forest
Namli subsidence
Manul Debris avalanche North Sikkim 11/9/1983 65 dead GREF camp
Highway wiped out
Burdang, 10ha fast, rock/ NH 31A State October 1997 NH31A, Silinge RF
Singtam, soil/ topple road Silinge RF
Rangpo avalanche
Tsochen, Huge fast Rongli Bazar 21/ 5/1997 Agriculture, roads,
Pheri avalanche 12:30pm bridges, houses
Ao Khola Huge fast Rongli bazaar 21/ 5/1997 7 persons dead, 1
Rongli avalanche 12:30pm injured
Gangtok Wide spread fast Devlopment 8-9:30 pm 43 persons dead, 300
and vicinity mud and debris Rongnek Syari, 8/6/97 house completey 1000
flow Mintokgang, partially
Sichey

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Deorali, Localised Fast Kopibari school 9:30pm 5/9/95 32 people dead, 08
Gangtok flow and area, deorali houses completely
avalanche
Gyakshing Localised Fast Road to Kyongsa Morning 26/9/ 05 persons dead, 28
bazaar Avalnche and Legship and 2000 families evacuated
Houses
Rakdong Large 3rd Mile Rakdong 12:30 AM 03 person dead
26/9/2005
Chawang 25ha. Fast Rock/ North Sikkim 19/7/2005 41 families
Soil falls Highway
Sardong Widespread Dentam Pelling 30/9/2005 15 houses
avalanches road
Manzing Massive fast 22Kms from 5pm 24/9/2005 07 families dead 28
avalanche Ravangla to families evacuated
Lingmoo
LANDSLI MAGNITUDE AREA IN STRIKE TIME DAMAGE DONE
DE NAME AND DANGER
INTENSITY
9th mile 30ha. Slow, NH 31A, Namli 1957 NH 31A, houses, land
NH 31A, slump, creep Village. forest
Namli subsidence
Manul Debris avalanche North Sikkim 11/9/1983 65 dead GREF camp
Highway wiped out
Burdang, 10ha fast, rock/ NH 31A State October 1997 NH31A, Silinge RF
Singtam, soil/ topple road Silinge RF
Rangpo avalanche
Tsochen, Huge fast Rongli Bazar 21/ 5/1997 Agriculture, roads,
Pheri avalanche 12:30pm bridges, houses
Ao Khola Huge fast Rongli bazaar 21/ 5/1997 7 persons dead, 1
Rongli avalanche 12:30pm injured
Gangtok Wide spread fast Devlopment 8-9:30 pm 43 persons dead, 300
and vicinity mud and debris Rongnek Syari, 8/6/97 house completey 1000
flow Mintokgang, partially
Sichey
Deorali, Localised Fast Kopibari school 9:30pm 5/9/95 32 people dead, 08
Gangtok flow and area, deorali houses completely
avalanche
Gyakshing Localised Fast Road to Kyongsa Morning 26/9/ 05 persons dead, 28
bazaar Avalnche and Legship and 2000 families evacuated
Houses
Rakdong Large 3rd Mile Rakdong 12:30 AM 03 person dead
26/9/2005
Chawang 25ha. Fast Rock/ North Sikkim 19/7/2005 41 families
Soil falls Highway
Sardong Widespread Dentam Pelling 30/9/2005 15 houses

21
avalanches road
Manzing Massive fast 22Kms from 5pm 24/9/2005 07 families dead 28
avalanche Ravangla to families evacuated
Lingmoo

