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ARCHITECTURE HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES

ARCHITECTURE
HUMANITARIAN
EMERGENCIES
JORGE LOBOS

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AUTHOR
Jorge Lobos, architect, Visiting teacher KARCH Institute 3 DHS

COURSE CONCEPT
Jorge Lobos, architect, Visiting teacher KADK Institute 3 DHS
Jorgen Eskemose Andersen, lector, cand, arch MAA
Maria Gomez-Guillamon, cand, arch MAA

EDITOR BOARD
Peder Duelund Mortensen, lector, cand, arch MAA
Jorgen Eskemose Andersen, lector, cand, arch MAA
Jorge Lobos, associate professor, master, arch U. of Chile
Maria Gomez-Guillamon, cand, arch MAA
Rune Asholt, cand, arch. MAA

GRAPHIC EDITOR AND DESIGN


Rune Asholt, cand, arch. MAA

TEXT EDITOR AND TRANSLATION


Monica Johansson

GRAPHIC LAYOUT
Vicki Thake, arch. MAA

PRINTING
Arco Grafisk A/S

FUNDS
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. Denmark
Faculty of Architecture of Alghero, University of Sassari, Italy

COPYRIGHT
© 2011 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design and Consevation and the author
www.karch.dk

ISBN
978-87-7830-283-0
ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES
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INDEX
I FOREWORD
II INTRODUCTION
ARCHITECTURE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
THE WORKSHOP FORMAT: A WAY OF SPREADING IDEAS

ARTICLES
III 1 The Humanitarian sector and the role of architects and urban planners
2 HOW TO IMPROVE EDUCATION OF ARCHITECTS FOR WORKING IN THE HUMANITARIAN FIELD
3 The Role of Architects in the International Response to Disasters

ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES


IV 1 PROJECT MATRIX
2 Disaster Circle Diagram

WORKSHOP 5X5 COPENHAGEN


1 GENERAL INFORMATION
2 COMPARATIVE INFORMATION
Sudan Al Fasher Civil war
Denmark Copenhagen Social Conflict
Haiti Port-au-prince Earthquake
Pakistan Punjab Flood
MALDIVES Malé Climate Change

V WORKSHOP MAPUTO
mOZAMBIQUE Chirembue Flood

WORKSHOP SAO PAULO


VI bRAZIL Sao Paulo Social conflict

VII EPILOGUE
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND CREDITS
Foreword

FOREWORD
In cases of emergencies fast sheltering the ones in need is of outmost importance. Effective and immediate well managed action is central to on the other hand some departments may integrate the activity into the semester curriculum and make use of the workshop as an
success when a catastrophe hit a given location. The many disasters over recent years have proved that despite intentions to coordinate and introduction.
manage the operations the reality is often quite chaotic and full of conflicting interests hampering the relief efforts. Architects and planners
may play a much more prominent role in this respect than it often is the case. In the case of the full semester course the process is an important share of the course as catastrophes under different contexts and
often under extreme conditions demands certain qualifications and approaches. Hence the course offers a unique opportunity for
Providing shelter implies temporary settlements which gradually become more permanent and hence the need for social sustainable solutions students to adapt themselves to quite different professional circumstances.
based on environmentally sound planning adapted to local conditions is a prerequisite. Refugee camps will often be permanent towns prone
to develop slum characteristics. Architects have the expertise to make a difference in avoiding this in tandem with other professionals. The experiences from Brookes University in London have shown that students either choose a semester course or a full year Master
The universities and the research within the architectural profession have an implicit responsibility and a role to play in this regard. This is course. This suggests that there is an interest in the approach the course applies based on the process as determining problem
linked to tradition of training students in a holistic approach to problem identification and solutions. identification and eventual solution viewed as an architect. The experiences from Department 2 from the School of Architecture
in Copenhagen with field studies in towns and urban settings in the periphery of Europe for the entire department as the point of
This publication documents the result of a two week workshop in January 2011 at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of departure for a full one year programme for all students is worthwhile taking as an important point of reference.
Architecture and further workshops in Sao Paulo in Brazil and in Maputo in Mozambique. The workshops have been implemented as course
modules integrated in the curriculum at the participating institutions planned and implemented by the respective lecturers in a dialog with It is the intention to establish research within the field in order to continuously produce knowledge and qualify the involved lecturers.
international networks and resource persons. In the long run it is hoped to be able to offer an international Master in Shelter for Disaster in collaboration eventual with some of the
institutions involved already in so doing i.e. Copenhagen and Lund Universities and Brookes.
Network ahs been established with universities and institutions, lecturers and researchers in Italy, Chile, England, Turkey, Brazil and
Mozambique. In most of these partner institutions workshops have been implemented with participants from the involved institutions and I hereby warmly thank all participating students, teachers and departments from the many institutions engaged in this important
coordinated by the School of Architecture in Copenhagen. This mutual exchange of ideas and experience is considered paramount for the academics activity to date and a special thank to the researchers and lecturers providing articles to this publication. A specific thank
continued development of technical knowledge within this specific area of expertise. It is the intention to maintain this collaboration and to the editors who has put an enormous effort in making this publication a reality.
establish the workshops as annual events.

The long term goal is to turn the shelter for disaster theme into a full semester course. A future course activity will eventual span over the
entire profession from product design, shelter and architecture and finally town- and country planning. However the course shall emphasize Peder Duelund Mortensen
shelter, social and technical infrastructure. This model facilitates the possibilities for a two week long annual workshop as one option and Associate professor, Institute of Planning

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ARCHITECTURE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

INTRODUCTION
by Jorge Lobos *
universal issue for which we are all responsible. It transcends every region without contradicting the local identities (the latter make up
a part of human rights). Savater makes an interesting reflection on civilisation and culture3, as he shows how our identity is based on
The relation between Architecture and Human Rights has been absent in the field of architectural theory. We consider it necessary
a scale of values, covering a wide span – from the universal to the local – and how we act in cohesion with these values, using them as
that attention is paid to this connection, so that the emergence of new professional profiles can be stimulated, and so that
interchangeable, selecting those that are adequate for adapting our behaviour to the specific circumstances in which we find ourselves.
experience gained in the field of architecture can be brought to millions of human beings who have the right to enjoy and use
knowledge generated in the world in which we all live.
There is no contradiction in using universal, yet still clinging to local values – they are simply indisoluble, reciprocally complementing
elements. They are both part of the same entity – or as Salvater writes – they are exactly the same thing, civilisation is a global culture
It is clear that architecture can no longer be considered merely an artistic and aesthetic field. The conceptual emphasis on Human Rights is a
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. Human Rights is the protagonist element, and a cornerstone of the concepts of civilisation and universal culture.
fundamental aspect that needs to be brought into the field of architecture and that helps us understand contemporary problems that create
tension in our professional life
To deal with the challenge of solving problems related to social inequality, conceiving the situation just at the local or national levels
can be useful as a first step. However, once internal conflicts have been settled, we must focus on the global situation. It is not only a
Architecture, in this context, plays a crucial role, being a social science that contributes with professional knowledge and skills that can help
matter of solidarity or generosity – external imbalance will, sooner or later, always affect our fragile local balance.
redefine the priorities of the planet. Architecture is, hence, an important science in dealing with many contemporary challenges faced all
over the world: The right, established by the United Nations, of all human beings to live at a reasonable standard1 ; Millions of refugees
One phenomenon which can be mentioned as an example is the immigration and the solid welfarestate in the Scandinavian countries.
in humanitarian catastrophes; The need to use the territory rationally and democratically; Consciousness and active involvement in issues
On the one hand, the global inequal distribution of wealth is starting to become a threat to the populations that are enjoying a high
regarding environmental and social sustainability; Huge migration movements with their cultural conflicts and/or cultural encounters, and the
standard of living. On the other hand, this process of immigration may help solving problems related to the future socio-economic
2/3 of the world population that do not have any access to the solutions and products that architecture could bring2.
equilibrium in receiving countries, since immigrants – as they become taxpayers - contribute to the overall social welfaresystem.
However, immigration processes deserve the highest political priority since they do imply obvious risks and tensions. Furthermore, we
These are some of the urgent problems that will have to be faced immediately, but for which approaches and instruments presently available
can expect that the clash between immigration with its great diversity of cultures - colourful like the rainbow, and the welfarestate with
to architects do not suffice. Throughout the 20th Century, architects have concentrated on buildings as objects, form, design and architecture
its homogeneous culture will cause considerable repercussions in the architectural field.
as an artistic expression rather than on the important task of solving social challenges.

Facts:
As we enter into the field of Architecture and Human Rights, the theoretical discourse is immediately brought to the global level, since it is a
1 The planet is populated by 6.600.000.000 persons. Approximately 2/3 of the population (4.400.000.000 persons) do not have
any relation whatsoever with architecture5.
*
Jorge Lobos architect University of Chile. Associate Teacher University of Sassari, Italy. Guest Teacher Royal Danish Academy of Copenhagen,
Denmark. Founder of E Architecture & human rights How is it then, that architects claim that they cannot find a job?6

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2 More than 90% of the total number of architects in the world live in the richest countries, cities and neighbourhoods of the planet. This population that do not enjoy access to professional architecture, and that therefore is an important target group for us.
impedes a global distribution of the knowledge that has been generated within the field of architecture, but what is even worse is that the
knowledge can never be utilised by the thousands and millions of persons who live in the poorest areas. The democratisation of knowledge As we can see, some democratisation tendencies are discernable within the field of architecture. One example of a team of architects aiming
and free access to knowledge are universal rights of every human being. They are, furthermore, elements that will contribute considerably to at enhancing democracy through and within the production and creation of the project is Shigeru Ban7 in Japan, a studio which intervenes in
improving equality and solidarity . situations of humanitarian emergencies, yet another example is Camerón Sinclair8 with his organisation “Architects for Humanity”

The reason for why architecture has been transformed into a consumption good is that the knowledge accumulated in the field of architecture
has remained accessible only within the richest sectors of society. For the same reason, the sector has become sensible to economic fluxes,
which, in turn, has resulted in high unemployment among architects, planners and constructors. It is our duty to bring our profession into the
field of social sciences, and to consolidate architecture so that it can become a basic resource for as many as possible, rather than a consumer
good available exclusively for the richest people.

