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EFFECT OF CRITICAL DEBATE TECHNIQUE IMPLEMENTATION USING AUSTRALIAN

PARLIAMENTARY FORMAT ON IMPROVING THE ABILITY OF SPEAKING OF ENGLISH TADRIC


STUDENTS FACULTY OF TARBIYAH SCIENCE AND IAIN MATARAM'S STRATEGIC

ABSTRACT
This study aims to determine whether there is influence of Critical Debate Technique
Implementation using Australian Parliamentary Format to Improvement of Speaking Capability
of Tadris Students of English Faculty of Tarbiyah and IAIN Mataram Science Faculty. The
approach used in this research is quantitative approach with true-experimental design, pretest-
posttes control group design. Population in this research is all student of Tadris English Semester
even of academic year 2015/2016 which amounted to 82 people (class A as control class and
class of class as experiment class). Sampling technique used in this research is Non Probability
Sampling, researchers take the entire population as a sample. The research instrument used is test
and documentation. The test is used to measure students' speaking skills including aspects of
pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, content of speech, and comprehension. While the
documentation used to retrieve data about English Tadris prodi and learning process using
Critical Debate Technique that can support other research data. Data analysis techniques used are
descriptive analysis test, Inferential Analysis Prerequisite Test (normality test, homogeneity test,
and hypothesis test or t-test). Test validity is calculated based on the validity of the construct
using the expert opinion (Judgment Expert). In this case the expert asked for his opinion is a
colleague who is also lecturers of English. After hypothesis testing by using technique Paired
Sample T-Test obtained t count equal to 0,001 at significance level ρ <0,05, result H1 accepted
and H0 rejected because 0,001 <0,05, so it can be concluded that there is influence
Implementation Critical Debate Technique using Australian Parliamentary Format on Improving
Speaking Capabilities of Tadris Students English Faculty of Tarbiyah and IAIN Mataram
Science Faculty.

Keywords: Critical Debate Technique, Australian Parliamentary Format,


Speaking Capabilities
Indonesia

PRELIMINARY
In 2016, the implementation of the ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) came into effect
including in Indonesia. This resulted in not only the loss of traffic barriers of goods and services
among ASEAN countries, but also impacted the loss of foreign labor obstacles entering
Indonesia. This condition is clearly a challenge as well as a threat to all stakeholders, especially
the world of education in preparing Human Resources (HR) is more professional and competent
in their respective fields as IAIN Mataram as one of the leading education institutions in NTB.
Increased English language satisfaction is one way to prepare human resources because English
is a universal language used in MEA. Related to the mastery of English, speaking competence is
one of 4 (four) other skills that need to be prepared because speaking is an active skill that can be
directly assessed by people whether someone has a good English competence or not.
The sample of this research is Tadris student of English Class A and Class B. The result of the
evaluation of learning done on the students of both classes at Speaking for Everyday
Communication shows that the value of most students is less satisfactory.
Table 1. The Grade Students of TBI Class A and B of Odd Semester 2015/2016
No Interval Value Categories Number of Students
AB
12345
1. 0 - 39 Very Less 10 16
2. 40 - 54 Less 12 12
3. 55 - 69 Enough 10 8
4. 70 - 84 Good 5 3
5. 85 - 100 Very Good 4 2
Number 41 41
Source: Data Processed, 2015

The above data shows that both classes have values that are still far from the expected standard.
Some things that become shortage or difficulties of students, including: 1). Difficult to express
ideas orally, 2). Limited vocabulary, 3). Limited grammar ability so difficult to talk to the right
rules, 4). Limited pronounciation, making it difficult to pronounce the word correctly, 5). Lack
of courage to speak out for fear of being wrong.
In this study, used the technique "Critical Debate Tehnique" to improve students' speaking skills.
Through this technique, students are taught and familiarized to debate on certain topics that are
being trending topic in various media both electronic media and mass media. There are several
reasons why debating activities are believed to improve speaking skills and need to be held,
namely: 1). To foster student beliefs that their opinions are better and should be maintained, 2).
Requires students (teams) to listen to the opinions of opposing teams on issues raised, 3).
Students are also required to find the right solution for a problem, and so on. Because the debate
competition aims to convince the opponent and the audience that their opinions are correct, the
students are required to have good critical thinking and public speaking.