2.2.3 Forest Fire10

Year Fire Call Rescue Call Property Lost Property Saved Lives Lost Lives Saved
(Rs. Lakhs) (Rs. Lakhs)
1985 28 3 1.09 110 1 4
1986 32 1 2.16 158 1 5
1987 39 4 5.8 287 2 6
1988 39 4 1.53 16 6 3
1989 32 2 5.03 87 2 4
1990 29 3 11.63 63.2 8 68
1991 36 5 11.08 213.35 9 10
1992 44 3 8.57 39 4 10
1993 31 3 31.08 32.16 1 3
1994 61 8 63.83 174.52 21 103
1995 70 6 36.54 149.36 28 35
1996 29 14 15.85 31.71 3 7
1997 46 6 13.79 31.27 44 3
1998 31 10 11.55 30.5 11 15
1999 130 8 32.88 161.5 2 3
2000 54 3 19.82 45 11 8
2001 53 2 43 800 - -
2002 35 5 15 21 - 3
2003 43 6 87 38 2 9
2004 78 6 168 1066 1 -
2005 45 7 139 215 10 1
2006 135 3 60 115 24 59
2007 50 9 1877 6236 17

3. INSTITUTIONAL SETUP
3.1 Sikkim State Disaster Management Authority (SSDMA)11

Sikkim State Disaster Management Authority (SSDMA) is a part of the State Government and is
a nodal institution for planning, co-ordination and monitoring for disaster prevention, mitigation,

22
preparedness and management. SSDMA lays down policies on disaster management for the
state. It approves disaster management plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by
National Authority and co-ordinates its implementation. It provides guidelines and reviews the
measures being taken for mitigation, capacity building and preparedness by the Government and
issue guidelines as necessary. SSDMA recommends provision of funds for mitigation and
preparedness measures.
3.1.1 Vision
To build a safe and disaster resilient Sikkim by developing a holistic, proactive, multi-disaster
oriented and technology driven strategy through a culture of prevention, mitigation, preparedness
and response. With the capacity building and trainings provided, the community participation
should be encouraged. The participation of community will guarantee local ownership, local
needs and will provide effective volunteerism during the disaster. Hence, the disaster resilient
community will ensure disaster resilient state.
3.1.2 Theme
The central theme is the belief that a disaster resilient community, duly empowered by a newly
created DM Structure, working in cohesion multi-sectorally, will help realize the national vision.
3.1.3 Objectives
The aim of this plan is to set out Sikkim’s approach to disaster management in accordance with
the legislative responsibilities of the DM Act 2005.The objectives of preparing DM plan are:
 Promoting a culture of prevention and preparedness by ensuring that DM receives the
highest priority at all levels.
 Ensuring that community is the most important stakeholder in the DM process.
 Encouraging mitigation measures based on state-of-the-art technology and environmental
sustainability.
 Mainstreaming DM concerns into the developmental planning process.
 Putting in place a streamlined and institutional techno-legal framework for the creation of
an enabling regulatory environment and a compliance regime.
 Developing contemporary forecasting and early warning systems backed by responsive
and fail-safe communications and Information Technology (IT) support.
 Promoting a productive partnership with the media to create awareness and contributing
towards capacity development.

23
 Ensuring efficient response and relief with a caring approach towards the needs of the
vulnerable sections of the society.
 Undertaking reconstruction as an opportunity to build disaster resilient structures and
habitat.
3.2 Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majitar, East Sikkim and Sikkim
Manipal Institute of Medical Science, Tadong, East Sikkim
Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology provides various training opportunities. It also provides
quality education and training at various levels and has also introduced course related to disaster
management. The two years distance learning Master of Science (M.Sc.) Degree in Disaster
Mitigation is conducted to meet the demand of the growing needs of experts in the fields of
Disaster Mitigation, Hydrological, Coastal, Marine, Atmospheric, Geological, Technical,
Forests, Wind and Water Driven Disasters for mitigating the effects of earthquakes, floods,
droughts, cyclonic storms, landslides, avalanches etc.
3.3 District Institute of Education and Training (DIET) and Teachers
Training Institute (TTI):
The National Policy on Education 1986 contemplated a district level Institution for education
and training of teachers in all districts in the country. The Programme of Action (POA) for NPE
1986 envisaged that there would be a three tier Teacher Education and Research and Training
Institute on the lines of NCERT –SCERT and DIET at the National, State and District levels.
Since 1998, the Teacher Training Institute has been upgraded as the (DIET). The TTI/DIET
continues to run the In-Service Training for teachers of Sikkim on a regular basis.
3.4 State Institute of Rural Development (SIRD)
The State Institute of Rural Development located at Jorethang, South Sikkim is the apex training
institute under the Rural Management and Development Department, Government of Sikkim for
imparting training to government officials, elected Panchayats and Zilla Parishad representatives
and voluntary agency activists in tribal and community development. It also develops necessary
training curriculum for different training programmes and provides leadership and guidance to
other training institutes in the state. It conducts research studies and assists in organizing off-
campus programmes, seminars, workshops and conferences in collaboration with the
Government and other organizations. SIRD also has Disaster Management Faculty and has