Issues related to the profession and the problem of unemployment of architects – which is a result of the architects’ long indulgent relation
to power – should, however, no longer be our main focus. We should rather concentrate on finding distribution networks for spreading RECONNECTING WITH SOCIOLOGY
knowledge accumulated within architecture, and on establishing and developing this network so that the whole planet can be connected in a It is necessary to abandon traditional academic reasoning and to work towards a more creative, open and possibilistic architectural process,
more democratic and equal society. including people as a cultural resource in the project. This is one of the challenges that we will have to face in order to shape new paradigms
In our time, around the world, several occurrences seem to indicate that the society will soon be facing thorough social changes. Some for the professional field of architecture. This does, however, not imply abandoning the thought of considering architecture as an art, from
examples are the political movements in the Arab world in which the population demands the right to participate, the social discontent which we always have many and great things to learn. We ought try to collocate architecture in an intermediate space betweeen art and
with political processes in solid democracies like Spain with the movement called 15M and England with the protests in Tottenham, or sociology.
demonstrations against nuclear energy in post-Fukushima Japan. The population calls for improved possibilities to influence decisions as well
as for more social benefits and new political structures capable of protecting citizens. It is a generally held belief, that the field of architecture underwent considerable progress during the 20th Century, but if we analyse the
progress closely it is easy to detect that development was mainly aesthetic, and related to the dialectic couple of concepts problem/
In some countries, the field of Architecture is starting to take some cautious steps towards prospects that would lead towards an enhanced solution or ethics/aesthetics. Architecture did create thousands of new possibilities and solutions in the 20th Century, but it is also clear
social equilibrium. Examples of such initiatives are: Architecture for humanitarian emergencies, Architecture for social equilibrium and social that this great advance in the field of solutions did not present answers to the most urgent questions and challenges in society. This
mobility and Architecture as a mitigator in conflicts. These fields are completely new, and they do focus mainly on the 2/3 of the world is, indeed, an interesting paradox. Architecture created answers although no clear question had been posed. Architecture is one of the

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professional fields that is most absent when it comes to dealing with social global challenges, and for issues that are on the political agenda understanding and dealing with social problems. Schools of Architecture all over the world are, as a matter of fact, still lagging behind in
all over the world. One example of this absence is the palpable dissent within UN-HABITAT9 and the contemporary architecture. It appears of integrating social sciences as part of he compulsory study plan for architects to be. Instead, students learn that Architects are artists, the
considerable importance that the community of architects return to sociology and Human Rights, so that architecture can become a useful most important skills and knowledge remain composition and aesthetics.
and indispensable professional field for society.
It appears that society has reached a point at which it is necessary to merge the two distinct aspects – hence to bring “traditional” features
Architecture has played an extremely important role in finding solutions as well as in elaborating variations of logical and formal components of architecture closer to scientific fields that have developed a thorough understanding of reality, such as sociology and anthropology. This
used in projects; algorithms, the theory of fractals, the theory of chaos, mathematical formulas and all the support available through the new would, in other words, imply addressing the problems or challenges with the same engagement and effort that has always been put into
technologies. To use these techniques and formulas to continuously improve architectonic solutions is an important capacity distinguishing the traditional approach to the architectural project as aesthetic.
the professional architect.
This changed approach would also require conceiving architecture as a professional field at the service of society, not merely an art. Artists’
However, although architects have good and useful capacities, serious shortcomings are found in the field of architecture – architects have general approach to society is that engagement in civic matters is voluntary. Hence, we need to change the image of artists that architects
not been capable of grasping and facing globlal social problems: The right, established by the United Nations, of all human beings to live have developed about themselves, and transform artists into public servants. This suggestion is radical, since it would modify the way
at a reasonable standard10 ; Millions of refugees in humanitarian catastrophes; The need to use the territory rationally and democratically; in which architects approach the project, and the modes for educating our future architects. It proposes a new conception of architecture
Consciousness and active involvement in issues regarding environmental and social sustainability; Huge migration movements with their as a system for solving problems experienced by citizens, and are related to social phenomena such as democracy, social justice, cultural
cultural conflicts and/or cultural encounters, and the 2/3 of the world population that do not have any access to the solutions and products development and conception rather than to physical representations of society.
that architecture could bring . Architects have not been capable neither of creating, nor of using systems that could be adequate for
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understanding and describing possible causes behind social imbalance. In the field of enviromental issues a certain consciousness is starting Clifford Geertz12 and Max Weber suggest that culture, of which architecture makes up a part, can be conceived of as the production of
to develop among various countries in the world regarding the fact that environmental problems or concerns are not national but global – various expressions and meanings of daily life. Hence, if we wish to get to know a certain cultural group, we are – actually – trying to
hence there are no national frontiers to environmental issues. In the future we could possibly arrrive at a similar consciousness as we think of understand what the meaning of life is for that group, compared to the significances that humanity in general would give life. We will, thus,
social movements or issues. We are certainly not there yet - we mostly engage in solving social problems of regional or national character. But have to face the challenge of trying to discover this “meaning of life” in practical everyday life for its actors. This is a substantial problem
the Northafrican context, and the strive for democracy is a good example of how not only environmental but also social challenges are global in the field of architecture, and very difficult to solve when a project is planned and implemented. Social sciences can, however, be of great
and how challenges in one region or country spread far beyond formal borders. help and will certainly help us take a step forward.

The field of architecture seems, hence, incomplete: on the one hand it did contribute to important development during the last two decades, as Each group of human beings attributes certain meanings to their everyday life and their view of the world. Significances are connotations
a field derived from mathematical processes and manifested in arts and aesthetics. On the other hand, it has been incapable of elaborating, given exclusively by the members of a group, sometimes seemingly similar to the meanings given to the same phenomena also by other

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groups, but never completely identical. The culture of each group becomes, hence, its digital footprints. As a matter of fact, two groups of cultivators of aesthetic values, and – instead welcome and encourage the arrival of architects who act as social reformers and constructors
human beings with the same culture do not exist, although - at the same time - all of us are part of the same universal culture. The drafting of of democracy. The definition given by Esther Charlesworth to describe the new generation of architects is “architects as constructors of
the Human Rights is perhaps the most relevant attempt to establish a common denominator globally. peace and political actors”.

To break the relation between aesthetics and architecture which has been constant during the entire 20th Century must become one of THE ARCHITECT AS A CONSTRUCTOR OF DEMOCRACY
the principal missions of the 21st Century, especially for the Universities wanting to reach and stay in the forefront of scientific thought Democracy and its various forms in the contemporary world must influence architecture. In the 20th Century, architecture became the
and research. One example: Eduardo Feuerhake, Architect from the University of Chile, moved to Mozambique, where there is a great need expressions of the two major political forces, socialism and capitalism. Today, in the 21st Century is should give expression to what
for architects. Among his projects is: “Learning How Living with Flood” . Feuerhake’s projects are positive examples of the important
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philosophers generally call “the second globalisation”16. In politics, the same phenomenon is often referred to as movements for a new
contribution that can be brought by architecture, as well as of the large scope of possibilities that exists for architecture to be used for world. The latter are, actually, a number of heterogeneous groups, but they do have in common the respect for differences, and they
improving the lives of millions of people. An additional example is Fernando Ferreiro, another architect from the University of Chile working generally support the coexistence of many distinct groups and cultures in society. These tendencies are fairly new, and started to occur at
with UN HABITAT. He says: I’m not a humanitarian architect. I’m just an architect whose clients have less Money. 14
the end of the 20th Century, which, until then, had been characterised mainly by the polarised political landscape of capitalism-socialism.
Participation can be used as a means for rendering projects more democratic. Democracy can indicate ways to arrrive at auto-determination,
which is an important aspect in the contemporary world, hence also in the field of architecture. For instance, people who inhabit a city, have
opinions about the city and what it is like to live there. It is crucial that architects pay close attention to these opinions. Chris Younés17 calls
for a renovation of projectual methods that could be used for improving the process of community building, enhancing the way human
beings live in contact with and proximity to others, fostering respect for differences among individuals as well as respect for nature.

THE ARCHITECT AS A CREATOR OF COLLECTIVITY AND HETEROGENITY


Creative systems, springing from art, can be described as open processes. As stated by Joseph Beuys18 in his art performances “...every
NEW PROFESSIONAL ROLES man is an artist”. Production within the field of architecture should learn from auto-determination as described by Beuys, achieved and
Several ways forward exist for the field of architecture, but to achieve progress, architecture must be enriched with new professional roles expressed in the fields of politics and arts. Arts can, hence, be conceived as a system of human evolution. Also John Cage19 views the artistic
and certain capacities of architects must be enhanced. Measures must be taken urgently, since 2/3 of the population, or 4400 millions of expression as a form of auto-determination as he refers to improvised and random music. This is exactly what Marcel Duchamp20 does as he
people do not have any access whatsoever to formal products of architecture: construction material, industrialisation, projects, urban plans, uses plastic materials, or as he adds a detail or an unexpected and open, non concluded movement that produces imperfection and finally
professional consultants, etc. integrates it in the final creation. If we manage to consider the imperfection as a part of the creative process we will become more flexible
In the search for, and construction of these new roles, we need to look away from the traditional architects as mere social depositaries and to accept the presence of human beings in the production of the architectural project.

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An open process implies that the creator, the architect, is not in full control of the entire process. This situation provokes great fear in the (Chile), Ecosistema urbano in Madrid or Shigeru Ban in Japan. All of these architects received their education in traditional schools of
mind of the architect, who generally convinces him/herself of possessing particular capacities that would make him/her more suitable than architecture, but their works, especially those of Rojas, Feuerhake and Ban, represent the social ideals of the 1960’s and 70’s– the era in
other individuals to interpret and understand reality. The architect believes that his/her understanding of reality cannot be shared with which architecture was particularly involved in social issues.
“common people”. Schools of Architecture foster and teach architects to conceive of themselves in this manner. Most of the time, this
attitude contributes to architects’ maintenance of social status, although it clearly does not solve problems related to social aspects. The We can conclude that education in the field of architecture must change. This is especially important in developing countries. Traditional
architect’s fear of losing control is also related to the self-imposed objective to create a piece of art. Obviously the attention paid to perfection and academic education that mainly teaches students how to design buildings related to arts and aesthetics, is not so useful in developing
in the design of the objects is excessive and impossible to achieve in reality, the perfection of the object in architecture is a utopia. When an countries, After all, it is very common that an architect does not get the chance to design one single building in his/her entire life.
open system approach is applied in an architectural project, the objective of arriving at a high level of perfection loses importance, and it is, The perspective in the field of teaching architecture must, hence, be widened and open up for additional dynamics that are crucial for
instead, the social process that must be given priority. In such a situation, there is an obvious risk that architects prefer a solution that seems understanding architecture. This way, architects would be allowed to act as artists, as well as cultural activists, constructors of democracy,
safe, and that they go back to their own personal endemic and hermetic routine of creation. creators of community or constructors of peace.
In Architecture for Human Emergencies, for instance, it is possible to consider imperfection as a part of the creative system, since people are
a part of random processes. As a matter of fact, often we do not know how a project is going to end, we can only lean on a set of rules as
tools for a general orientation. 1
UN, General Assembly (1948) Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December, 1948.
2
SALAS, Julián (2000) Director Postítulo de Asentamientos Humanos, ETSAM Madrid, Spain
3
SAVATER, Fernando (1999) “Universalism and identities/civilisation versus culture” Conference ETSAM 22 February, Synthesis for Architect Jorge Lobos, May, 2000, Madrid,
Spain
4
SAVATER, Fernando (1995): Diccionario filosófico. Planeta. Barcelona, Spain
5
SALAS, Julián (2000) Director Postítulo de Asentamientos Humanos, ETSAM Madrid, Spain
6
LOBOS, Jorge (2001) Universidad de Chile, profesor visitante ETSAM Madrid, Spain
7
BAN, Shigeru http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com/ Japan
8
SINCLAIR, Cameron http://architectureforhumanity.org/ UK
9
UN HABITAT, State of the world’s cities 2010/2011 ed. Earthscan London & Washington UK & USA
10
UN, General Assembly (1948) Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December, 1948
11
SALAS, Julián (2000) Director Postítulo de Asentamientos Humanos, ETSAM Madrid, Spain
12
GEERTZ, Clifford (1987) La interpretación de las culturas, Editorial Gedisa, 387pp, Mexico
13
FEUERHAKE, Eduardo, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nAJpn1G9wE4
14
FERREIRO, Fernando (2010) Workshop 5x5 Copenhagen, architect U.N. Mozambique
THE ARCHITECT AS A CULTURAL ACTIVIST
15
CHARLESWORTH, Esther (2006) Architects Without Frontiers, Edition Architectural Press, London, UK
16
BOFF, Leonardo. “Estamos en la edad de piedra de la globalización” entrevista Diario El País, Madrid, 6 de julio del 2001. Juan Bedoya - El País <http://www.elpais.es>.
The concept “cultural activism” does not necessarily refer to action in the field of party-politics. Rather, it emphasises the importance of http://www.morfonet.cl/secciones/mundo/007.htm
17
YOUNÉS, Chris (2001) Convocatoria Europan VI, Editorial Europan, Comunidad Europea, France
getting involved and participate in social processes, and to insert them as a natural part of architectural practise. 18
BODENMANN, Ritter Clara (1972), Josephs Beuys. Cada hombre, un artista. Editorial Antonio Machado, Conversaciones en Documenta 5, Kassel, Germany
Clear examples of architects taking on new roles are: Eduardo Feuerhake and Fernando Ferreiro in Mozambique, Edward Rojas in Chiloé
19
KOSTELANETZ, Richard (1988), Conversing with Cage, Limelight editions, New York, USA
20
CABANNE, Pierre (1972) Conversaciones con Marcel Duchamp, Editorial Anagrama, Barcelona, Spain