In its development, the use of debate techniques has been widely applied by many researchers in
improving speaking skills. Related to the format of the debate, it is necessary to be considered
well because it will be directly related to the technical implementation of the debate itself. There
are several types of formats that can be used in debate competitions, including: Karl popper
format, British Parliamentary format, Australian parliamentary format, World school format. In
this research, Australian parliamentary format will be used with 2 (two) considerations: 1). The
use of this format fits perfectly with the culture of the people of Indonesia (eastern culture)
because in this debate format both groups of debates that have been divided will be given equal
opportunity to pass their respective arguments against a similar problem until a predetermined
period of time against the argument Which was rebutted by another team (the opposing team) for
a set amount of time and another team will pass on his argument to defend the argument that the
opposing team faces. So in this debate format, the opposing team should not immediately bypass
the arguments the other team submits before the time given to the other team is completed, 2).
This debate format is suitable for beginner level debater like the new English Tadris student
entering the second semester because in this debate format, there is a lot of time for the opposing
team to prepare the answer in refuting the statement / argument of other team. In this study, the
Critical Debate Technique using the Australian Parliamentary Format will be applied to Class B
as a class of experimental subjects compared to Class A which is not given a Critical Debate
Technique treatment using Australian Parliamentary Format to see if there is any effect on
Critical implementation The Debate Technique uses the Australian parliamentary format to
improve students' speaking skills

Inggris

LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Learning English
English learning is a complex process in which many factors can affect the effectiveness
pengajannya factors such as faculty, students, learning tools and others. In the 2004 curriculum it
is said that English lesson has the following objectives: a). Develop the ability to communicate in
English in oral and written form. The ability to communicate includes: listening, speaking,
reading and writing; B). Cultivating awareness about the essence of the importance of English as
one of the main languages of learning; C). Developing an understanding of interconnectedness
between languages and cultures and expanding the cultural horizon.

The scope of the English lesson itself includes:


1) Language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing;
2) Sub competence covering competence of language, linguistic, sociocultural, strategy, and
discourse competence;
3) Development of positive attitude towards English as a communication tool.
In terms of teaching and learning English, it is necessary design, method, strategy and technique.
The four things mentioned above are needed to improve learning achievement.
2. Supporting Components of English Learning Process
Learning is a system consisting of various components that are interconnected with each other.
Learning component is a collection of several items that are interconnected with each other
which is important in the learning process. The components related to the learning process,
namely:

Curriculum / Syllabus Curriculum / syllabus as a design for organizing language teaching


programs, and techniques more specified as a variety of activities, exercises or tasks applied in
language learning classes to realize learning objectives. 2. Approaches, methods and techniques
Edward Anthony, an American applied linguist, puts the terms approach, methods and
techniques respectively. Anthony asserted that which is the source of practice and principles in
language teaching is an approach. The method is a set of plans in teaching language materials
based on the chosen approach. While the technique is a specific strategy or procedure used to
achieve the goal, its nature is consistent with the method and harmonic also with the chosen
approach. From here we can conclude that the approach is an umbrella of methods and
techniques. 3. Tentor / teacher The role of tentor is tentor as a controller, director, manager,
facilitator, and resource. As a controller, tentor is a figure that determines who can talk, talk
about what, do what, etc. As a director, tentor is a figure that makes the learning process run
smoothly and efficiently. 4. Media In the teaching of foreign languages for young learners,
media is also very important. A good medium will help the tentor succeed in teaching the
students. The lesson will be much easier and more interesting for the children if tentor by fully
utilizing objects or objects and language to convey meaning. One way to increase student
attention and involvement in learning activities is the need for supporting tools such as visual
aids, toys, dolls or other colorful objects that fit the story or song used in the lesson. 5. Learning
environment In addition to the learning components mentioned above, there are still some other
components of learning that have the potential to determine the characteristics of the English
teaching and learning process ie the learning environment