24
created TOT as Field Facilitators for providing disaster management training to the PRIs, NGOs
in Blocks, Gram Panchayat and village levels including schools under the block. SIRD provides
training on various aspects of Disaster Management to all stakeholders with the help of resource
person from various institutes and SSDMA.
3.5 National Informatics Centre (NIC)
The National Informatics Centre (NIC) has facilities like VSAT-based video conferencing;
Internet connectivity from NITPU centre, four Pentium servers, Pentium running GIS
applications etc. The NIC situated at State Secretariat Gangtok also has VSAT and Internet
facilities, one Pentium server and six Pentium systems. NIC has setup district and Sub-Divisional
Centre functional with Pentium servers, VSAT facility. The services of NIC will be harnessed to
strengthen the communication and information database systems related to disaster management
at the State and district levels.
3.6 Capacity Building Institute, Karfectar, South Sikkim
The aim of capacity building institute is to make every citizen of the state self reliant. State
government has started this institute to strengthen the knowledge base and behavior of an
individual in a sustainable way. The institute provides training to people from all aspects of life.
It also provides training in all subjects concerning Disaster Management.
3.7 Police Training Centre, Pipalay, South Sikkim
Police Training Centre provides training for police, Sikkim Fire Services, Home Guard and Civil
Defence, Sikkim Armed Police, State Disaster Response Force, Forest Guard and the DM teams
constituted under disaster risk management. The Police training centre has been fully equipped
with Disaster Management Equipments.
3.8 District Disaster Management Authority
District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) headed by the District Collector or District
Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner as the case may be, to spearhead and adopt a holistic and
integrated approach to DM. There will be a paradigm shift, from the erstwhile relief-centric
response to a proactive prevention, mitigation and preparedness-driven approach for conserving
developmental gains and to minimize loss of life, livelihood and property.
3.8.1 District Disaster Management Committee has been formed under the Chairmanship of
District Collector to evaluate the Disaster Preparedness for different type of Calamities at

25
different times over a year that may occur. The Committee is the Pioneer Committee in the
District to take stock of the situation, monitors routine preparedness, suggests improving
response mechanism and develops a document for disaster management in the District.
3.8.2 The Committee members are as follows:
Chairman : District Collector cum District Disaster Manager.
Nodal Officer : Addl. District Collector I
Member : District Information Officer
Member : Officer from Police Communication & Information Cell
Member : Addl. Superintendent of Police
Member : Station Officer Fire
Member : NCC battalion
Member : Coordinator NSS r
Member : All Sub Collectors of the District
Member : Coordinator NYKS
Member : Secretary Rajha Sainik Board
Member: : Civil Defense
Member : Industries /Joint Secretary
Member : Forest and Environment Department DFO (T)
Member : Irrigation and Flood Department Joint secretary
Member : Sikkim Armed Police Dy. Commandant
Member : Sikkim Home Guard ( DSP)
Member : Rural Management & Development Department (DDO)
Member : Water Security & Public Health Engineering Department
Member : Building & Housing Department (DE)
Member : Energy & Power Department Addl.
Member : Road & Bridges Department
Member : Urban Development & Housing Department DE
Member : Chief District Medical Officer
Member : District Social Officer Joint Secretary
Member : Red Cross Society General Secretary
Member : Animal Husbandry, Livestock, Fisheries, Welfare Department JS