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THE WORKSHOP FORMAT: A WAY OF SPREADING IDEAS
by Jorge Lobos As a matter of fact, many social problems are impossible to discern in urban dynamics and remain, thus, invisible to mass media. They
attract attention only in the occasion of a tragedy. The Favellas in Brazil, one of the cases in this book, is considered worthy of attention
The experience “Workshop 5x5”, was organised for the first time in January 2010 in Copenhagen, and has – since then - travelled to other because of the criminal activity or drug trafficking, rather than for its general critical urban situation. The immigrant ghettoes in Paris is
countries and continents. It was carried out in Aguas Calientes, México in October 2010, then, once again, in Denmark in January 2011. We another example of a precarious situation that attracted political attention only after the breakout of civil riots.
also used the format for participating at the workshop in Sao Paulo, Brazil in April 2011 and organised the workshop of Maputo, Mozambique The case of the neighbourhood Maxaquene in Maputo, an area of spontaneous growth, attached to the formal city is a clear example of the
in May 2011. These experiences made us discover students’ particular interest in the topic. It also made us reflect upon the importance of defenseless situation in which millions of urban inhabitants in many parts of the world find themselves. This neighbourhood is facing the
calling for inserting the subject “Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies” as a permanent course in the educational offer at the university challenge of surrendering to private exploitation of land, expelling the inhabitants. Another solution would be to leave the existing urban
level. This book will be used to show the experiences from Copenhagen, Sao Paulo and Maputo in 2011. structure to the population that has been living here for generations, and that does not own the urban land.

This second book includes articles that are related to the fields of “Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies” or “Architecture for Human Also the theme of Human Rights allows us to reflect upon extremely urgent social problems in many countries: Turkey is a fast growing
Rights” A theoretical discussion takes into consideration various nuances and contrasts that each of the two definitions may suggest. country, and would need an additional 350.000 homes/year for an entire decade, in order to fill the deficit. In Chile, still suffering the
effects of the last earthquake, reaching 8.8° Richter, there is a deficit of 500.000 homes. Approximately 15% of the population is living on
Approaching the theme “Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies” (earthquakes, floods, etc.) brings the advantage of facing the challenge the very edge of subsistence level. These aspects have not yet been subject to action taken by Architecture for Human Emergencies – yet
of human catastrophes that affect more than 200 million people every year. This making it the centre of attention for international mass they clearly make up the most vulnerable areas of society, as they face the threat of being struck by natural or social disasters or suffering
media. In these cases, architecture is absent in sites of power as well as in moments of important decisions. Architecture is not considered a the effects following from climate changes.
resource capable of improving the lives of people who find themselves in a state of emergency. There is no doubt, however that, if applied, The Maldives has become the icon of the disasters following climate change. This is a country that, literally, will have to move to another
the field of architecture would add vital knowledge to physical and social environment and contribute considerably to the solution of these place in the near future, so as to deal with serious problems related to contamination produced by, more industrially developed countries.
problems. The contribution of architecture in this context is that it does account for the initial condition of the affected community, as it was These environmental problems threaten to completely wipe out the Maldive Islands. These tendencies symbolise the crisis of our planet,
prior to the humanitarian emergency-situation. However, using this theoretical approach to architecture often implies a disadvantage, in that the slow tragedy witnessed by humanity. The authors are not sure whether it fits into the theoretically strict definition of the field of Human
measures of prevention or mitigation – tools that would be necessary or urgent for preventing future tragedies in the human habitat - are not Emergencies caused by natural disasters, but find these threats relevant to approach, since they call for a conceptualisation of the theme.
taken in consideration.
Regardless of the theoretical path chosen, there are three areas that must be touched upon, so as to develop architecture: Research,
The concept “Architecture and Human Rights”, opens, on the one hand, up for wider and enhanced reflection. On the other hand it may, Education and Professional practise. Each of these three areas is discussed more thoroughly, in three articles in our book. These individual
however, make the field of research and action more complex and vague. This gives us the opportunity to amplify the range of action of experiences, together with the workshops organised during 2011, help us develop new perspectives within the fields, constantly growing
intervention, so as to deal with other social problems less urgent, yet no less significant or worthy of attention. and gaining increasing relevance: Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies or Architecture and Human Rights.

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The Humanitarian sector and the role of architects and
urban planners

RESEARCH
By Jørgen Eskemose Andersen * Shelter during recovery and reconstruction is receiving increased attention after decades of humanitarian relief efforts, however little
systematic research is available and most agents rely on ad hoc knowledge. UN Habitat has started to collect Best Practice samples and
The knowledge gap most research is based on such case study evidence. Over the years there has been substantial criticism of organisational weaknesses
Within recovery operations many agencies have adopted transitional shelter as the best option of re-housing people better that the classical in the humanitarian sector with poor coordination with resulting tragic loss of life and livelihoods. The Tsunami in 2004 was a wake up
emergency solution intents. This is crucial when balancing short term needs and longer term considerations as any catastrophe will run call for the disaster profession and the recent catastrophes in Haiti and Pakistan are tragic examples of the need for more knowledge
through the same circle beginning with the Emergency period immediately after a given catastrophe and then pass to the recover phase over based approaches to disasters. Recent evaluation of the international and local responses to these catastrophes in terms of shelter
some month and eventually turn into the Reconstruction phase. Finally the Rehabilitation phase which can takes up to decades and appears at and settlement have again pointing to a number of critical issues that have failed to deliver shelter at scale in safe locations.
times to be never ending. Before any disaster governments needs to be prepared with established warning systems and mitigation measures.
Preparedness and prevention are issues many governments have taken on board after recent years with continuously returning catastrophes. Hence more research focusing on shelter and participatory planning and the role of the architect and urban planner in disaster
management is highly desired. The aim of this project is threefold:
It is the aim of this paper to stress the potential role of architects in theses processes. The architectural profession needs to increasingly
1) Introduce the issue as a regular course at the School of Architecture in Copenhagen
engage with humanitarian issues and this is a call for the educational institutions to adapt Humanitarian Architecture as part of the curriculum.
2) Outline the effects of innovative use of materials and technical solutions in an appropriate architecture based on local
knowledge rethinking settlement and neighbourhood planning
Theories that underpin the interplay between architecture, settlement planning and disaster risk reduction are yet to be systematically
3) Introduce a Building back Better philosophy aimed at delivering people–centred housing and reconstruction at scale
studied, theorized and applied. At practical level, this disparity is very clearly depicted in a manner by which urban growth takes place. Urban
areas especially in the developing world are increasingly becoming hotspots of disaster risks and vulnerable to a range of hazards and disaster
The aim of the research attached to the School of Architecture is to establish a knowledge base for future architects based on methods
risks. Such risks include flooding, epidemics and diseases, accidents, fire incidences, deterioration of the social and physical infrastructure.
to ensure sustainability in shelter strategies taking into account the fact that many camps established as an immediate response to a
certain catastrophe often becomes permanent cities over time. The ultimate aim is raising awareness of this pertinent issue equipping
Increased natural hazards due to climate change are increasingly putting people in poor countries at risk of loosing their lives and livelihoods.
future architects and planners to play a comprehensive and qualified role in the whole disaster management cycle and coordinate
Shelter and settlement planning is central to human life and wellbeing and focus for reducing vulnerabilities to disasters and in getting back
complex issues related to shelter and settlement planning.
to normality after a given catastrophe. Initiatives for an integrated approach to recovery, reconstruction and disaster risk reduction, is leading
towards more systematic research and education of disaster management practices.
As a part of this process, the academic capacity at the School of Architecture to teach and conduct research in the field, are sought
strengthened through the experiences gained through a annual course and further through research carried as a collaborative effort with
*
Jørgen Eskemose Andersen, is an architect working for many years in Sub-Saharan Africa, with expertise in: Low Cost Housing, Urban the Partner Institutions with whom the School of Architecture to date has engaged with e.g. UEM/CEDH University in Mozambique,
Environmental Planning, Upgrading of Informal Settlements, Land Use Planning and Land Tenure Systems and Participatory Urban Planning.
He is Head of Department of Human Settlement within the School of Architecture, Copenhagen. Oxford Brookes University (Cendep) and Copenhagen University.