3. Speaking Ability in English Language Learning


Speaking is one of the most difficult types of skills in learning English. The difficulty is usually
caused by:
A. Difficult to express ideas orally (speaking);
B. Limited vocabulary (vocabulary);
C. The limited ability of grammar (grammar) so difficult to talk to the right rules;
D. Limited pronunciation of words (pronounciation) so difficult to pronounce the word that
pronounced correctly;
E. Lack of courage to speak out for fear of being wrong.
In addition, there are factors related to the linguistic aspects, namely:
A. Accuracy of speech;
B. Proper emphasis or tone placement and duration;
C. Word Selection;
D. The accuracy of the target of the conversation.
Speech skills in learning English is needed. The main benefits of speaking is the growth of self-
confidence in the learner. With speaking skills, they will be confident to communicate with
anyone in English. In addition to impact on self-confidence, speaking skills are also the most
important factor in developing other English skills such as writing, listening and reading.
Speaking is the most difficult language skills in testing compared with other language skills so it
is not surprising if the language teachers in teaching the ability to speak using a form of test that
criteria is not adequate. Many factors are the cause of the difficulty of testing the ability to speak
learners, among others: 1). The nature of speech itself is usually not well defined, 2). How the
balance for each aspect of speaking ability, such as; Vocabulary, speech, grammar, eloquence,
and understanding, 3). How to measure aspects of the ability to speak simultaneously

Inggris

4. Speaking Capability Assessment


Assessment is a process to determine the value of a person through measurement to obtain
information in the form of qualitative value (narrative statement in words) about learners'
learning outcomes or achievement of competence learners using certain standards. There are two
kinds of approaches used in the assessment procedures of students' speaking activities are
holistic scoring and objectified scoring. Holistic scoring tends to be chosen when teachers
evaluate a wide range of spontaneous criteria / aspects eg accuracy, fluency, grammar,
vocabulary and pronunciation, while objectified scoring is focused on evaluating the limited
aspects in accordance with the purpose of the assessment. In the implementation of the
assessment, using either a holistic approach or an objectified assessment must have a criterion.
Related to the assessment, there are several aspects considered in the test of speaking skills
covering the following aspects: Pronunciation, Grammar, Vocabulary, Fluency, Content of
Discussion, and Understanding.

5. Critical Debate Technique


Critical debate technique is a very complex collaborative learning technique and requires very
mature preparation.
Critical debate technique is an argument-related war of issues raised. There is always a reason
why people agree or disagree about an issue. Thus, the debate allows students to explore as many
reasons as possible to convince others and the opposing team that their opinions are the most
correct. In addition to convincing reasons, it is no less important is the ability of students to
express their opinions, students must have good communication skills in English.

Debate competitions are debates that use a specific format. With the prescribed format, the
student will be limited by time to speak and express his or her opinion. There are several types of
formats that can be used in debate competitions, including: Karl popper format, British
Parliamentary format, Australian parliamentary format, World school format