26
Member : Food Security& Agriculture Development Addl. Director
Member : Sikkim Nationalized Transport
Member : Truck Association President
Member : Rotary Club President
Member : Motor Vehicle (RTO)
3.9 Emergency Operation Centre
3.9.1 State Emergency Operation Centre - SEOC has a small permanent cadre staff and a
continuous Duty Officer system to monitor events within the State on behalf of the State
Authority. When activated in support of disaster-affected communities, the SEOC establishes
communication with relevant DEOC for the purpose of coordinating necessary information and
resource support. The SEOC provides 'situational awareness' of disaster events to the State
Government and is accountable to the State Executive Committee. The functions carried out in
the SEOC include the:
 Collection, collation and dissemination of information to the State government, the
Minister for LR&DMD, the Chair and members of the SEC, Disaster districts and the
public
Provision of advice to the Disaster District Chair and Chairs of Local Committee, and
Coordination of District and State Government resources in support of disaster affected
communities.
 The occurrence of disaster would essentially bring into force the following functions:
The EOC will be on full alert. The EOC can be expanded to include branches with
responsibilities for specific tasks.
 An on-going VSAT, wireless communication and hotline contact with the relief
commissioner and collector/s of the affected district/s.
 The Chief of Operations will spell out the priorities and policy guidelines and coordinate
services of various departments and agencies including national and international aid
agencies and central government agencies. The EOC in its expanded form will continue
to operate as long as the need for emergency relief operations continues till the long-term
plans for rehabilitation are finalized. For managing long-term rehabilitation programmes,
the responsibilities will be that of the respective line departments. This will enable the
EOC to attend to other disaster situations, if need be.

27
 The main branches in the EOC during a disaster situation will be operations, services,
resources, infrastructure, health, logistics, communications and information management.
Each branch will have specific tasks to perform with a branch officer of the rank of
Deputy Secretary or Additional Secretary. The capacity of the various branches to
coordinate amongst themselves and with the field units will ultimately decide the quality
of response.
 The facilities and amenities to be provided in the EOC include well-designed control
room and workstations for the branch and nodal officers equipped with VSAT, wireless
communication, hotlines, and intercoms. The EOC as a data bank will keep all district
and state level action plans and maps. Provision of a car with wireless communication
will be made for the EOC during normal times.
 Three categories of staff are being suggested for the control room: Regular, staff -on-call
and staff on disaster duty. Regular staff will consist of a joint secretary from the relief
commissioner’s office as the branch officer-control room. The EDP manager will be a
technical person thoroughly conversant with computer technology. Two deputy
secretaries will make up the staff -on-call. Staff on disaster duty will be the additional
staff who will shoulder additional responsibility in case of a disaster. They will be in the
nature of a reserve and may be drawn from the various departments experienced in
control room and EOC operations.
3.9.2 District Emergency operation Centre - DEOC may be permanent or temporary
facilities provided within each District to support the District Authority during disaster
events. Each DEOC is responsible to provide prompt and relevant information to both
LEOCs and the SEOC concerning any disaster event occurring within their District. These
centres are also responsible for the coordination of all local and state resources within their
district and those allocated to it for disaster management purposes. In particular, a DEOC is
responsible for:
 It is the nerve centre for disaster management.
Collection, collation and dissemination of information to the SEOC, relevant Local
government Disaster EOC, and the public
 The provision of advice to the Chair(s) of relevant Local Committees
Implementation of operational decisions of the Disaster District Chair, and