20 21
The hypothesis of this research project is that architects can develop methods for participatory planning in reconstruction and resettlement and are thoroughly thought through bearing in mind the longer perspective. Planning camps implies planning for infrastructure and layouts
together with the local population develop simple and innovative solutions for emergency housing and appropriate long term reconstruction, as future neighbours based on sustainable concepts i.e. technical and social and hence architects needs to have qualifications ranging
taking into account local factors including availability of materials, topography and local organisation. from building technology, urban planning at city and neighbour level and settlement planning at the detailed local level. Without these
insights camps runs the risk of turning into future slums.
The availability of land is key element to a successful shelter strategy, which requires special attention, often complicating the resettlement
process for displaced people in need of appropriate locations to restart their lives. Too often emergency camps are located on inappropriate The many spontaneous camps often erected overnight when a catastrophe hits cannot continue. The land is often needed for other
sites and in locations that cannot offer long term solutions to their shelter needs. From experience it is widely accepted that camps in many purposes and the conditions are inadequate. It is therefore essential for exit strategies to be developed that enable residents to find
cases are long term and in cases these are turned into cities as is the case in a number of refugee camps in Lebanon where hundreds of other more permanent and appropriate solutions. This is difficult and will require creativity from all parties concerned, particularly
thousands Palestinians are living now with a second generation growing up. It is hence important that camps identification and camp planning given the general shortage of housing stock that any emergency situation will confront. The relief agencies have an obligation to
ensure that people who transit out of camps avoiding them being pushed back into situations where they continue living in unsafe
conditions.
      
The shelter sector is a central part of the humanitarian relief effort, and there seems to be lack of knowledge of how to proceed from
one phase into another in the relief and recovery work. A long term shelter strategy with integrated risk reduction efforts can save lives
and livelihoods in vulnerable natural environments. Disaster thinking and preparedness integrated in the municipal planning apparatus
is a prerequisite for any successful reconstruction and resettlement effort.

In general the research project seeks to address the following issues: a) developing simple low cost technical solutions b) designing
with the climate based on natural ventilation c) drawing on traditional design and relate this to the architecture prevailing in the region
and d) involving local communities in the design and implementation process to ensure social sustainability.

Bibliography
Wamsler C (2007) “Managing Urban Disaster Risk”, HDM, Lund University Norwegian Refugee Council (2004) “Camp Management Toolkit”
Lyons M & Schilderman T (2010) “Building Back Better”, Practical action Publishing Ltd Farmers P (2011) “Haiti after the earthquake”, Public Affairs
Sanderson D et al (2011) “Urban disasters- lessons from Haiti”, Disasters Emergency Committee Priya T (2003) “Urban Disaster Management Practises of India”,
Satterthwaite D et al (2009) “Adapting Cities to Climate Change”, Earthscan Trondheim University
A high density informal settlement, in locations with poor drainage, puts the inhabitants at risk when extreme weather with heavy rain hits. Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya Sinclair C et al “Design Like you Give a Damn”, Thames & Hudson UN Habitat (2010) “The State of African Cities” UN Habitat

22 23
HOW TO IMPROVE EDUCATION OF ARCHITECTS FOR WORKING IN
THE HUMANITARIAN FIELD

EDUCATION
By Maria Gomez-Guillamon 1

The first experience learned in the workshop 5x5 at the School of Architecture in Copenhagen January 2010 was the importance of teachers
defining the problems and challenge and architectural constraints embedded in the project. From an academic point of view the institutions
involved with such activities need to built up systematic research within the humanitarian sector and thereafter plough this into the workshops
and other teaching sessions with students.

After the second workshop experience in January 2011, some reflections in a more general way about the impact and benefits of such
workshops, not necessarily evaluated by their form, but from evaluating the content and academic quality of the activity.

One of the problems that we face in schools of architecture is the difficulty that arises when teaching architectural project discussing projects
beyond the formal aspects. Most students´ projects, even in cases with a committed intention of a different approach it usually ends up
mainly as a formal exercise with limited if any relevance to the real life situations and often with no social built in considerations.

The importance and clarity that the issue of emergency demands and provides, there is no room to smart forms without a clear justification
Students working
Projects must necessarily be functional, social oriented targeting specific burning issues and hence projects are developed in a committed
manner highlighting the identified need due to a clear and rough needs assessment. The formal architectural solutions are often trivial and Sustainability is more than the technical connotation, which is a discussed issue in architecture schools at the moment, though not as
would in most cases be discarded in this process. In this sense, students are urged to realize that architectural project is more than just a much as one may wish, but in a broader sense incorporating social and economic issues.
formal response to a given programme. It is important that students in this process facilitated by the tutors understands that the quality of
the project increases the more specific conditions and restrictions exist. Emergencies are complex issues and the response from architecture We believe that one of the challenges in teaching architecture and in the 21st century architecture is considering sustainability not just
need to learn to adapt to this peculiarity. as a “subject”, or an option, but as an integrated methodology, one of the a priori conditions for developing/study of the architectural
project.
As discussion starts to go beyond the architectural project per se and engage with an everyday praxis then the issue of sustainability in its
broadest sense becomes relevant and easier to relate to and give an appropriate architectural form. In this sense working within architecture for emergency forces the tutors and students introducing concepts of sustainability as
something obvious demanding responses to emergency situations it is the most rational and sustainable way, architecture must
1
Maria Gomez-Guillamon, architect maa, is a Spanish architect established in Denmark in year 1992. She started teaching at the Royal
Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture in the year 2000 and is the owner of MGG/architects, working in worldwide projects.

24 25
engage using as limited as possible resources in the endeavor providing sustainable solutions as technical interventions meeting basic needs skill knowledge, where most of the students were already carpenters, cabinetmakers, masons to a school where the theoretical,
and social solutions with a human and inclusive face. academic knowledge has taken over, and the same goes with the background of the students.

The workshop sessions establishes windows of opportunity to develop new forms of teaching architecture by creating new strategies and This change together with a change in the way architecture is discussed and perceived today, focusing on the artistic aspect in
methodologies facilitating students with clear concepts of sustainability as a an embedded strategy for the project. The issue of appropriate architecture, the architects considers themselves more as artist leaving behind the importance of architecture in society and as a social
technologies and the requirements of being able to deliver fast and effective architectural solutions in case of emergencies is a huge challenge movement which was one of the strongest tradition within Danish architecture, pioneered since the 1950 and throughout the 1970ies
that must be in the forefront when introducing these kinds of students’ activities. for its social awareness and engagement. In Denmark and in the developing world.

Besides working thoroughly with sustainability from strategy to the outset, projects must relate to and discuss other aspects in architectural It is high time to bring back this commitment into academia and make sure that future graduates are socially sound equipped and
projects at times neglected at the architecture schools namely: ready to meet the challenge of an changing world with social unrest and natural disasters as the order of the day.

1. Appropriate and Adaptable architecture using local available materials, manpower and general skills within communities all in When the theme of architecture for emergency is introduced as a specific discipline with the architecture school in Copenhagen we are
harmony with the environment and people opening up a discussion of the importance of ethics in architecture prevailing over aesthetics.
2. The general context, the social structure and the political environment
It is the aim of the initiators and facilitators of the introduction in to the curriculum at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School
The challenge of contemporary architecture is not about reinventing the wheel everyday and design more spectacular pieces of architecture of Architecture to enable and qualify the eternal discussion about ethics and aesthetics in architecture and eventual create a revised
making landmarks and monuments. In contexts of catastrophes and emergencies such solutions loose meaning and value as these are just understanding of the role architects as member of society with a certain responsibility in terms of sustainable technical and social
more architectural icons built in recent years and not responding to an increasingly complex reality due to globalization, migration and climate solutions the immense challenges we are facing today in the social and built environment.
change. Architecture needs to regain its more human and holistic nature once a significant feature in the Nordic countries long before
the terminology of sustainability was a buzz word but nevertheless many of these projects in the social housing sector are indeed quite Which leads us to another of the problems we have in teaching architectural project, probably a CONSEQUENCE of the above is.
sustainable time has proved.

Over the last 10-15 years we have experienced enormous change in the appreciation of architecture and the role they play in society and in
supporting specific market trends and social interventions not least in the cultural sector, but also in education we see the change clear. Within
the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, the change has been remarkable: From being a school where knowledge was based on the craftsman

26 27
The Role of Architects in the International Response to
Disasters

RESPONSE
By Gert Lüdeking1 Emergency shelter solutions are best when they:
• offer personal safety and protection
Introduction • are cost-effective (compared with tents)
The number and gravity of disasters are increasing as countries and international organizations struggle to manage complex disaster response • easy to transport by air and road
operations, reduce risk and vulnerabilities as well as adapting to climate change. The number of internally displaced persons2 (IDPs) that are • possibly re-use into more permanent housing
displaced by natural disasters and complex emergencies3 has never been higher than today resulting in an increased demand for emergency • prevent overcrowding and depletion of resources
shelter. • maximize the sustainable use of natural resources
Although national disaster authorities, the UN and international and national NGOs today are working intensely to meet the needs for shelter • take into account religious and cultural practices
and settlements solutions during and after disasters, shelter and settlements provision remains a challenge for these organizations in terms • utilize locally available materials
of numbers and complexity. • maximize durability and sustainability
Only a few academic institutions so far have reacted to the emerging needs for competent candidates who combine building and planning • consider safety towards fire, flooding, etc.
knowledge and skills with humanitarian response tools and practices. • take into account climate change issues while
considering the selection of sites and materials
The changing shelter and settlements assistance needs
While tented camps for decades has been the default standard emergency shelter solution, the need for additional shelter and settlements Humanitarian shelter agencies, such as UNHCR5 and IFRC6 , are today facing a formidable challenge when transiting from emergency
interventions and solutions is today emerging rapidly. IDPs now often disregard camp solutions and prefer shelter “solutions” in urban areas shelter to recovery: reintegrating IDPs and refugees into existing or new urban settlements while at the same time preventing new

PROFESSIONAL
where they might choose to live with “host families”4 or in informal settlements, as urban areas are perceived to afford better protection and urban slum formations. This includes the challenge of moving from “humanitarian relief standards” to common building and planning
provide broader income generation opportunities. standards. As such, the need for shelter and settlements assistance is changing both during displacement and after, when people
return from displacement.
The new challenges include both institutional and technical tasks. In the events where governments have requested the assistance from
international humanitarian agencies to assist addressing shelter in disasters, the response is organized in a number of “humanitarian
clusters” under the overall coordination of the UN Humanitarian Coordinator in the country. The humanitarian shelter assistance falls
1
Gert Lüdeking, Architect maa is a former Director a.i. of the UN-Habitat Humanitarian Affairs Office, Geneva. Today he is an under the “shelter cluster”. Organizations planning and implementing shelter response projects coordinated under the shelter cluster
External Lecturer at the University of Copenhagen.
2
An IDP is a person who is displaced within the country as opposed to a refugee who must have crossed a border to another country
to assume refugee status.
3
Civil wars, internal conflicts, etc. 5
United Nations High-Commissioner for Refugees
4
Islamabad 2009 is a good example of IDPs preference for host families rather than camps 6
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent

28 29
require shelter competent persons who are familiar with the humanitarian response system and can combine technical knowledge and skills The way forward for Danish educational institutions
with humanitarian procedures while preparing short- and longer term shelter and settlements solutions. The need for shelter and settlements expertise from emergency shelter to recovery and reconstruction is undergoing a rapid
transformation. This is not to say that conventional shelter and settlements expertise is no longer in demand in humanitarian operations.
In terms of changing technical responsibilities, some of the emerging new tasks include: However, with the changing patterns of displacements going beyond the sheer provision of tented camps towards assisting IDPs in
• Assisting “host families and communities” where IDPs live urban areas living with “host families and communities” or just in urban slums, the tasks and challenges change simultaneously. While
• Providing shelter reconstruction assistance in terms of materials, tools, cash or technical assistance the tasks and roles become increasingly complex, the need for expertise with matching skills changes accordingly.
• Rehabilitation of shelter and settlements in urban and rural return areas Many operational staff working for international and national organizations in disaster areas unfortunately do not possess the skills
• Programming shelter resettlements and relocation projects in rural and urban areas of linking emergency shelter technology with long term and sustainable shelter and settlements solutions. International educational
• Repair of community infrastructure, public buildings, schools and clinics institutions today have a challenge in providing academic training which combines shelter technical subjects with humanitarian skills
• Upgrading slums with high presence of IDPs and tools that prepares candidates for shelter assistance as part of international humanitarian work.
• Skills training, management of local environment, local project management and community mobilization
• Assist IDPs and refugees who faces land disputes upon return and those without land A few Universities globally have embraced the emerging challenge of delivering courses or academic degrees in shelter after disasters.
• Defining strategies for risk and vulnerability reduction In Denmark, Copenhagen University in cooperation with Lund University offers a 1-year Masters in Disaster Management at the
School of Global Health. This Masters will introduce a 2-month shelter course in the semester starting autumn 2011, which will
The changing needs for shelter and settlements expertise emphasize the need for combined knowledge and skills.
Along with the changing shelter and settlements needs the demand for specialized shelter expertise must follow suit. The School of Architecture, Department of Human Settlements, provides short term courses in disaster architecture and planning.
In addition to training own staff and associates to meet the changing requirements, UN agencies and international NGOs are drawing The two Danish NGOs, “Architects without Borders” and “Engineers without Borders” include post-graduate training preparing
extensively on external shelter and settlements expertise to boost their response capacity during and after disasters. Currently, only few technically competent members for deployment to disaster areas.
NGOs are able to supply shelter specialists with a profile matching today’s challenges, especially during the relief and emergency phases . 7
All of the courses are attractive from different points of view. However, there remains a significant need for a Masters Degree which
While most shelter experts are capable of working with reconstruction and development, only a few have the experience of coordinating and combines building technology, architectural elements and humanitarian response organization that can provide the international
preparing shelter operations during the initial relief and emergency situations and securing a sustainable transition towards recovery through humanitarian organizations with the shelter and settlements candidates they need. A collaborative approach between Universities
strategic planning with agencies and donors. Therefore, access to specialized short- and longer term emergency shelter and settlements and Schools of Architecture may be the way forward.
experts remains a challenge for the agencies today.

7
Broadly the phases are: emergency shelter, transitional shelter, shelter in returns, reintegration and early recovery.

30 31
PROJECT MATRIX CIRCLE OF TRAGEDY

EMERGENCIES
DISASTER
Climate & Geography
0

Matrix created by Jorge Lopos and designed by Rune Adholt


Dry arid
KIND OF EMERGENCIES
Dry semiarid EMERGENCY
2.1
A - NATURAL DISASTERS Search and rescue
Emergency relief
Drought Delivery food and shelter
Tropical wet 1.4 2.3 ys
PREPAREDNESS da First hours to 10 days
Floods 10
plans UE

K
1.1 IQ

AR
MB
Eathquake Tropical wet and dry 2.4
emergency exercises and training
ZA

NM
2.6* warning systems
evacuation routes MO

DE
Tsunami

IL
Moderate Mediterranean 1.2

AZ
Volcano Eruption PREVENTION RECOVER

BR
MALDIVES
Architecture model for shelters Assessment phase

HAITI
1.5
Moderate Humid subtropical to incorporate Disaster Risk Reduction Temporary housing
Hurricane 2.5 concepts adaptation Mall grants
Medical care
B - CLIMATE CHANGE
Moderate Marine west coast 1.3 MITIGATION Refugee camps
Climate Change Building codes and zoning 10 days - 3 months
Vulnerability analyses
C - COMPLEX OR MANMADE Continental Humid 2.2 Public educations

SU
EMERGENCIES Manuals on reconstruction and Building 3m

DA
Back Better solutions on
Social conflict AN ths

N
Continental Subarctic Posters IST
K
etc. PA
Political conflict RECONSTRUCTION
Long term solutions
Civil war Polar Re-building housingsand economy systems
Loans, resettlements
3 months to 24 months (variable)
D - PANDEMIC
North African
Culture

Sub Sahara

Middle East

Asiatic Buddhist

Asiatic Islamic

Asiatic Hindu

European Mediterranean catholic

North European protestant

East European

South American catholic

Central American catholic

North American

24 months
Pendemia

The numbers of the tragedies:


First number refers to the books.
Second number refers to the projects .
REHABILITATION

32 33
TRAGEDY EUROPEAN

WORKSHOP 5X5
CLIMATE
TROPICAL SEMIARID

COASIAL PLAIN RIVER


COLD CLIMATE

SUBTROPICAL

INDIC OCEAN

MODERATED TROPICAL
CORAL ISLANDS/ REEFS
PROTESTANT CHRISTIANITY
SOCIAL CONFLICT

ISLAMIC SUNNI

FLOOD

NATURAL RELIGIONS
CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY

EARTH QUAKE
DIFFERENT RELIGIONS
AFRICAN CULTURE

CIVIL WAR

ISLAMIC SUNNI
ETHNIC MIX( MUSLIM/HINDU ETC)
CLIMATE CHANGE

CULTURE

COPENHAGEN
COUNTRY
56.147 USD GDP

1.705 USD GDP

1.050 USD GDP

4.951 USD GDP


GENERAL INFORMATION

MALDIVES
DENMARK
673 USD GDP

PAKISTAN
SUDAN
THE ROYAL DANISH ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS
HAITI

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE
JANUARY 2011
DENMARK
KØBENHAVN
COMPARATIVE
INFORMATION
PAKISTAN
PUNJAB
HAITI
PORT-AU- PRINCE MALDIVES
MALÉ

SUDAN
AL FASHER

TRAGEDY CIVIL WAR SOCIAL CONFLICT EARTHQUAKE FLOODS CLIMATE CHANGES


YEAR 2003-2011 2010- 2011 2010 2010 2011-2061
AFFECTED
PEOPLE 178.500 1.500 3.000.000 20.000.000 350.000

36 37
L FASHER/ CIVIL WA

UDA
PROBLEM 1X5
SUDAN - AL FASHER - CIVIL WAR
2.000.000 persons live permanently in refugee camps

PROBLEM Still, in 2011 there are refugee camps in Darfur, and the inhabitants continue to depend on international help. The most frequent problems are
The first and the second civil wars (1955-1972 respectively1983-2005) broke out as results of religious tensions between the northern part related to the use of wood as combustible, which - in turn - has resulted in deforestation, soil-erosion, shortage of water and a massive demand for
of the county, mainly supporting Islamism, and the southern part, dominated by Christianity. In 2005, the country was divided into two nations, construction materials. Due to deforestation, the traditional houses constructed in the form of circles, using branches and representing the property
Sudan and South Sudan. of a family or a clan is disappearing.
In 2003 a new conflict was on the rise in the eastern part of Sudan, Darfur. This time it was an interracial conflict regarding the limited natural
resources. Among others, there was a conflict regarding water in an area suffering from increasing drought and deforestation. OFFICIAL SOLUTION
400.000 persons died in the Darfur war. 2 million have been displaced to refugee camps and 4 million need humanitarian aid, yet only 1 million At present there is no official solution to the problem. The Government must now focus on facing the principal challenge of consolidating the
persons receive it. 178.000 live in Al Fasher city. recently founded country of South Sudan.

40 41
SOLUTION 1X5
1w

1w
1m

redefine social boundaries to transform camps into cities


1 week
1w
1m
2m

1 month
1m
6m
2m

6 month
1y
6m
2 m

3 years
3
1 ym
6

1 week
1 week 1 month
1 month 2 months
2 month 6 months
6 month 1 year
1 year 33 years
year
1
3 yy

3y

PROJECT STRATEGY
Project interventions aim at redefining the boundaries of family properties and, hence, enhancing and consolidating the identity of groups reunited
as clans or enlarged families.

This will contribute to the reproduction of and return to traditional ways of life and housing in villages in Darfur. Sand can be used for constructing
new buildings. This use of available resources would definitely contribute to saving money. In this case, a resistant and malleable sack or container
would be used for structuring the sand. Another possibility would be to utilize stabilised soil blocks (SSB).

42 43
ENMAR
OPENHAGEN/ SOCIAL CONFLIC
PROBLEM 2X5
DENAMARK - COPENHAGEN - SOCIAL CONFLICT
In winter homeless can become a Humanitarian emergency

PROBLEM In Denmark, a country in which – in the wintertime and for several months - temperatures generally drop and stay below zero, the situation for the
There are more than 5000 homeless in Denmark, 1500 of them live in Copenhagen. homeless becomes a clear case of humanitarian emergency.

Organisations such as Udenfor or Sand state that there are several different groups of “homeless” and that everyone should not be lumped
together, when defining the concept. The term “homeless”, generally and implicitly refers to a wide range of people who do not have a home. They OFFICIAL SOLUTION
belong to different subgroups of homeless. There are individuals that are voluntarily homeless because they have chosen to remain outside of the There are hostels for homeless in various parts of the city, but they only host persons who are registered in the social service-system, hence they
system, but also those who find themselves without a home due to various individual circumstances. exclude immigrants or other individuals that may not be able to present official personal documents. It should be mentioned here that Denmark
would have the economic and social conditions to face the challenge of helping the homeless.

46 47
SOLUTION 2X5
Social agreement: residents and homeless share space
Wast of heating

Byens
dagligstue

Wast of space

Byens soveværelse/ Wast of heating


dagligstue
Byens badeværelse Byens senge og stuer

PROJECT STRATEGY to families or office workers in the summer, as an extension of already existing space. In this way homeless and families or office workers could
Most homeless live in city centres and use urban facilities and premises to organise their lives. For instance, they use space available inside of train benefit from the
stations or close to the tracks. The project strategy involves mapping out the many residual spaces that exist in the city centre and using them as
temporary sites that can easily be set up and removed.