Inggris

6. Australian Parliamentary Format


The format of the Australian Parliament debate is a format of debate stemming from the format
of the debate applicable to the Australian parliament. The purpose of the debate with this format
are: 1). Improve students' ability to communicate in English, 2). Improve students' ability to
express their opinions, views and perceptions. The format of the debate is:
A. The first party (the Affirmative Team) proposes a proposal to parliament;
B. The opposition (Negative Team) denies the proposal;
C. Each party seeks to convince the Parliament (Adjudicator) that its proposal should be
accepted;
D. Each party gets an equivalent time allocation to express its views in turn;
E. Parliament (Adjudicartor) makes a vote (voting) to decide which donations are accepted.
Associated techniques of case formulation which will be debated, there are some things to note,
including: 1). Defines a motion, 2). Preparing the ground of argument. 3). Assigning to each
speaker the arguments they will bring and at the same time to prove a motion in the debate. 4).
Find and analyze arguments, facts, examples, etc. either to support his team's case or to dispute
the opposing case. 5). Preparing individual speech.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Hypothesis in this research is as follows:
Ho: No influence Implementation of Critical Debate Technique using Australian Parliamentary
Format on Improvement of Speaking Capability of Tadris Students English Faculty of Tarbiyah
and Teacher Training IAIN Mataram
Ha: There is influence of Critical Debate Technique Implementation using Australian
Parliamentary Format to Improvement of Speaking Capability of Tadris Students English
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training of IAIN Mataram
METHOD AND RESEARCH RESULT This study uses a quantitative approach with true-
experimental design, pretest-posttes control group design. The population of this study is all
students of Tadris English Semester Even Elementary School Year 2015/2016 which amounted
to 82 people (class A and B). After linking between the research design used and the number of
existing population, the sampling technique used in this study is Non Probability Sampling. The
researchers took the entire population as a sample using a saturated sample technique. The two
classes used as the research sample, class A as the control class and class B as the experimental
class, were given pretest in the form of a speaking test to determine the initial ability of both
groups before being given treatment. At the end of the study, both groups were also given a
posttest in the form of speaking test as well. In addition to speaking test, other research
instruments used are documentation to retrieve data about the English Tadris Study Program as
well as documentation of learning activities in the control class as well as experiments. The data
of the research are analyzed by descriptive analysis and inferential analysis, in which there are
normality test, homogeneity test and statistical hypothesis test. From the descriptive analysis test,
it was found that the average pretest value in the control class was 72.78 and an insignificant
increase occurred in the posttest with an average rating of 74.78. While in the experimental class,
the average value at pretest was 68.82 and there was a very significant increase with an average
of 80.73. From the normality test, it was found that the distribution of research data on the
experimental group and the control group is normally distributed. This is evidenced by the value
of Asymp.sig (2-tailed) greater than the alpha level of 5% or sig. (2-tailed). Then on the
homogeneity test, a significance level of 0.733 (greater than 0.05) indicates that the pretest
results in both groups (experiment and control) are said to be homogeneous, the initial ability is
the same. Hypothesis test is the last analysis used to test the research hypothesis and the result is
Ha accepted and Ho is rejected because thitung> ttable (17.527> 0.220) and sig (2-tailed) <0.05
or 0.001 <0.05.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Based on the results of research conducted, it can be


concluded that there is Influence of Critical Debate Technique Implementation using Australian
Parliamentary Format to Speaking Ability of Tadris Students of English Faculty of Tarbiyah
Science and Teacher Training of IAIN Mataram. This can be seen from the comparison of mean
value of pretest-posttest result of experimental group and control group. The average pretest
obtained by the experimental class is 68.82. Meanwhile the average value of prertest control
group is 72.78. After being given treatment in the learning process in the experimental group
using Critical Debate Technique obtained an increase with the average posttest value of 80.72.
While the mean score in the control group was not given treatment, the mean on posttest was
74.78 (not significant increase). Similarly, based on the results of t-test or hypothesis test
performed on the posttest of the two groups, the experimental group and the control group using
the help of SPSS 16.0 for Windows which produces probability value on significance (2-tailed)
is 0.001 so it can be concluded that H1 Received and H0 is rejected, because H1 is acceptable if
the value of significance (2-tailed) <0.05. From the resulting data shows that 0.001 <0.05.
Learning with Critical Debate Technique that has been done can provide more experience and
motivation for students to be skilled in speaking using English with good results on 6 aspects
judged from the ability of speaking ie pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, content of
speech, and understanding . This can be seen from students who are more enthusiastic in
outlining their arguments, convincing adjudicators and audiences that their opinions are the most
correct, as well as arguing arguments from opposing teams. Students do not feel pressured to talk
because they themselves feel challenged to express an argument caused by a highly debatable
topic / motion. These factors trigger students to better pronounce their words, more vocal and
gestures that are no longer rigid when appearing in public. In this Critical Debate Technique
students are also trained on how to comment on the factual issues that occur in everyday life as
well as how to defend their opinions by providing a logical reason, so that students can be more
critical thinking in response to the problem. Therefore it can be concluded the results of this
study strengthen existing theories and previous research that has been done to improve speaking
skills by using Critical Debate techniques.

Inggris

Based on the result of research, Researcher suggest some things as follows:


1. In the effort to improve the ability of English in general and speaking skills in particular,
lecturers and English teachers should use techniques and strategies that suit their needs and
attract them so that students / students feel interested to learn and facilitate the achievement of
learning objectives.
2. It is expected that further research in the form of development of this research, by applying
Critical Debate Technique on different samples as well as the addition of other variable

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