28
Coordination of allocated Local, District and State government resources in support
of the disaster affected community.
 Periodic check to ensure that all warning, communication systems and instruments
are in working condition.
 Maintain an inventory of all resources.
 Furnish information to all those who are seeking and needy.
Brief the media of the situations and day to day reports during disasters.
Report the ground situation and action taken by the district administration.
District Control Room would be placed under senior officers, who have already been
trained adequately to handle disasters.
 District Control Room should have all facilities for effective communication and also
to anticipate in case of system failure has alternative, ordinary and mobile phones,
email facilities, etc.
 List of all personnel and trained persons who could be contacted at any time.
Liaise with site operation centre. Site operation centre is the centre in the disaster site
to be set up and an officer earmarked to be incharge. The officer in charge will
conduct relief, transit camps, feeding centres, cattle camps, salvage operation,
disposal of dead bodies and carcass of animals, construction of temporary sheds with
adequate facilities, medical relief, clearance of debris and repair of damaged
infrastructure, etc.
 Collect information and activate the district/state level departments for
handling/getting assistance on need basis.
 Keep enough literature in local language about Do's and Don'ts before, during and
after disaster.
 Connect and maintain link with other important disaster related organizations,
military/police.
 If possible, install a Ham radio in the Control Room as backup.
3.9.3 Local Emergency Operation Centre - LEOC may be permanent or temporary facilities
provided within each local government area or combined local government area to support the
local committee during disasters. Each LEOC is responsible to provide prompt and relevant
information to the DEOC concerning any disaster event or potential disaster event occurring

29
within their area. These centres are also responsible for the coordination of all local resources as
well as those allocated to it for disaster management purposes. In particular, LEOC is responsible
for:
 Collection, collation and dissemination of information to the DEOC, relevant local
agencies and officers, and the public.
 Implementation of operational decisions for the Chair of the Local Committee and
Coordination of available resources including those allocated from the State Government
and Disaster district, in support of the disaster affected community.
3.10 Civil Defense
The government of India has been providing fund under the scheme “Revamping of Civil
Defense Setup in the state. Under this scheme the state has so far conducted trainings and
renovations etc. It has also got plans for the construction of a Civil Defense Institute in the State
for which a piece of land measuring 5-8 acres of land is required.
3.11 Quick Response Teams (QRTs)
The QRTs at district level should leave for the affected site within 3 to 6 hours of the event after
the declaration of emergency. They have been adequately briefed by their respective
departments. Team should be self-sufficient in terms of resources, equipments, survival kits and
response work.

4. INITIATIVES
4.1 Sikkim State Disaster Management Plan12
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20management%20plans/SDMP.pdf
State Disaster Management Plan formulated by State Disaster Management Authority is a
valuable document where vulnerability & risk assessment mapping, hazard risk assessment and
vulnerability maps are incorporated. The plan also has early warning and dissemination systems,
Prevention & mitigation plan and resource inventory. The Incident Command System and
Emergency Operating System are two important chapters where the roles and responsibilities of
line departments and stakeholders are highlighted. During any disasters Emergency Operating
Centre becomes activated and monitor the event and give regularly update to Chief Secretary and
Chief Minister. State Disaster Management Plan prepared by State Disaster Management
Authority is the document which is referred during Pre-During-Post disasters.

30
4.2 District Disaster Management Plan (East Sikkim)13
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20management%20plans/district%20dm%20plans/DM%20Pl
an%20East.pdf
At the outset of the Planning it can be referred to the preface given by District Collector that
District Disaster Management Plan is inevitable. The only strong administrative unit of linkup
between bottom and the top. There is no doubt about its formulation, vow for preparedness and
commitment for its positive implementation at the hour of crisis. The plan is viable because it
envisages the following factors critically from a practical point of view.
 Risk assessment & Vulnerability analysis
 Culture of quick and effective response
 Maintaining cohesiveness & uniformity in the formulation of a strategy taking a wide
range of heterogeneous factors posed by a Disaster.
An effective and realistic District Disaster Management Plan with fail proof communication,
authentic and accurate data base, documented and rehearsed to be activated in the shortest
possible time with minimum simple orders and procedures ensuring active participation both by
Government, Community and Volunteers at all levels making optimum utilization of men,
material and available resources with no gaps or no over laps to prevent loss to lives and
minimize loss to property ensuring fastest approach for rescue, rehabilitation & to avert further
miseraries of the calamity stricken people. The DDMP friend will guide the entire machinery
engaged for relief operation and input courage among the community to face the eventuality
boldly.
4.3 District Disaster Management Plan (West Sikkim)14
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20management%20plans/district%20dm%20plans/DM%20Pl
an%20West.pdf
Presently, no comprehensive planning legislation exists in the State in relation to Disaster Risk
Management. The Building By laws and other rules, a regulations framed under the Corporation
Act are applicable to certain section of the region, but their enforcement leaves much to be
desired. Provided it does not contain any provision for the preparation of the Development plan
and the enforcement is almost absent. Therefore a proposal of such caliber definitely should
leave no stone unturned in bringing the various Development works carried by the respective
Departments assuredly for one common cause. The legislation of which inevitably give rise to