This structure for organising space could be temporary. Spaces could be removed after having been used during the winter, or they could be
developed into something more utopian. In any case, it would be an interesting social project. One idea could be to create balconies in the solid
facades or walls that divide offices or houses. The balconies would be covered by a roof, and offered to the homeless during wintertime, and

48 49
ORT-AU-PRINCE/ EARTHQUAK

AIT
PROBLEM 3X5
HAITI - PORT-AU-PRINCE - EARTHQUAKE
THE MOST SEVERE EARTHQUAKE IN MORE THAN 200 years

PROBLEM OFFICIAL SOLUTION


On 12 January, 2010 an earthquake of 7.3 degrees Richter struck Haiti. The epicentre was located 25 kilometres southeast of the capital Port- A political crisis had occurred in Haiti before the earthquake, which was later followed by a period of political stalemate. The troubleshooting ap-
au-Prince, the most densely populated area of the country. The earthquake affected 3 million persons (about 1/3 of the total population of the proach after the earthquake was therefore developed and implemented in collaboration with international organisations.
country) and was followed by a series of aftermaths. In Haiti, the incapability of burying the 200.000 victims of the earthquake quickly enough,
was one of the reasons leading to a serious health crisis. One year after the earthquake, the crisis worsened, with an outbreak of cholera. ONG PLAN is one of the organisations operating in Haiti. Their mission is to set up temporary schools in the event of a human tragedy. Interven-
tions aim at, as quickly as possible, bringing children and their families back to a situation that is as close to “normal” as possible. Action also helps
protect children from the many dangers to which they are exposed, as they find themselves in a situation of chaos, and loss of civil norms which
characterises all humanitarian tragedies.

52 53
SOLUTION 3X5
Earthquake’s debris as a new construction material

Before After

PROJECT STRATEGY 2. A school can be constructed quickly, using available materials; debris, stones, broken bricks and recycled containers which have been used for
The project aims to use containers to transport help supplies for humanitarian emergencies. A system of metal covers serve as gabions for recy- transporting help supplies.
cling the debris generated by the earthquake.
3. The temporary school can easily be transformed into a permanent building. We can use the same material, gabions, to build a solid structure for
This strategy contributes to solving several problems: the future construction.
1. It keeps the city clean from debris and stones that impede movement on the streets. Experience shows that it is very difficult to find internation-
al donators that would contribute to this kind of cleaning activity.

54 55
AKISTA
UNJAB/ FLOOD
PROBLEM 4X5
PAKISTAN - PUNJAB - FLOODS
1/3 OF THE PAKISTAN TERRITORY was under water

PROBLEM Official solution


Pakistan is a country of 170 million inhabitants. 2/3 of these live in rural areas, in the basins of the largest rivers that supply water for irrigating The authorities evacuated inhabitants and asked for international humanitarian help.
cultivations. The flood following the torrential rain from 27 July through 7 August 2010 therefore caused the most serious damage in 80 years,
affecting 20 million persons and 1/3 of the total territory of the country. In some places the water level reached 5 metres.

58 59
SOLUTION 4X5
AN ARCHITECTURAL SURVIVAL KIT FOR RURAL HOUSES

Tarpaulin Canvas Wood Interwoven mats


Latrine Water Food

Pontoon Wood base Barrels Hybrid


Private Collective financed or
financed public supported
Ventilation
Chaos Order Chaos Water collection

Safety chamber moves up

Traditional house Different placement for safety chamber

PROJECT STRATEGY
Intervention is concentrated to the most isolated rural areas. These areas are usually the last to receive aid.
An individual floating system will be created for each rural house. This system would then protect properties as well as inhabitants.
A particular system for leading and collecting rainwater through the roof of each house supplies each unit with drinking water.

60 61
ALÉ/ CLIMATE CHANG
ALDIVE
PROBLEM 5X5
MALDIVES - MALÉ - CLIMATE - CHANGE
2.3m. the highest maldives point, soon it’ll be under water

PROBLEM OFFICIAL SOLUTION


The position of the Maldives, only 1.5 meters above sea level in average, makes the country lowest located in relation to the sea level in the world. The government of the Maldives is negotiating to buy land in India or in Sri Lanka, and plans to offer its 350.000 inhabitants to move there. Inhab-
The Maldives is also the country with the world’s lowest peak. The highest peak that can be found in the Maldives is only 2.3 metres. This extraor- itants, however, wish to remain in their country of origin. The president says “the solution is neither to sink, nor to swim, we have to look for other
dinary geography of islands and coral reefs also makes up the world’s most vulnerable country, extremely sensible to climatic change. alternatives”.

If the predictions of experts and politicians worldwide are correct, the entire country will disappear within some decades, as a consequence of the
general elevation of the sea-level. Also, due to lack of available land, the Maldives is forced to import all construction materials. This renders any
work carried out on the islands expensive and difficult.

64 65
SOLUTION 5X5
MOVING SOIL TO CREATE ARTIFICIAL HILLS
The edge of the island The edge of the urban island Today
Today Today

Solutions Solutions

Year 2036

Year 2061

PROJECT STRATEGY B The city of Male. Soil is moved from streets and parks. This intervention increases, hence, the surface that might run the risk of being struck by a
The project follows a simple strategy: to move soil so as to create high dikes or edges, such as hills that would protect inhabited areas. This solu- flood within the city. To compensate for the high density that is a necessary condition for growth, the affected buildings are moved to the highest
tion would be applied on two different sites in the country. part of the more solid buildings. These will then host new inhabitants.

A On islands: where soil can be moved from the centre of the island to create a perimetral artificial hill that protects the whole island, and that – at Either one of the interventions described above would imply a transformation of the landscape.
the same time - generates a lake in the centre of the island.

66 67
WORKSHOPS
CLIMATE
TROPICAL WET

SUBTROPICAL
COASTAL PLANE RIVER
GENERAL INFORMATION
WORKSHOP: SAO PAULO
Escola da Cidade
School of architecture
APRIL 2011

WORKSHOP: MAPUTO
Eduardo Mondlane UNIVERSITY
School of architecture
MAY 2011

SAO PAULO
MAPUTO
TRAGEDY
Latin American
Catholic
SOCIAL CONFLICT DIFFERENT RELIGIONS

COUNTRY
AFRICAN CULTURE

MOZAMBIQUE
FLOODS 12.422 USD GDP

465 USD GDP


CULTURE
BRAZIL
hirembue/ FLOO
OZAMBIQU
MOZAMBIQUE - Chirembue - FLOOD
moderate floods return annually to the same areas

PROBLEM
PROBLEM OFFICIAL SOLUTION
Mozambique is flooded severely every decade by the two large Rivers, Limpopo and Zambeze. Chirembue is an area situated close to the Zambeze The government of Mozambique is preparing to move inhabitants from flooded areas to drier and more remote sites than the cultivated areas in
River. Here the flooding is usually moderate, approximately 60-80 centimetres. The last flood affected 4 000 persons. the river basins.

Being an area of moderate flooding, this site permits for more specific and local measures than would be the case in areas affected by heavy This strategy is, however, slightly changing, as a result from previous experiences. Organisations, such as UN Habitat Mozambique, also influence
floods. decisions as they suggest the possibility to provide the population with new homes, capable of resisting floods in areas in which the river level rises
moderately.

74 75
SOLUTION 1
NEW METAL SHEET ROOF FOR FLOATING RURAL HOMES

Solution with flood

PROJECT STRATEGY
The aim of this project was to create houses or parts of houses that would float and, hence, serve as “life-saving rafts”. The solution used in this
project was to construct roofs that would be bigger than the traditional. The aim was to offer safer homes, but also to create new semi-external Solution before flood
spaces, where inhabitants - peasant families - would spend a considerable part of their time.
The metal roof produces heat, a problem that can be solved by separating the roof from the house and covering the empty space with a mosquito
net. This permits the house to move upwards and downwards, since the net is flexible and adjusts to various heights. This solution, with the roof
separated from the house also allows for constructing the walls in whatever material available as long as it is not structural; cañizo, cement blocks,
wood, SSB (soil solid block), etc.

76 77
SOLUTION 2
UMBRELLAS FOR COLLECTING RAINWATER create PUBLIC SPACEs

PROJECT STRATEGY
Flooding gives rise to a paradox - although there is an excess of water, drinking water is lacking. This situation, in turn, makes diseases spread rapidly and complicates
the rescue and recovery of affected persons, since the lack of water reduces precious time that is needed for saving lives.

Project action includes the construction of public space consisting of tanks containing water, and textile covers that collect water which can be used by refugees dur-
ing floods. During periods of the year, when the level of the river returns normal, these spaces will turn into shady squares or markets.

78 79
SOLUTION 3

SOLUTION 4
concrete ROOF to RECEIVe REFUGEES for a longer time textil COVERS give shade and COLLECT rain WATER

Solution 1

Solution 2

PROJECT STRATEGY PROJECT STRATEGY


The project will use the experience from Mozambique, following the Portuguese tradition of using cement or concrete as construction materials. The roof is highly The strategy is to construct high platforms that contain water tanks and independent covers for collecting water. The team working on this project, has come up with
resistant, and will host hundreds of persons looking for shelter in case of floods. The roof can be placed in areas in which various rural communities gather. The shelter two suggestions: one is the use of inverted umbrellas and the other proposal builds on the idea of a large channel for rain water.
can cover a square or a market, host a school, a health centre or a public building. It can also be constructed as a roof, covering existing public buildings.

The project is based on a design that puts together various prefabricated elements, such as walls, water tanks, ramps and a central water channel.

80 81
SOLUTION 5

SOLUTION 6
PUBLIC FOOTBRIDGES to connect social buildings a ‘celeiro’ to PROTECT family BELONGINGS

PROJECT STRATEGY PROJECT STRATEGY


This project suggests a strategy for constructing common areas or small semi-urban centres that would unite inhabitants in rural areas. The objective is to The project embraces various constructions that constitute components in a rural traditional household. The introduction of a new element, facilitating the
facilitate the rescuing of inhabitants. The project proposes that public buildings constructed by the government must be placed in dry or moderately flooded protection and storing of family members’ personal belongings is the suggested solution. An additional intervention would involve putting the latrines on a
areas. Furthermore, buildings should be connected by 100 centimetres high footbridges. These footbridges will serve also during periods when areas are not higher level. These are two examples of minimum, low-cost interventions that would improve life in rural areas.
flooded – for framing public space and as artisan market-booths.
This project focuses on creating a safe place, such as a “Celeiro”, a traditional tall construction in which it is possible to store and protect crops and grain. This
project suggested that the “Celeiro” could serve for protecting not only foods and grain – but also personal belongings in general, as well as the family itself.

82 83
ao Paulo/ SOCIAL CONFLICT

RAZI
BRAZIL - SAO PAULO - SOCIAL CONFLICT
FAVELA OF 200.000 PEOPLE TOO CLOSE TO THE WATER RESERVOIR

PROBLEM
PROBLEM OFFICIAL SOLUTION
The area CAVALO BRANCO is situated nearby Guaripiranga dam. This is one of the most important water reservoirs of the city of Sao Paulo. The Brazil government is working in a huge strategy to integrate fabellas to the formal city
consolidation of a degraded area like this; a fabella of more than 200.000 inhabitants, a very primitive and uncontrolled settlement, is always It means an enormous social work with several actors; community, government, private entrepreneur, etc. They are running several social programs
problematic, but in this case it increases by the environmental problems attached to the geographical situation nearby the water reservoir. The like “Integrated Action Program for Combating Violence” or various environmental actions.
consequences are not showing only in a local scale but is affecting in a regional and metropolitan scale as well.

88 89
ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT, A DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY
STA TRATAMENTO ESGOTO

SOLUTION
AGUA
water ECONOMIA
economy

RECURSOS EDUCACAO
resources education

ENERGIA
52 Km economy

HOMEM
man TRANSPORTE
economy

MEIO AMBIENTE ALIMENTACAO


enviroment food

CULTURA
culture

TEMPO / EDUCACAO
time/education

ESPACIO URBANO CIUDADANIA INFRAESTRUTURA


urban space +
+ EQUIPAMENTOS
HABITACAO
dwellings

TRANSFORMACAO
transformation

PROJECT STRATEGY We can divide into three main strategies/solutions:


Clearly the problem is the water in different scales: In the local level, black, dirty water is not controlled and is a contamination problem, not only 1. Introducing water as a sustainable generator of public space, separating and cleaning black water from rain water. Collection of rain water for
for the inhabitants, but for the nearby water reservoir. In the regional and metropolitan scales obviously the contamination issue, but also it is an domestic use and for gardening
opportunity for this Fabella. 2. Removing dwellings from affected/polluted areas and moving them into areas of no risk
3. Creating new dwellings not by introducing new typologies or new ways of live, but by solving the problems the exiting typology has, as: lack of
We believe that the inhabitants of CAVALO BRANCO might involve in the transformation, both of the public space, now degraded, into a qualified ventilation and light, thermal and acoustic isolation , integrating private and semiprivate free spaces, as patios, terraces and green space, etc..
space, and by removing constructions in areas directly affected or contaminating the water. Transforming dirty water into sustainable water by
producing energy, separating black from rainwater and then use it in dwellings or gardens, creating green areas, etc.

90 91
EMERGENCY PROJECT =
RESEARCH + EDUCATION + PROFESSIONAL PRACTISE

epilogue
by Jorge Lobos The school in Maniquenique in Mozambique was constructed for (and by) the women of the community. As a matter of fact, women
received authorisation from their husbands to carry out the work, and constructed most of the school themelves.
5 projects for humanitarian emergencies in 3 continents
In this second book about Humanitarian Emergencies, we wish to reaffirm the necessity of joining, in the architectural project, the three fields The Japanese project of paper and textile is characterized by silence and delicacy. It is most unlikely that such a project would take
introduced in the opening section of this book: research, education and professional practise. Currently, each of these fields are generally used place in other countries, with different understandings and interpretations of concepts like community, respect and silence.
separately and without regard to the others.
The Danish project for homeless for instance - without doors or windows - taking on the form of an open architectural labyrinth -
We believe that this unification could be better explained by using practical examples and projects, rather than by resorting to a merely encouraging functional liberty, is feasible only in socially balanced societies, such as the Scandinavian countries.
theoretical discourse. We have selected construction projects in the three countries in which our workshops have been carried out –
Mozambique, Denmark and Brazil. We have also added a project for refugees in Tohoku, Japan. The latter has been selected as one of the There is, however, yet another element that is common to all of the projects presented here: the cultural substratum making up the
cases, since it is a tragedy which has had an enormous impact globally – comparable only to the earthquake and the Tsunami in Indonesia fundaments of the architectural project is key for evaluating and understanding the outcome of a solution and its social acceptance.
in 2004 - and since the project builds on research carried out before the tragedy. The method applied in all of these projects combines, in a It would therefore be impossible to comprehend the quality of these projects without understanding their cultural context. The social
natural and creative way, research, education and professional practise, contributing to improve the general quality of life for many people. narrative is, hence, just as important as the physical architectonical solution.

In addition to the methodological approach, shared by all of the projects described here, there are other common aspects: the involvement of 3 SCHOOLS OF ARCHITECTURE IN 3 CONTINENTS
the community and the particular sensitivity in relation to cultural aspects of each site. The participation of the community in the projects can, The cases referred to above, remind us of the importance of including the themes of Humanitarian Emergencies or Architecture and
as shown in our analysis, take on various expressions and forms. In the case of Mozambique, the community was in charge of the construction, Human Rights, in the ordinary academic programme in schools of architecture. It should be taught in the normal course of projects.
and the project was, thus, adapted to local resources and capacities. In Sao Paulo, residents participated in functional decisions, as well as The workshop 5x5 represents various realities from several and different countries. Denmark, Brasil and Mozambique have
in decisions related to location, management and monitoring of the works. In Denmark, various social organisations, stimulated through the accumulated dissimilar experiences related to the approach of the project, as well as to the professional field of architecture. This
architectural workshop, organised themselves and collaborated to carry out a project. Various methods have, thus, been used to achieve the diversity expressed in a number of construction projects and academic wokshops certainly emphasise the importance of increasing
common objective: the democratisation of architectural processes. exchange among physically distant and culturally diverse countries, aiming at enriching the architectonic experience of scholars and
professors.
These projects show that participation and sensibility to local resources and capacities are key aspects of democratisation. Projects are The example from Copenhagen, for instance, illustrates the importance given to the process of abstraction in design, as well as the
embedded in cultural and social processes, of which is is crucial that architects have a thorough understanding, so that they can contribute emphasis put in producing many models and mainly aesthetic representations to find solutions to various problems. These values have
with their knowledge. influenced the entire Danish educational system during the last decades.

94 95
In Mozambique, it was surprising to witness the simple and concrete suggestions expressed by students as they approached the project.
Furthermore, there was a natural willingness to search for the most economic and most practical solution. The Mozambican students were
capable of arriving at solutions that would be logical, useful and sensible to the needs and capabilities of the community. They also concluded
the project faster than students from all of the other participant universities.

The Escola da Cidade in Sao Paulo represents, indeed, a particular experience: Students and professors combine literary and practical studies
by designing and constructing their own projects. This is a method of empirical learning, based on constructive practise. The approach enabled
students to get actively involved in the highly complex reality of a city like Sao Paulo.

The practical method applied by the Escola da Cidade de Brasil represents an approach that is radically different from the aestheic abstraction
of Copenhagen, as well as from the low-cost pragmatism of Maputo. However, all of these systems can be complementary, and they can
easily strengthen each other. It would, indeed, be interesting to allow students who participated in the workshops to circulate among the
universities, and, hence, to bring together individuals and architectural schools with various experiences and highly different cultural and
historical backgrounds.

Despite considerable cultural differences among students participating in our workshops, many similarities are discernable. The natural
motivation for using architecture as a solution to social problems is, perhaps the most important common tendency. Furthermore, all students
learn and become aware of the fact that knowledge obtained from studies may have important practical repercussions on their communities
and that architecture can be an effective means for improving life for thousands of people.
Consequently, the fields of Humanitarian Emergencies and/or Architecture and Human Rights is a vast field of action in which architecture
has participated little or occasionally. Students of architecture are, however, generally interested in getting involved in projects related to
these themes. This provides us with an additional argument for taking on the challenge of reaching out, making architecture available and
accessible to communities all over the world. It also encourages us to take on the challenge of expanding the professional field for future
architects towards other perspectives and roles.

96 97
TRAGEDY EUROPEAN

PROJECTS
CLIMATE
TROPICAL WET

COLD CLIMATE

SUBTROPICAL
COASTAL PLANE RIVER

CLIMA MODERATE HUMIT


SUBTROPICAL
PROTESTANT CHRISTIANITY
SOCIAL CONFLICT

BUDDHISM and
religious syncretism
EARTHQUAKE

GENERAL INFORMATION

Latin American
Catholic
SOCIAL CONFLICT DIFFERENT RELIGIONS

COUNTRY
AFRICAN CULTURE

MOZAMBIQUE
12.422 USD GDP

56.147 USD GDP

33.688 USD GDP


FLOODS
DENMARK

465 USD GDP


CULTURE
BRAZIL

JAPAN
MOZAMBIQUE - MANIQUENIQUE - FLOOD - 2007
A RURAL SCHOOL AS A SURVIVAL PLATFORM FOR FLOODS

Lokal community involvement

Research: UN HABITAT Arch. Eduardo Feuerhake. He produced several manuals, games and a movie entitled “Sometimes The River”. The material storing rainwater in ponds, supplying the community with drinking water. Toilets have also been constructed above the ground, so that they will
is distributed by the government to the rural schools, so that children and communities can learn how to prepare for floods. be protected from flooding. The strategy of the project is to increase the time span that inhabitants have at their disposal to remain safe. This
Education: Universidad de Chile. Fernando Ferreiro obtained his degree in architecture by carrying out this project. improves the chance for survival and leaves more time for governmental emergency assistance to arrive to rescue victims.
Professional practise: UN Habitat, architects Eduardo Feuerhake and Fernando Ferreiro, and professor Carlos Trindade from the School of Archi- In architectural terms, this building could be described as “social minimalism”. Each element and each part of it has a functional as well as a practi-
tecture Eduardo Mondlane of Maputo carried out this project. cal aim. The hollow bricks, for instance, permit the air to flow through the building. The red walls help helicopters locate the building, and save
refugees who might have resorted to the school in the event of an emergency. The inclined roof efficiently collects rain water. The staircase leading
This low-cost school, constructed by the community itself, besides serving as an institution for teaching and learning, is transformed into a survival- to the entrance also serves as a space for gathering the pupils of the school. The only remaining place did not have a function, was the space of 1.4
platform in the event of flooding. The building is situated in an area which is generally subject to moderate flooding, and has therefore been metres under the floor. However, the smallest children transformed this space into a shady and exclusive playground. Architects did not plan for this
constructed 1.4 metres above ground level. It can receive hundreds of persons in the aulas and on the roof. The project also includes a system for solution initially. The small children made this space their very own, as they started to use it for their games.
100 101
MOZAMBIQUE - VILANKULO - CICLONS - 2007-2011
LOW COST TECHNOLOGY PROTECTS HOUSES FROM CYCLONES

Normal wind 1-20 km/t Strong wind 20-70 km/t Ciclone 120 km/t

Research: UN HABITAT and Arch. Eduardo Feuerhake have been elaborated various manuals with easy drawings on how to prepare for and pro- in UN HABITAT. These were constructed in situ with a mold in the ground.
tect oneself from cyclones.
Education: Universidad of the Witwatersrand, South Africa: Engineer Silva Jacinto Magaia. Thesis ‘”Earth Domes in Low-Cost Housing” Both of these projects aim at constructing a heavier roof, more resistant to the strong winds in the event of cyclones. The roof is one of the most
Professional practise: UN HABITAT, architect Fernando Ferreiro. vulnerable and delicate elements in the event of a cyclon, and may suffer serious damages. Another important element to consider is the form of
the house. Traditional constructions in rural areas are usually built in cane and have a framework of wood.
The project aims at modifying the system of construction, and make buildings more resistant to cyclones. The architects used research made by Right now there is a tendency to modify building techniques and materials. As a matter of fact, erosion and deforestation is making it increasingly
engineer Silva Magaia, who obtained his degree in engineering with a thesis on a machine that would be able to construct a low-cost brick dome difficulty to find wood in this part of Mozambique. Cement and bricks (made by pressed soil) are currently used to replace timber at the new build-
made of soil. This particular method was then combined with roofs made by low-cost, corrugated cement, a system developed by Fernando Ferreiro ings. The tradition of using cement derives from the Portuguese colonial period in Mozambique. It has been reintroduced and is widely practised.