31
congestions in parking, house sites, drainages, jhoras, garbage dumpsites, power lines, telephone
cables has largely been approved.
Insofar as it is within the control of the local authority, plans will be framed and the suggestive
disposed on them in such a way as to optimize the comfort of the users and the efficiency of the
development.
4.4 District Disaster Management Plan (North Sikkim)15
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20management%20plans/district%20dm%20plans/DM%20Pl
an%20North.pdf
The District Administration has realized the necessity to compile a plan to prevent/minimize the
loss and also to facilitate faster recovery during an emergency of this kind. This booklet is more
of a guidebook, which can help the administration, remains better prepared for floods and
cyclones to safeguard lives, livelihoods and property. Based on the past experiences, to combat
natural disasters, the rationale of an effective and realistic District Disaster Management Plan
was felt. A comprehensive DDMP will strengthen the efforts of the District Administration.
4.5 District Disaster Management Plan (South Sikkim)16
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20management%20plans/district%20dm%20plans/DM%20Pl
an%20South.pdf
An effective and realistic District Disaster Management Plan with full proof communication,
authentic and accurate data base, documented and rehearsed to be activated in the shortest
possible time with minimum simple orders and procedures ensuring active participation both by
Government ,Community and Volunteers at all levels making optimum utilization of men,
material and available resources with no gaps or no over laps to prevent loss to lives and
minimize loss to property ensuring fastest approach for rescue, rehabilitation & to avert further
miseraries of the calamity stricken people. There is a saying that a friend in need is a friend
indeed. The DDMP like a true friend will obviously guide the entire machinery engaged for
relief operation and input courage among the community to face the eventuality boldly.
4.6 Publications
4.6.1 Multi-Hazard Risk and Vulnerability Assessment of Gangtok Municipal Corporation
Area, East Sikkim
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/resources/publications/Gangtok%20%20HRVA.pdf

32
4.6.2 Inventory & GIS Mapping of Landslides in North, East, West & South Sikkim and its
Mitigation
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/resources/publications/Inventory%20and%20GIS%20Mapping%20of%
20Landslides%20in%20Sikkim.pdf
4.6.3 Multi-Hazard Risk and Vulnerability Assessment in North, East, West & South
Sikkim
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/resources/publications/Sikkim%20HRVA.pdf
4.6.4 IEC (Information, Education and Communication) Material for Sikkim
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/resources/publications/IEC.pdf

33
References:
1
https://www.sikkimssdg.gov.in
2
http://www.indiawaterportal.org/sites/indiawaterportal.org/files/report_sikkim_state_geology_a
nd_mineral_maps_geological_survey_of_india_0.pdf
3
http://www.sikkimagrisnet.org/General/en/soil_of_sikkim.aspx
4
http://www.sikkimipr.org/Physical_Feature.aspx
5
http://imdsikkim.gov.in/agroclimaticzones.html
6
http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/prov_data_products_sikkim.html
7,12
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20management%20plans/SDMP.pdf
8
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20profile%20vulnerability%20earthquake.php
9
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20profile%20vulnerability%20landslide.php
10
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20profile%20vulnerability%20fire.php
11
http://www.ssdma.nic.in
13
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20management%20plans/district%20dm%20plans/DM%20
Plan%20East.pdf
14
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20management%20plans/district%20dm%20plans/DM%20
Plan%20West.pdf
15
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20management%20plans/district%20dm%20plans/DM%20
Plan%20North.pdf
16
http://www.ssdma.nic.in/disaster%20management%20plans/district%20dm%20plans/DM%20
Plan%20South.pdf

34