102 103
DENMARK - COPENHAGEN - SOCIAL CONFLICT - 2010-2011
CONTAINERS COVER GAPS IN THE DANISH WELFARESTATE
Enegy tower

Flowers
Herbs

Workspace

Storage Dogs

Social service Kitchen

Research: E Architecture & Human Rights: Jorge Lobos, Erik Juul, Jorgen Taxholm The construction is completely open, and no particular administration or authority is in charge of it. Also, no formal regulations have been estab-
Education: Workshop 5x5, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts of Copenhagen lished for the use of the space. This has, most likely, contributed to the positive result that homeless accepted and appropriated of the space.
Professional practise: Architect Erik Juul, E Architecture & Human Rights The project uses containers that are easy to transport, that can be dismantled in 1 day and reassembled in just two days. In Denmark, regulations
for constructing architectonic works are strict. This made a low-cost project for homeless completely impossible. To avoid the problem, and to
This small project, carried out in a limited space of only 50 m2, was developed in close collaboration with social workers, and based on these offic- make the low-cost project feasible, it was not presented as an architectonic work. Instead it was delivered as a piece of art, called “THIS IS NOT A
ers’ great knowledge about the local communities. HOME”.
Social participation: Various workshops and meetings were organised, involving representatives from various social institutions. The aim was to The construction was placed in the garden of the museum “Den Frie”, that accepted the challenge of constructing this “piece of art”. The title of the
figure out what kind of construction would be needed. It is important to remember here, that the Danish welfarestate guarantees assistance to all project is actually paraphrasing a well-known sentence by Marcel Duchamp in New York 1917: “THIS IS NOT A TOILET”. The authors of the project
its citizens – including individuals who may have decided voluntarily to live as homeless. have used the same expression, to explain that “THIS IS NOT A HOME”. We could also extend the concept to say: “THIS IS NOT ARCHITECTURE”.
104 105
BRAZIL - SAO PAULO- SOCIAL CONFLICT - 2001-2010
COMUNITY AND ARCHITECTS WORK TO MITIGATE URBAN VIOLENCE

Research: Escuola da Cidade, Sao Paulo work was carried out mainly in ravines, open or abandoned spaces, so that the densely populated part of the area would not be affected by the
Education: School of Cidade, Sao Paulo intervention. The university suggested that economic resources would be used for establishing the sewer- and water system, but also for cleaning
Professional practise: Scuola da Cidade, Department of application: architects Paulo Brazil and Celso Pazzanese and geographer José Guilherme up the degraded spaces and for building a park that would serve to integrate people from different neighbourhoods or favelas.
Schutzer, a huge number of professors, students and collaborators The project covers 7.8 km (a total surface of 224.000 m2). From one of the neighbourhoods in the outskirts of the area, “Sapopemba”, at “Largo
Sao Mateo” Sapopemba was the pilot experience of implementation. The project was developed 2001-2005, and construction was concluded in
In Sao Paulo, 2.000.000 persons live in extremely poor urban neighbourhoods - the “Favelas”. The University “Escuola da Cidade” has developed 2010. Community participation was crucial for the success of the work. Each neighbourhood suggested various solutions that were to be assem-
its own strategy for education, and projects are carried out in areas or sectors of communities that are in great need of urban help. In this case, the bled in the Integration Park. The architects acted as intermediaries, and tried to bring the social (community) and physical (buildings and construc-
project involves a collaboration with the governmental project “Integrated Action Program for Combating Violence” tion activities) aspects together. The Sao Paulo experience, as well as a similar work in Medellín, Colombia are excellent examples of situations in
The project used pipes for a sewer- and water system that was constructed by appointment of the government for the entire area. Construction which architecture has been used successfully as a powerful tool to mitigate in cases of serious urban violence in Latin American cities.
106 107
JAPAN - ??? - EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI - 2011
PAPER AND TEXTIL GIVE HOME SPACE FOR REFUGEES

Research: Shigeru Ban Laboratory among families and to give victims the opportunity to sleep during the first nights after the crisis.
Education: Keiko University, Kyushu industry and Kyushu University. The second phase is entered when some of the victims start to abandon the refugee camp leaving some empty space inside of the buildings. At
Professional practise: Shigeru Ban architects this point, the architects used the same kind of paper sheets of the first phase to create walls that divided the space into rooms. This time the
paper sheets mainly serve to offer a greater privacy for families who are hosted temporarily in refugee centres, hoping to return to a normal life.
After the earthquakes in Niigta, 2004 and in Fukoka, 2005, Shigeru Ban Laboratory in collaboration with various Japanese universities developed The system of paper and cardboard is simple and easy to assemble rapidly, and has been designed so that anyone can use it. One important detail
the “Paper House” system. The project was developed with the objective of providing rapid assistance to victims in the event of a humanitarian is the junction between the cardboard tubes. A thorough study was carried out to find the ultimate solution – a piece of rigid wood which prevents
tragedy, and aimed at using existing buildings, such as gymnasiums or schools. the tubes from moving. This simple low-cost project is the product of joint research among various institutions. It shows how architecture can
This paper system was used by Shigeru Ban for the earthquake in Fukushima in 2011. The reception of refugees is managed in two phases: improve the quality of life for individuals and families in the event of a crisis, simply through supplying better spaces for living a life that comes as
In the first phase all victims are received. The solution is to provide large paper sheets and put them on the floor to define and divide the space close to a “normal” everyday life as possible.
108 109
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, in-
cluding food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of
unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection

article 25 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Paris, U.N. 1948


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SAVATER, Fernando (2001) Sobrevivir. Ed. Ariel S.A. 3° edición Barcelona SINCLAIR, Cameron http://architectureforhumanity.org/ UK
GEERTZ, Clifford (1987) La interpretación de las culturas. Ed. Gedisa, 387pp, España
Mexico TAYLOR, Sir Edward B. (1871) Primitive Culture Antropología cultural
SIMMEL, Georg (1950) The Metropolis and Mental Life. Ed. Free Press New http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antropolog%C3%ADa_cultural
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Ed. Librería General Victoriano Suárez Madrid España
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Madrid España letras, madrid España
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prologados por J.S.S kahn. Ed. Anagrama. Barcelona España sponses to Humanitarian Crises. Ed. Architecture for Humanity London UK
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KOSTELANETZ, Richard (1988) Conversing with Cage. Ed. Limelight editions, Paris France
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participants

CREDITS
COURSE CONCEPT WORKSHOP 5x5 DENMARK.
Jorge Lobos, Visiting teacher KADK Institute 3 DHS
Jorgen Eskemose Andersen KADK Institute 3 DHS WORKSHOP TEACHERS
Maria Gomez-Guillamón KADK Department 7 & International department Peder Duelund Mortensen KADK Head institute 3
Jakob Knudsen KADK Department 2
ORGANIZATION, TEACHING AND RESEARCH Jorge Lobos KADK institute 3 DHS, visiting teacher
KARCH INSTITUTE 3 Maria Gomez-Guillamón KADK Department 7
Peder Duelund Mortensen Jørgen Eskemose Andersen KADK institute 3 DHS,
Jørgen Eskemose Andersen Rune Asholt KADK institute 3 DHS,
Rune Asholt Erik Juul E Architecture.dk
Jorge Lobos (Visiting teacher)
WORKSHOP STUDENTS
KADK DEPARTMENTS
Jakob Knudsen KADK Department 2 Sudan
Maria Gomez-Guillamón KADK Department 7 Karoline Jacobsen Sørum KADK Department 2
Saga Bernadina Andersson KADK Department 2
ADMINISTRATION Shota Tsikoliya Erasmus - Czech Republic
Trine Baek
Birgitte Weien Copenhagen
Heidi Rasmussen Vilhelmsen KADK Department 2
INSTITUTIONS Christina Kongsmark Flanding KADK Department 2
Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture of Copenhagen
Scuola di architettura di Alghero, Sardegna, Italy Haiti
Marie Hallandvik Hortemo KADK Department 2
LECTURERS Anders Gade Jørgensen KADK Department 2
Gert Luediking Former director U.N.Habitat Ginebra Hedvig Elisabet Skjerdingstad KADK Department 2
Erik Juul E Architecture. DHS DK
Jakob Knudsen KADK Department 2 Pakistan
Anders Brix KADK Dep artment 11 Arendse Emilie Agger KADK Department 2
Isabella Caterina Kleivan KADK Department 2
Martin Frederik Cederval Kragh KADK Department 2

Maldives
Emilie Harpøth Zilstorff KADK Department 2
Viktor Harald Nilsson KADK Department 2
Christoffer Brøchmann Christensen KADK Department 2

116 117
CREDITS
WORKSHOP MOZAMBIQUE. Group 6
Carlos Franque Eduardo Mondlane University
WORKSHOP TEACHERS Nurdino Manjate Eduardo Mondlane University
Carlos Trindade University Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo Rosário Agostinho Eduardo Mondlane University
Jorge Lobos KADK Institute 3 DHS, Visiting teacher Copenhagen Lopes Jugana Eduardo Mondlane University
Eduardo Feuerhake U.N.HABITAT Mozambique
Fernando Ferreiro U.N. HABITAT Mozambique
Rune Asholt KADK institute 3 DHS, Copenhagen

WORKSHOP STUDENTS WORKSHOP Brasil

Group 1 WORKSHOP TEACHERS


Jessica Lage Eduardo Mondlane University Maria Gómez. Guillamón KADK department 7, Copenhagen
Nelma Daisy Abdulahé Eduardo Mondlane University Paulo Brazil Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Amino Mussagy Eduardo Mondlane University Helene Afanasieff Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Lineia Coldeira Eduardo Mondlane University
WORKSHOP STUDENTS
Group 2 Andressa Capriglione Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Pedro Coimbra Eduardo Mondlane University Walter Rigueti Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Mónica Loureiro Erasmus from Portugal Aline Missau Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
João Gaspar Erasmus from Portugal Fernanda Resstom Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Solange Chin Ku Chon Choo Eduardo Mondlane University Lena Imperio Hamburger Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Thais Santos Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Group 3 Paulo Salvetti Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Noé Antonio Nhico Tsambe Eduardo Mondlane University Paloma Mecozzi Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Gércio Chaibande Eduardo Mondlane University Mariana Ribeiro Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Lasson Mogn Seiuane Eduardo Mondlane University Diego Borell Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo
Leonardo Rosa Pace Escuela de arquitectura de La Plata, Argentina
Group 4 Armando Palomares Escuela de Arquitectura de Granada, Spain
Edson Pereira Eduardo Mondlane University
Abdul Afande Eduardo Mondlane University
Dahir-Sólok Alkatiri Eduardo Mondlane University
Kuaong-Lee Eduardo Mondlane University

Group 5
Yara Chiadiamassamba Eduardo Mondlane University
Abel Mabunda Eduardo Mondlane University
Jorge Arone Júnior Eduardo Mondlane University
Tecuenné Guite Eduardo Mondlane University
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